Presentation on theme: "POSC 2200 – Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy"— Presentation transcript:
1POSC 2200 – Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy Russell Alan WilliamsDepartment of Political Science
2Unit Three: Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy “Nationalism and States in the International System”Required Reading:Globalization of World Politics, Chapter 24.Strobe Talbott, “Self-Determination in an Interdependent World,” Foreign Policy, No. 118 (Spring, 2000), pp (Available through e-journals, or from the instructor.)Outline:IntroductionNationalismCivicEthnicSelf Determination and Sovereignty in the 20th CenturyFor Next Time
31) Introduction:Unit goal: Explore “nationalism”, “nation-states” and the challenges of “self determination” for modern politicsProblem: Concepts and their implications poorly understood, and yet development of “nation-states” is the largest cause of modern warfareTerminology Problem: “Nation” and “State” used interchangeably, but they are not the same thingConceptual problem: “Sovereignty” versus “self-determination”Foreign policy problem
42) Nationalism – a brief history: “Conventional account”:Modern states grew from “nations” which fought for “sovereignty” and “self determination”=“nation-states” became basis of all political organizationGlobalization now challenges “nations-states”Question: What’s wrong with this story?
52) Nationalism – a brief history: What’s wrong with this story?Nationalism is a modern ideology?Nationalism has spread at the same time as globalization?Most states are not “nation-states” in this sense – they often have multiple “nations”?This story has had dangerous implication War!
6Key Concepts:“State”: The institutions of government and sovereign authority over a “country” or territory.“Nation”: A group of people who recognize each other as having a shared identity and normally a defined territory, or “homeland”.“Nationalism”: The belief that the world is organized into “nations” based on ethnic and cultural identities – forms the basis of political identity.Generates demands for national “self determination” and statehoodStrong sense of “primordialism” and “founding myths”“Nation-state”: A state which claims legitimacy based on representing the sovereign authority of a particular nation – from a “nationalism” perspectiveHowever, most “nation-states” do not really fit the definition
7In practical terms nationalism comes in different forms – reflects the modern invention of nationalisma) “Civic Nationalism”: A form of nationalism in which identity is based on belonging to an existing state – national identity is indistinguishable from citizenship.E.g. United StatesCanadaFrance (!)
8France: Often used as an illustration of a modern “nation-state”, but . . . . France was not always the “nation” it is today. Until the existence of the modern “French” state and the promotion of French nationhood as a civic culture – France was a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious monarchy
9In practical terms nationalism comes in different forms – reflects the modern invention of nationalismb) “Ethnic Nationalism”: A form of nationalism in which people articulate a national identity separate from, or prior to, their citizenship in a particular state – often the key aspect of ethnic nationalism is the demand for statehood.E.g. Eastern Europe and the Balkans
10Eastern Europe, before and after WWI: New states were created in accordance with “ethnic nationalism” and “self determination”
11Meanwhile . . . in the middle east: New states were not created in accordance with “ethnic nationalism” and “self determination”
12Meanwhile . . . in the middle east: Uh oh What about the “Kurds”?An ethnic “nation”, but no state?Continuing “nationalism” and demand for “self determination” = conflict with sovereign states created after WWI which claim the territory of “Kurdistan”E.g. Iraq and Turkey’s “sovereignty” is in direct contradiction with the Kurd’s “self determination”
13Meanwhile . . . in Africa: Uh oh . . . What about Sudan? Again "sovereignty” is in direct contradiction with “self determination” and Sudan has an interest in the status quo
14Key point:“Ethnic nationalism” is often seen as the basis of “self determination”, but there are more “ethnic nations” than statesSource of longstanding, and irreconcilable civil warsE.g. UN system protects the rights of existing sovereign states, not those seeking self determination
153) Self Determination & Sovereignty in the 20th Century System of statehood created after World War I has created many of the problems that dominate international headlines1) Failed states2) Humanitarian crises3) Non-state actors – terrorism, crime, cross border violence facilitated by ungovernable regions
161) “Failed states”: A state where the government has ceased to effectively govern its territory – it can no longer provide services or basic order – normally as a result of persistent internal conflict.SomaliaSudanAfghanistanRwandaYugoslavia
18Yugoslavia:Ethnic nationalists claimed same territory as part of their state:System of “self determination” & “sovereignty”:Creates incentives for:“Ethnic cleansing”“Genocide”Creates unclear rules for international institutions and foreign policy – pressure is to respect the sovereign status of the existing state
19Yugoslavia:Argument: part of the problem with state failure is that international initiations and foreign powers insist on keeping unworkable states togetherHowever: Kosovo War :=Erosion of “Westphalian sovereignty”?
203) Self Determination & Sovereignty in the 20th Century 2) Humanitarian crises: Many “failed” or weak states suffer humanitarian problems.E.g. Somalia (UNOSOM II – ) - UN mission was not accepted by local “authorities” – did not go wellEmerging principle of “humanitarian intervention”: Sovereignty of a state incapable of dealing with a humanitarian crisis need not be respected.
213) Self Determination & Sovereignty in the 20th Century 3) Non-state actors in contested border regionsEthnic nationalist secessionist movements often create ungovernable regions, generating cross border crime, trafficking, terrorism . . .E.g. Pushstun RegionKashmirChechnya
22Strobe Talbott and the Challenges of “Self Determination”: Former U.S. DeputySecretary of StateArgument: Solution to ethnic nationalism and secessionism is not to create new states – it is too difficult – reflects official policy of all major states and the U.N.Solution: More democracy and globalization(!)Removes reasons for ethnic nationalismIncreases ability of states to accommodate national minorities
23“States as Actors – Foreign Policy” 5) For Next Time . . .Unit Three: Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy“States as Actors – Foreign Policy”Required Reading:Robert Jervis, “Hypotheses on Misperception,” World Politics, 20 (3), (April 1968), Pp (Available through e-journals, or as an excerpt from the instructor.)