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1 The Globalization of World politics Introduction Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Globalization of World politics Introduction Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Globalization of World politics Introduction Introduction

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3 3 From international politics to world politics international relations vs. international politics international relations vs. international politics international politics  world politics  global politics international politics  world politics  global politics nation states vs. nation states + NGOs + more … nation states vs. nation states + NGOs + more … political issues vs. political, economic and more … political issues vs. political, economic and more …

4 4 Theories of world politics Why did Al Qaeda attack the US? Why did Al Qaeda attack the US? Why did George W. Bush attack on Saddam Hussein ’ s Iraq? Why did George W. Bush attack on Saddam Hussein ’ s Iraq? Theories application = sunglasses with different colored lenses. Theories application = sunglasses with different colored lenses. A theory is some kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not. A theory is some kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not.

5 5 Realism and world politics Idealism vs. Realism Idealism vs. Realism Dominant realism and its main rivals – Liberalism, Marxism and Constructivism Dominant realism and its main rivals – Liberalism, Marxism and Constructivism Main actors  states Main actors  states Framework  inter-state relations Framework  inter-state relations Human nature  selfish Human nature  selfish International nature  anarchy International nature  anarchy Sovereignty, power, national interests Sovereignty, power, national interests

6 6 Continues … Mechanism  balance of power (diplomacy) Mechanism  balance of power (diplomacy) World politics is a self-help system World politics is a self-help system Neo-realism: Kenneth Waltz, “ the importance of the structure of the international political system. ” Neo-realism: Kenneth Waltz, “ the importance of the structure of the international political system. ” The Cold War (bipolarity)  multipolarity The Cold War (bipolarity)  multipolarity

7 7 Liberalism and world politics Idealism tradition Idealism tradition Many variants of liberalism (pluralism, transnationalism, integration … ) Many variants of liberalism (pluralism, transnationalism, integration … ) Human being are perfectible Human being are perfectible Democracy is necessary Democracy is necessary Transnational actors in issue-areas of world politics Transnational actors in issue-areas of world politics State as a set of bureaucracies each with its own interests (vs. national interests) State as a set of bureaucracies each with its own interests (vs. national interests)

8 8 Continues … Possibilities for cooperation among states Possibilities for cooperation among states The picture of world politics  a complex system of bargaining The picture of world politics  a complex system of bargaining National interests are much more than military terms (economic, technological..) National interests are much more than military terms (economic, technological..) Order in world politics  laws, norms, international regimes & rules. (vs. BOP) Order in world politics  laws, norms, international regimes & rules. (vs. BOP) Interdependence (vs. sovereignty) Interdependence (vs. sovereignty)

9 9 Marxist theories and world politics Also known as structuralism or world- system theory Also known as structuralism or world- system theory World capitalist economy World capitalist economy Classes are the most important actors of world politics Classes are the most important actors of world politics States, MNCs, IOs represent the dominant class interest in the world economic system States, MNCs, IOs represent the dominant class interest in the world economic system

10 10 Continues … World politics as the setting in which class conflicts are played out World politics as the setting in which class conflicts are played out Order in world politics has been in economic rather than in military terms Order in world politics has been in economic rather than in military terms Division of the world: core, semi-periphery, periphery Division of the world: core, semi-periphery, periphery The most important feature of world politics is the degree of economic autonomy The most important feature of world politics is the degree of economic autonomy

11 11 Constructivism Optimistic account Optimistic account Human agency has a much greater potential role in world politics (we make and re-make the social world) Human agency has a much greater potential role in world politics (we make and re-make the social world) Anarchy (self-help international system) is what states make of it. Anarchy (self-help international system) is what states make of it. World politics as something that we can change (vs. neo-realism) World politics as something that we can change (vs. neo-realism)

12 12 The fours and globalization For Realists: For Realists: 1. globalization does not transcend the international political system of states. (Territory, sovereignty, balance of power) 2. it does not render obsolete the struggle for political power between states. 1. globalization does not transcend the international political system of states. (Territory, sovereignty, balance of power) 2. it does not render obsolete the struggle for political power between states.

13 13 Continues … For Liberals: For Liberals: 1. states are no longer such central actors as they once were. (numerous actors of differing importance according to the issues-area concerned) 1. states are no longer such central actors as they once were. (numerous actors of differing importance according to the issues-area concerned) 2. increased interconnectedness between societies, and as result the world looks more like a cobweb of relations. 2. increased interconnectedness between societies, and as result the world looks more like a cobweb of relations.

14 14 Continues … For Marxist: For Marxist: 1. globalization is nothing particularly new, and is only the latest stage in the development of international capitalism 1. globalization is nothing particularly new, and is only the latest stage in the development of international capitalism 2. it further deepens the existing divide between the core, the semi-periphery, and the periphery. 2. it further deepens the existing divide between the core, the semi-periphery, and the periphery.

15 15 Continues … For Constructivist: For Constructivist: 1. constructivists think that we can mould globalization in a variety of ways. 1. constructivists think that we can mould globalization in a variety of ways. 2. it offer very real changes to create cross-national social movements aided by modern technological forms of communication such as the Internet. 2. it offer very real changes to create cross-national social movements aided by modern technological forms of communication such as the Internet.

