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POSC 2200 – Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy Russell Alan Williams Department of Political Science.

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1 POSC 2200 – Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy Russell Alan Williams Department of Political Science

2 Unit Three: Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy “ Nationalism and States in the International System ” Required Reading: Required Reading: Globalization of World Politics, Chapter 24. Globalization of World Politics, Chapter 24. Strobe Talbott, “ Self-Determination in an Interdependent World, ” Foreign Policy, No. 118 (Spring, 2000), pp. 152-163. (Available through e-journals, or from the instructor.) Strobe Talbott, “ Self-Determination in an Interdependent World, ” Foreign Policy, No. 118 (Spring, 2000), pp. 152-163. (Available through e-journals, or from the instructor.)Outline: 1. Introduction 2. Nationalism 1. Civic 2. Ethnic 3. Self Determination and Sovereignty in the 20 th Century 4. For Next Time....

3 1) Introduction: Unit goal: Explore “ nationalism ”, “ nation-states ” and the challenges of “ self determination ” for modern politics Problem: Concepts and their implications poorly understood, and yet... development of “ nation- states ” is the largest cause of modern warfare Terminology Problem: “ Nation ” and “ State ” used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.... Terminology Problem: “ Nation ” and “ State ” used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.... Conceptual problem: “ Sovereignty ” versus “ self- determination ”.... Conceptual problem: “ Sovereignty ” versus “ self- determination ”.... Foreign policy problem.... Foreign policy problem....

4 2) Nationalism – a brief history: “ Conventional account ” : 1. Modern states grew from “ nations ” which fought for “ sovereignty ” and “ self determination ” = “ nation-states ” became basis of all political organization 2. Globalization now challenges “ nations-states ” Question: What ’ s wrong with this story?

5 2) Nationalism – a brief history: What ’ s wrong with this story? What ’ s wrong with this story? Nationalism is a modern ideology? Nationalism is a modern ideology? Nationalism has spread at the same time as globalization? Nationalism has spread at the same time as globalization? Most states are not “ nation-states ” in this sense – they often have multiple “ nations ” ? Most states are not “ nation-states ” in this sense – they often have multiple “ nations ” ? This story has had dangerous implication  War! This story has had dangerous implication  War!

6 Key Concepts: “ State ” : The institutions of government and sovereign authority over a “ country ” or territory. “ State ” : The institutions of government and sovereign authority over a “ country ” or territory. “ Nation ” : A group of people who recognize each other as having a shared identity and normally a defined territory, or “ homeland ”. “ Nation ” : A group of people who recognize each other as having a shared identity and normally a defined territory, or “ homeland ”. “ Nationalism ” : The belief that the world is organized into “ nations ” based on ethnic and cultural identities – forms the basis of political identity. “ Nationalism ” : The belief that the world is organized into “ nations ” based on ethnic and cultural identities – forms the basis of political identity. Generates demands for national “ self determination ” and statehood Generates demands for national “ self determination ” and statehood Strong sense of “primordialism” and “ founding myths ” Strong sense of “primordialism” and “ founding myths ” “ Nation-state ” : A state which claims legitimacy based on representing the sovereign authority of a particular nation – from a “ nationalism ” perspective “ Nation-state ” : A state which claims legitimacy based on representing the sovereign authority of a particular nation – from a “ nationalism ” perspective However, most “ nation-states ” do not really fit the definition However, most “ nation-states ” do not really fit the definition

7 In practical terms nationalism comes in different forms – reflects the modern invention of nationalism a) “ Civic Nationalism ” : A form of nationalism in which identity is based on belonging to an existing state – national identity is indistinguishable from citizenship. E.g.United States E.g.United StatesCanada France (!)

8 France: Often used as an illustration of a modern “ nation- state ”, but.... France was not always the “ nation ” it is today. Until the existence of the modern “ French ” state and the promotion of French nationhood as a civic culture – France was a multi- ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious monarchy

9 In practical terms nationalism comes in different forms – reflects the modern invention of nationalism b) “ Ethnic Nationalism ” : A form of nationalism in which people articulate a national identity separate from, or prior to, their citizenship in a particular state – often the key aspect of ethnic nationalism is the demand for statehood. E.g. Eastern Europe and the Balkans E.g. Eastern Europe and the Balkans

10 Eastern Europe, before and after WWI: New states were created in accordance with “ ethnic nationalism ” and “ self determination ”

11 Meanwhile... in the middle east: New states were not created in accordance with “ ethnic nationalism ” and “ self determination ”

