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2 Ladies, Gentlemen & my Young Friends. The truth on the establishment and validation of Vietnam’ sovereignty on the Paracel Islands is very clear, which is based faithfully on international laws through the centuries. Then it is ironic that many people in the World and respected study organizations such as the National Geographic Society of the USA did not know about these facts. Is it true that at today people are ready to modify the truth, because of the fear of the powerful? Or do they refuse to recognize the veracity of facts in order to contest historical validity? Or is it because that the truth is hidden by the time factor so that no one now cares to recognize it? 2

3 I am certain that everyone will soon know the real ownership rights of VN on the Paracel and Spratly islands, and then the truth will be honored. Let us return to Cesar what belongs to Cesar. The truth is the power of the weak to maintain the truth on his side. Only by respecting the truth, order and peace in the world can be maintained and solidified. My presentation in English, some articles of mine, even my PhD thesis entitled “Establishment of Vietnam’s sovereignty on the Paracel and Spratly Islands”, presented and defended at the National University of Hochiminhcity in 2003, have been printed. I hope you will read them to understand the facts. Here, I shall present and promote the following happenings:a summary of ”Documents on Viet Nam’s Sovereignty over Paracels & Spratlys” about 400 pages 3

4 This document is in three parts: Part I consists of an analysis of a 1960 U.S. Army document, and excerpts from geography books and travel diaries by Western writers from the nineteenth century and earlier. Part II is a summary of three papers presented at seminars held in Hanoi and in Philadelphia, U.S.A., in Part III presents some highlights of the author’s doctoral thesis entitled "How Was Vietnamese Sovereignty Established Over the Paracel & Spratly Archipelagoes,” including his opinions on new developments. 4

5 Part I I.1. “Analysis on The Spratley- Paracel Islands Dispute,” no , 6 June 1960, Headquarters, U.S. Pacific Broadcasting and Visual Activity AP

6 Excerpt: "… In 1816, The Islands were officially annexed to the Empire of Viet Nam by Gialong, and by 1820, they were recognized as a Constituent of the territory known as Cochin-China. In 1832, Emperor Minh Mang sent a group of laborers to the islands for the purpose of constructing a pagoda on Ban Na Rock. The group not only constructed the pagoda but also erected a stone column nearby to commemorate its foundation. Two years later, the sovereignty of the empire over the Paracels was further asserted by the appearance of The Geography of the Vietnamese Empire, which reiterated the proclamation of 1816 and provided a vivid description of wildlife and vegetation on the islands. Another book, published in 1838 by Monseigneur Taberd, remarks that 'for more than 34 years, The Archipelago of Paracels has been occupied by the people of Cochin-China..." 6

7 I.2. Excerpts detailing Nam Ha's (i.e. Cochinchina's) Sovereignty over the Paracel Islands by Western writers in geographical books written in the 19th century and before. 7

8 Today, many libraries in the United States, France, Italy, and Spain store geographical books and travel diaries in English, French, Italian, and Spanish from the nineteenth century and even earlier, which consistently support sovereignty belonging to Annam (Cochin China), or Vietnam today. Many of these books are currently available and archived on Google and at Of the 37 geographical books, many clearly stated that in 1816 the "King of Cochin China [Vietnam]" or King Gia Long or "L'empereur d'Annam" took Possession of the Paracels, and that “Gia Long went with solemnity to plant his flag and take formal Possession of the Paracels, which nobody disputed, or contested that the Paracels belonged to Cochinnchina (Vietnam)." 8

9 Part II II.1. "Historical Background leading to the dispute of Viet Nam's Sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands-Causes and Solutions" See presentation at the International Conference organized by the Vietnam Historical Science Association held in Hanoi in

10 II.2. "Historical and Scientific Evidence of Viet Nam's Sovereignty & Refutation of China's Unscientific Claims over the Paracel & Spratly Archipelagos”. See the document “About Vietnam’s Sovereignty over the Paracel & Spratly Islands” presented at the Workshop on the South China Sea organized by the Institute of Foreign Affairs and held in Hanoi in April

