Presentation on theme: "A 21 st Century Western Hemisphere Security/Defense Community Colonel Joseph R. Núñez, Professor, U.S. Army War College With LTC Kelley Spellman, J-5 Staff,"— Presentation transcript:
A 21 st Century Western Hemisphere Security/Defense Community Colonel Joseph R. Núñez, Professor, U.S. Army War College With LTC Kelley Spellman, J-5 Staff, SOUTHCOM
Western Hemisphere Idea
Special Relationship Within the Americas Our Own Separate Orbit - Amb Nabuco Pan Americanism of the New World Common Values, Interests & Challenges Free, Prosperous & Fraternal Continent Constructive Association of Nations Hemisphere of Peace through Democracy
Challenges to Cooperation Imbalance or Asymmetry of Power Domestic Politics – Nationalism, Populism, Subregional Competition Lack of Presidential Leadership & Vision Competing Visions and Outsiders Lack of Understanding-Respect-Concern
Challenges to Cooperation: OAS Outdated Rio Treaty – Time for Update No Effective Security Staff Inter-American Defense Board Detached Plenty of Diplomacy, but Where is the Security and Defense? Kicks Problems to UN, but Offers Little New Definitions, but what about Haiti?
Future of Security Cooperation Can Only Grow if Leaders Have Common Interests & Values Entails Difficult Choices about Defense, Security, Democracy, Trade, Globalization, and Development
International Challenges State Failure: Haiti Projection of Multinational Forces on UN missions (PKO, etc.) Stabilization Ops & Humanitarian Assist. Gap between Words and Deeds, Promises and Actions
Rising Regional Cooperation States Find Good Reasons to Cooperate Expand Trade Reinforce Democratic Values Work Together on Common Security Threats.
International Military Cooperation Canada Sent Troops to Afghanistan in 2001 Canada Sent an even Larger Force to Afghanistan (ISAF) in 2003.
International Military Cooperation The 2 nd Iraq War was Supported by El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic Each Country Sent Forces that Joined the Spanish Brigade
International Military Cooperation Within the Americas – UN Mission in Haiti – Soldiers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, U.S., & Uruguay work together for peace
International Military Cooperation Haiti also represents new leadership opportunities A Brazilian General commands the Stabilization Force A Chilean Diplomat serves as Special Rep. of the Sec Gen
Haiti and Military Cooperation Deployment of MIF? Deployment of MINUSTAH? Record of MIF and MINUSTAH? OAS & UN Actions? How Can We Do Better in the Future?
International Military Cooperation Cyprus – UNFICYP Argentinean force includes soldiers from Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay Canada also has soldiers in Cyprus
A New Security Architecture Time to Deal with 21 st Century threats Threats are Not National Armies Security Cooperation – Not Integration Preserve Sovereignty Constructively
First Special Service Force – Redux Standing Multinational Force Canada/US/ Mexico & Brazil/Argentina/Chile: FSSF(N) and FSSF(S) Hemispheric Security Part of OAS Security Council Strategic Restraint Sovereignty Clause
The Logic of Cooperation. Democracy, Trade & Security/Defense New Security Dilemma: Internal & Transnational New Missions for FSSF: Humanitarian Assistance, Failed States (SO), & PKO Hard and Soft Power
Security Virtues of FSSF NOT Unilateral Promote Respect & Understanding Constructive Regionalism Interoperability Rapid Deployment Versatility (SSCs) UN SHIRBRIG > NRF > FSSF ?
Slaying of Cooperation Myths Preserve Sovereignty by “Ditching” Possible to Decouple Security from Economy (FTAA) Security “On The Cheap” Works Moral Superiority of Non-Intervention
Slaying of U.S. Cooperation Myths U.S. Can Go it Alone Other States in the Americas are Not Dependable Allies The U.S. Has Enough Power to Call All of the Shots Superpowers Don’t Do Windows (PKSO)
Strategic Commitment to the Western Hemisphere An Interdependent Community Shared Values/Interests Disagreement Does Not Equal Disrespect (virtue) A Special Relationship New Vision
Cooperation Includes Mexico Mexico is Not Ready to Join FSSF(N) Sovereignty and Non-Intervention Issues Democratic Changes are Causing the Military to Change Security Cooperation is Quietly on the Rise
Two Opposing Visions
Constructive Regionalism Focus more on WE, not ME or THEM Regions have Real Security & Defense Responsibilities Between States and the International Realm (UN) are Regional Structures