Presentation on theme: "Political Culture & Evolution of the State: Political Geography Brief History of ‘state’ and ‘sovereignty’ Terminology Characteristics of states Composition."— Presentation transcript:
Political Culture & Evolution of the State: Political Geography Brief History of ‘state’ and ‘sovereignty’ Terminology Characteristics of states Composition of states Functions of boundaries
Political culture- every bit a component of a people as language or religion People adhere to political ideas as they would other cultural components Political systems are either secular, non-secular or based entirely on religion- −Theocracies- political laws and leaders under divine guidance Introduction
Key Points of Focus Roughly 200 States on globe The modern State system is product of Euro roots- Sovereignty and Nation-state Concepts of Nations and States differ-historically State territory varies in size/shape State territories defined by international boundaries What makes states react the way they do to each other?
Can Europe create powerful/economic union despite Nationalistic concerns?
Russia struggles for identity and new place in world
The Balkans War, genocide and refugees during 1990s
Israel/Palestine- Is Peace Possible?
Chechnya-Russia Independence for this small Russian province?
Can China create political and social institutions that allow for continued growth?
U.S. in Iraq and Afghanistan: What is the best means to deploy U.S. influence?
Geography and Political Organization
Territoriality How can it be explained? −Effort by some to control pieces of earth surface for political means −Instinct in humans, like animals Or, different circumstances arise that need to be analyzed separate from each other How are different territoriality strategies pursued and when
State and Nation: Terminology State and country are interchangeable State: Latin meaning Status Some countries have internal divisions called states- like provinces (Canada) or territories (Australia) A nation may be larger than a state Nation has historic, ethnic, linguistic and religious connotations Many states are states, but not nations (in traditional sense of word)
Traditional Pillars of a Nation Common history; not as a country but as a people Same ethnic background Common language Common rule of law/gov’tal institutions
Are there Nation-states? Virtually all states are characterized by internal diversity Even in culturally heterogeneous states vast majority of people share strong sense of ‘nationalism’ or national spirit National spirit is contemporary way of viewing the concept of ‘nation’
Stateless Nations Many countries are states, but not nations Not one Nation-State exists in even France is not a Nation-State People w/out a state are Stateless-Nations −Palestinians, Native American tribes, Kurds −The mere fact Stateless-Nations exist is not vital, the problems that occur because some are stateless is problematic −The problems that exist is why the study of Stateless- Nations is important
Kurds are example of stateless-nation
Multi-Nation State Republic of Cyprus
The Euro Model −On Euro Continent the strength of rulers produced nat’l cohesiveness −Economic revival sparked in 13/14 th century & Dark Ages passed −Treaties signed at the end of the Thirty Years’ War laid foundation for state and sovereignty −Western Europe’s strong monarchies began to represent something greater than authority −Renaissance led to greater prosperity, knowledge and wealth −City-based merchants became more influential; cities grew in importance; land as measure of affluence lost relevance Rise of the Modern State
The Nation; the State; Sovereignty Sovereignty: power rested in the hands of the people; the nation Emerged after Thirty Years’ War Each nation should have its own sovereign territory Europe controlled much of world: −Defined, determined ground rules for emerging internat’l state system −End of Colonial period led many emerging states to model statehood after the Euro model
Spatial Characteristics of a state Physical and cultural properties: −States differ in as many ways as they are similar −Vast differences in size and population −State is a complex system & spirit of state is fragile −Boundaries often throw together people of various cultures and ethnicities; false sense of belonging −To succeed, a state must foster sense of legitimacy −In order to be considered a state: Clearly defined territory Substantial population Authoritative/gov’t institutions Recognized by other powers- Example: Northern Turkish Republic of Cyprus (only recognized by Turkey); is it really a sovereign state if only recognized by Turkey?
Territory State must have territory to exist Territorial Morphology- size, shape, and relative location vary from state to state Territorial characteristics can and do pose opportunities and challenges Large states have greater chance of having wide range of environments and resources United States’ abundance of natural resources have enabled it to be the power it is in late 20 th century and early 21 st Former Soviet Union had abundance of resources, but too many obstacles to adequately take advantage of them
State Shapes and Forms Territorial Morphology
Name that Shape!!
Relative Location Can have more effect than size and shape of country Resource-rich location Relation to global mainstream of activity Enclave and Exclaves Landlocked- face locational challenges(9 of 20 poorest nations landlocked) * according to Global Facilitation Partnership for Trans and Trade Political instability of coastal neighbors is problematic State that must traverse, at least one other, for access to the sea Soil loss in Mongolia
Landlocked 2008: 44 landlocked countries Country is cut from sea business: fishing & international trade
Establishment of Boundaries Size, Shape & Location Evolution of boundaries Boundary types
States Differ Territorial size Shape Demography Regime Organizational Structures Resources Development
Relative Location Size & shape do not determine political, social, economic well-being One must consider a country’s location on globe Location can/will determine a country’s foreign policy
Evolution of Boundaries Three Stages Agreement is reached and exact location is established—Definition Cartographers place boundary on map—Delimination Borders marked by walls, fences, etc..—Demarcation −Not all boundaries are demarcated though
Functions of Boundaries Walls used to keep people from moving across boundaries Today- boundaries mark the limit of state jurisdiction Serve as state symbols of sovereignty and foster nationalism
Internal Boundaries Needed for administrative purposes Examples: United States, Canada, India Some countries have cultural divides that do not show up on ma −The Former Yugoslavia is case-in-point
Boundary Disputes Typically exist from following four: −Definition −Location −Operation −Allocation
Land Boundaries A boundary is a Vertical Plane Cuts through subsoil and airspace Becomes problem when referring to resources—coal, oil, natural gas
The Former USSR 100 ethnicities and two predominate religions Armenia- Christian, Azerbaijan- Muslim Soviets squelched religion Set up boundaries that would allow control Enclaves/exclaves created to keep religions together Soviet control crumbled leaving war and conflict
Types of Boundaries Lines of latitude and longitude Rivers, Mountains, deserts Geometric Boundary—straight line boundaries Physical-Political or Natural-Political −Natural characteristics of land provide border −Rio Grande, Great Lakes, Pyrenees
Cultural-Political Boundaries Boundaries that are created to keep certain ethnicities and/or nationalities together USSR in Armenia and Azerbaijan Yugoslavia-Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Albania