11 II.3. "Foundations and Facts of the Establishment and Protection of Viet Nam's Sovereignty as to the Paracel and Spratly Islands" See the paper presented in Philadelphia, the United States, in March

12 Part III Doctoral Dissertation Section The historical truth about Vietnam's sovereignty over the Paracels-Hoang Sa and Spratlys-Truong Sa is detailed in this work in a thoroughly scientific and objective manner and in irrefutable detail. The author cites over 200 references, in particular the Royal Orders (Du) coming from the emperors of the Nguyen Dynasty and many reports (tau & phúc tau) of the Department of Building (Bo Công). There are also the history and geography books of the Nguyen Dynasty which clearly described the establishment of Vietnam’s sovereignty over the Paracels - Hoang Sa & Spratly s- Truong Sa Islands. 12

13 Documents coming from European and Chinese sources also stated very clearly that Viet Nam exercised sovereignty over the Paracels-Hoang Sa & Spratlys-Truong Sa. 13

14 The French colonial government in Vietnam was slow in responding, but it did say that it did not for that reason abandon the sovereignty over the islands. In the early 1930s, the French government took specific actions to post a military presence and maintain its sovereignty through meteorological stations located at Paracels-Hoang Sa & Spratlys-Truong Sa. In 1947 France transferred all civilian powers to Vietnam's national government led by Emperor Bao Dai and in 1955 let the then government of South Vietnam take over the territory of South Vietnam from latitude 17 southward as stipulated in the 1954 Geneva Agreement. 14

15 Some specific examples: a. Decisions and geography books clearly establishing VietNam’s sovereignty over the Paracels- Hoang Sa and Spratlys-Truong Sa Islands. There is no country other than Vietnam which can show a continuous historical record, with institutional policy 15

16 b. There was no country other than Vietnam which has an abundance of documentation in Chinese, written by authorities from the central government down to the local levels, that clearly established the continued sovereignty of Vietnam over the Paracels-Hoang Sa and Spratlys-Truong Sa archipelagoes. 16

17 Most valuable are the Royally Viewed Reports (chau ban), i.e. official documents submitted to the Nguyen emperors for review and approval, the texts of which are now stored in a central archive in Hanoi. There we find unique documents from the Department of the Building on the establishment of Vietnamese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands including surveys and cadastral measurements and sketches of Hoang Sa, milestone markers... The Command (Du) from Minh Mang on the 18 th of the seventh month, 16th year of Minh Mang (1835), for instance, in the Royally Viewed Reports (châu ban) file Minh Mang, No. 54, page 92 has this article: 17

18 "Edict of Emperor Minh Mang: The penalty applied to Officer Pham Van Nguyen, Hoang Sa, 80 staff for being late” or a penalty of 80 staff to director Tran Van Van, Nguyen Van Tiem, Nguyen Van Hoang for not completing all of the Paracels- Hoang Sa mapping. Meanwhile a reward was given to the Paracels militiamen Vo Van Hung and Pham Van Sanh, each of whom is to be given the money to guide the naval voyage to the Paracels- Hoang Sa. " Or, as Decree (Du of the 13 th of the seventh month, Minh Mang 18 (1837)) in the file Royally Viewed Reports (châu ban), No. Minh Mang 57, page 245, said order is to be sent to the chiefs of the two provinces of Quang Ngai and Binh Dinh to measure, lay markers, and chart the Paracels-Hoang Sa...” 18

19 c. There is no country which has a stronger claim of sovereignty than Vietnam which can show as many European documents dating from the 19th century and earlier. These documents clearly establish the sovereignty of Vietnam over the Paracels-Hoang Sa and Spratlys-Truong Sa islands. 19