16 16 Globalization and its precursors Globalization: the process of increasing interconnectedness between societies such the events in one part of the world more and more have effects on peoples and societies far away. Globalization: the process of increasing interconnectedness between societies such the events in one part of the world more and more have effects on peoples and societies far away. Extensively, intensively, deeply, speeding up; the world seems to be ‘ shrinking ’ Extensively, intensively, deeply, speeding up; the world seems to be ‘ shrinking ’

17 17 Continues … There have been several precursors to globalization: There have been several precursors to globalization: 1. theory of modernization (Modelski 1972; Morse 1976) 1. theory of modernization (Modelski 1972; Morse 1976) 2. industrialization  economic growth (Walt Rostow 1960) 2. industrialization  economic growth (Walt Rostow 1960) 3. economic interdependence (Cooper 1968; Nye 1971) 3. economic interdependence (Cooper 1968; Nye 1971)

18 18 Continues … 4. global village (McLuhan 1964) 4. global village (McLuhan 1964) 5. world society (state system  non- state actors) (Burton 1972) 5. world society (state system  non- state actors) (Burton 1972) 6. world order models project (WOMP) (Mendlovitz 1975; Falk 1975) 6. world order models project (WOMP) (Mendlovitz 1975; Falk 1975) 7. international society (Hedley Bull 1977) 7. international society (Hedley Bull 1977) 8. end of history (Fukuyama 1992) 8. end of history (Fukuyama 1992) 9. liberal peace theory (Bruce Russett 1993; Michael Doyle 1983) 9. liberal peace theory (Bruce Russett 1993; Michael Doyle 1983)

19 19 Globalization: myth or reality? Arguments in favor of globalization: Arguments in favor of globalization: 1. The pace of economic transformation 1. The pace of economic transformation is so great; is so great; 2. Communication have revolutionized the 2. Communication have revolutionized the way we deal with the rest of world. way we deal with the rest of world. 3. There is now a global culture. 3. There is now a global culture. 4. The world is becoming more 4. The world is becoming more homogeneous. homogeneous.

20 20 Continues … 5. Time and space seem to be collapsing. 5. Time and space seem to be collapsing. 6. There is emerging a global polity. 6. There is emerging a global polity. (state  sub-state, transnational, (state  sub-state, transnational, international bodies) international bodies) 7. A cosmopolitan culture is developing. 7. A cosmopolitan culture is developing. (think globally and act locally) (think globally and act locally) 8. A risk culture is emerging. (ex: 8. A risk culture is emerging. (ex: pollution & AIDS) pollution & AIDS)

21 21 Continues … The opposites: The opposites: 1. Globalization is a myth. (Hirst & Thompson) 1. Globalization is a myth. (Hirst & Thompson) (1). the present internationalized economy is not (1). the present internationalized economy is not unique in history. unique in history. (2). genuinely transnational companies are (2). genuinely transnational companies are relatively rare. relatively rare. (3). there is no shift of finance and capital from (3). there is no shift of finance and capital from the developed to underdeveloped worlds. the developed to underdeveloped worlds.

22 22 Continues … (4). the world-economy is not global. (4). the world-economy is not global. (three blocs – Europe, north America, (three blocs – Europe, north America, and Japan) and Japan) (5). three blocs could regulate global (5). three blocs could regulate global economic markets and forces. economic markets and forces. 2. Globalization is very uneven in its 2. Globalization is very uneven in its effects. (Western theories, WWW) effects. (Western theories, WWW) 3. Globalization may well be simply the latest 3. Globalization may well be simply the latest stage of Western imperialism stage of Western imperialism

23 23 Continues … 4. Globalization are technologies that 4. Globalization are technologies that automatically benefit the richest automatically benefit the richest economies in the world. economies in the world. 5. Not all globalized forces are necessarily 5. Not all globalized forces are necessarily ‘ good ’ ones. (WWW anarchy) ‘ good ’ ones. (WWW anarchy) 6. Global governance – to whom are the 6. Global governance – to whom are the transnational social movements responsible transnational social movements responsible and democratically accountable? and democratically accountable? 7. Paradox at the heart of globalization thesis 7. Paradox at the heart of globalization thesis (Western value vs. Asian Tigers ’ values) (Western value vs. Asian Tigers ’ values)

24 24 Stand for or against globalization? Is globalization a new phenomenon in world politics? Is globalization a new phenomenon in world politics? Which theory discussed above best explains globalization? Which theory discussed above best explains globalization? Is globalization a positive or a negative development? Is globalization a positive or a negative development? Is globalization merely the latest stage of capitalist development? Is globalization merely the latest stage of capitalist development?

25 25 Continues … Does globalization make the state obsolete? Does globalization make the state obsolete? Does globalization make the world more or less democratic? Does globalization make the world more or less democratic? Is globalization merely Western imperialism in a new guise? Is globalization merely Western imperialism in a new guise? Does globalization make war less likely? Does globalization make war less likely? Lesson of 9/11 …


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