12 Meanwhile... in the middle east: Uh oh... What about the “ Kurds ” ? An ethnic “ nation ”, but no state? An ethnic “ nation ”, but no state? Continuing “ nationalism ” and demand for “ self determination ” = conflict with sovereign states created after WWI which claim the territory of “ Kurdistan ” Continuing “ nationalism ” and demand for “ self determination ” = conflict with sovereign states created after WWI which claim the territory of “ Kurdistan ” E.g. Iraq and Turkey ’ s “ sovereignty ” is in direct contradiction with the Kurd ’ s “ self determination ” E.g. Iraq and Turkey ’ s “ sovereignty ” is in direct contradiction with the Kurd ’ s “ self determination ”

13 Meanwhile... in Africa: Uh oh... What about Sudan? Again "sovereignty ” is in direct contradiction with “ self determination ” and Sudan has an interest in the status quo.... Again "sovereignty ” is in direct contradiction with “ self determination ” and Sudan has an interest in the status quo....

14 Key point: “ Ethnic nationalism ” is often seen as the basis of “ self determination ”, but there are more “ ethnic nations ” than states.... “ Ethnic nationalism ” is often seen as the basis of “ self determination ”, but there are more “ ethnic nations ” than states.... Source of longstanding, and irreconcilable civil wars Source of longstanding, and irreconcilable civil wars E.g. UN system protects the rights of existing sovereign states, not those seeking self determination

15 3) Self Determination & Sovereignty in the 20 th Century System of statehood created after World War I has created many of the problems that dominate international headlines 1) Failed states 2) Humanitarian crises 3) Non-state actors – terrorism, crime, cross border violence facilitated by ungovernable regions

16 1) “ Failed states ” : A state where the government has ceased to effectively govern its territory – it can no longer provide services or basic order – normally as a result of persistent internal conflict. Somalia Somalia Sudan Sudan Afghanistan Afghanistan Rwanda Rwanda Yugoslavia Yugoslavia

17 Yugoslavia:

18 Yugoslavia: Ethnic nationalists claimed same territory as part of their state: System of “ self determination ” & “ sovereignty ” : Creates incentives for: Creates incentives for: “ Ethnic cleansing ” “ Ethnic cleansing ” “ Genocide ” “ Genocide ” Creates unclear rules for international institutions and foreign policy – pressure is to respect the sovereign status of the existing state Creates unclear rules for international institutions and foreign policy – pressure is to respect the sovereign status of the existing state

19 Yugoslavia: Argument: part of the problem with state failure is that international initiations and foreign powers insist on keeping unworkable states together.... However: Kosovo War 1998-1999: =Erosion of “ Westphalian sovereignty ” ?

20 3) Self Determination & Sovereignty in the 20 th Century 2) Humanitarian crises: Many “ failed ” or weak states suffer humanitarian problems. E.g. Somalia (UNOSOM II – 1993- 1995) - UN mission was not accepted by local “ authorities ” – did not go well.... E.g. Somalia (UNOSOM II – 1993- 1995) - UN mission was not accepted by local “ authorities ” – did not go well.... Emerging principle of “ humanitarian intervention ” : Sovereignty of a state incapable of dealing with a humanitarian crisis need not be respected.

21 3) Self Determination & Sovereignty in the 20 th Century 3) Non-state actors in contested border regions.... Ethnic nationalist secessionist movements often create ungovernable regions, generating cross border crime, trafficking, terrorism... Ethnic nationalist secessionist movements often create ungovernable regions, generating cross border crime, trafficking, terrorism... E.g. Pushstun Region E.g. Pushstun RegionKashmirChechnya

22 Strobe Talbott and the Challenges of “ Self Determination ” : Former U.S. Deputy Former U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Secretary of State Argument: Solution to ethnic nationalism and secessionism is not to create new states – it is too difficult – reflects official policy of all major states and the U.N. Solution: More democracy and globalization(!) Removes reasons for ethnic nationalism.... Removes reasons for ethnic nationalism.... Increases ability of states to accommodate national minorities Increases ability of states to accommodate national minorities

23 5) For Next Time... Unit Three: Nationalism, Nation States and Foreign Policy “ States as Actors – Foreign Policy ” Required Reading: Robert Jervis, “ Hypotheses on Misperception, ” World Politics, 20 (3), (April 1968), Pp. 454-479. (Available through e-journals, or as an excerpt from the instructor.) Robert Jervis, “ Hypotheses on Misperception, ” World Politics, 20 (3), (April 1968), Pp. 454-479. (Available through e-journals, or as an excerpt from the instructor.)


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