20 d. Western maps over whelmingly clearly show "Hoang Sa-Paracels" and note that they belong to Cochin China- Dang Trong, in other words belonging to the Kingdom of An Nam, which is today's Vietnam. In addition to An Nam Đai Quoc Hoa Đo map of Bishop Taberd's mapping, we also find several of maps drawn by the West from the 18th century on, which clearly note the Kingdom of An Nam, Paracels and Cochin China (Cochinchine). An Nam Đai Quoc Hoa Đo (map 1) is 44cm wide and 80cm long. Bishop Taberd published it in 1838 stating "Paracel Seu Kát Vàng-Golden Sand" (Seu, in Latin means "or") Paracels or Kat Vang-Golden Sand is located in the Latin - Annam Dictionary and specified the same geographic coordinates as present day Hoang Sa and in the waters of Vietnam. 20

21 (Map 1) An Nam Đai Quoc Hoa Đo 21

22 (Map 2) Carte des Costes de Cochinchine, Tunquin et Partie de Celles de la Chine (Harreveld, E. Van Changuion, Amsterdam, 1749) is drawing coordinates, Paracel archipelago stretches from latitude to latitude

23 History is replete with examples where of history lead to disastrous mistakes, including war. In human history, in almost all totalitarian regimes there have been times when distortions of history are deliberately fostered, but at no time have we seen unprecedented trampling upon the historical truth as rudely as the Chinese have done when they claimed to the UN Commission on the Law of the Sea that they own nearly 80% of the South China Sea and consider it as its inland waters. Can one claim the sea based on the name South China Sea (which to the Vietnamese is actually called the Eastern Sea)? Wouldn't it be as bizarre as India claiming the Indian Ocean to itself? The argument is as ridiculous as Wang Hanling, a Chinese scholar, claiming that before 1885 “Vietnam had been part of China.“ It is wrongful and damaging misconceptions like that which precipitate wars and do not contribute to the peace of the region or the world. 23

24 Besides the Geneva agreement of 1954 clearly defined the territory under the 17th parallel as belonging under the management of the southern government, later known as the Republic of Vietnam, and this government has never renounced sovereignty over the Paracels-Hoang Sa and Spratlys-Truong Sa Islands. Give Caesar, then, what belongs to Caesar. This documentation not only provides accurate information and brings forth historical truths, but also a message of reason and righteousness, which is necessary for the construction of world order. With hope that the truth will be well received and respected by researchers, and the scientific community as well as the legislators, and the law makers in the United States who share a cordial relationship and the same respect of the historical truth as the author. 24

25 May I suggest that you send a memorandum containing the results of this conference to various agencies doing research on history and geography, such as the National Geographic Society (USA), so that everybody can learn about the truth, and defend and protect the truth, which is so useful for peace and cooperation in the world. I wish to thank you for your attention. 25

26 NGUYEN NHA Cell : Short Biography of Nguyen Nha Born in 1940 in the Province of Ninh Binh, Vietnam, Nguyen Nha received his Doctorate in History from the National University at Ho Chi Minh City in Previously, he completed a Master ‘s degree in Education (1973), a Bachelor’s degree in Literature (1966) and a Bachelor’s degee in Education (1965). He was chief editor of the Journal of History and Geography (Tap San Su Dia) during the period and has been chair of the research group of Vietnamese traditions since

27 During these years, he held various positions such as the chief of the research education committee in The Thu Duc Demonstration High School /Faculty of Education, University of Saigon ( ), head of teaching&Learning (methodology) in History section at the College of Education in Ho Chi Minh City ( ). He also was professor of Vietnamese Culture and Educational Methods as well as the Assistant to the President at the Hung Vuong University ( ). Recently, he has served as President of the Club Ca Tru & Hat Tho Lac Viet (previously from the Hung Vuong University) since 2000, President of the Institute of Vietnamese Gastronomic research ( ) and The Viet Kitchen Project for The world Administrator-in-chief. 27

28 THE END 28


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