Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 2013–2014 Update Tenth Edition Joshua S. Goldstein Jon C. Pevehouse Chapter Seven: International Organization, Law, and Human Rights."— Presentation transcript:
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 2013–2014 Update Tenth Edition Joshua S. Goldstein Jon C. Pevehouse Chapter Seven: International Organization, Law, and Human Rights
Southern Sudan rebels arrive for joint exercise with government, 2008.
7.1 Roles of International Organizations Anarchic nature of international system based on state sovereignty States work together Rules that govern most interactions in IR Agreed norms of behavior Power of international norms and standards of morality Shared norms and habits may not suffice to solve international dilemmas International organizations
International norms are evolving in such areas as humanitarian intervention and human rights. These norms help define the roles of international organizations. One of their areas of concern is the use of child soldiers, like this ten-year-old Libyan rebel in 2011. Another concern, the protection of civilians from slaughter, inspired NATO intervention in the Libya conflict. NOT THE NORM
International Organizations Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) Global or regional or bilateral in scope General or specific functional purposes Regional IGOs - European Union, Association of South East Asian Nations, Southern Cone Common Market, African Union Global IGOs - UN, Intelsat, OPEC NGOs - more specialized in function than IGOs
7.1 Roles of International Organizations Q: National leaders can expect certain behaviors from their international counterparts. These are known as __________. A)international covenants B)international norms C)international standards D)global expectations
Answer: B) international norms
True-False: The European Union is a global IGO.
Answer : False
7.2 The United Nations The UN system The Security Council Peacekeeping Forces The Secretariat The General Assembly UN programs Autonomous agencies
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The UN System Purpose Structure of the UN History
The United Nations has very limited powers and resources, yet the world places great hopes in the UN when national governments cannot solve problems. Sometimes the UN seems to need an assist, like this vehicle in 2010 in Western Sahara, where the peace process itself has been stuck for many years. MAKING PROGRESS
The Security Council Maintains international peace and security Resolutions Permanent members Nonpermanent members Powers Proposed changes
Collective security rests with the UN Security Council, which has authorized such military interventions as the Gulf War and the 2001 campaign in Afghanistan. Military actions not approved by the Council—such as the 1999 bombing of Serbia and the 2003 U.S.-British invasion of Iraq—tend to be controversial. Here, Serbia’s president (left end of table) objects to Kosovo’s claim of independence from Serbia, 2008. With the permanent members split on the issue—Russia and China backed Serbia while the United States, Britain, and France recognized Kosovo— the Council did not take action. COUNCIL OF POWER
Peacekeeping Forces Borrowed from armies of member states Peacekeeping missions Recent missions Peace building Observing and peacekeeping Peacemaking
The Secretariat Secretary-General Staff Purposes
The UN secretary-general has a lofty mission but limited power and resources. Ban Ki-moon, here learning some dance moves from fellow South Korean PSY in 2012, faces daunting tasks, serving multiple bosses (the member states) with a tight budget. DIPLOMATIC MOVES
The General Assembly Membership Sessions Powers
The universal membership of the United Nations is one of its strengths. All member states have a voice and a vote in the General Assembly, where state leaders rotate through each autumn. Here, the president of Palestine, which hopes to join the UN as soon as the Security Council allows it, addresses the Assembly in 2011. ASSEMBLY OF EQUALS
UN Programs Funded partly by General Assembly allocations UN Environment Program (UNEP) UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) UN Relief Works Agency (UNRWA) - Palestinian refugees UN Development Program (UNDP) UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Human Rights Council
An array of UN programs, operating under the General Assembly, aim to help countries in the global South to overcome social and economic problems. These programs play a crucial role in the international assistance after disasters and wars. This girl displaced by ethnic violence in Kyrgyzstan in 2010 receives help from UNICEF. HELPING WHERE NEEDED
Autonomous Agencies UN General Assembly maintains formal ties with international agencies not under its control International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) World Health Organization (WHO) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Labor Organization (ILO) UN Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) UN Industrial Development Organization International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Autonomous Agencies (cont.) Universal Postal Union (UPU) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Maritime Organization (IMO) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) UN-affiliated agencies World Bank, International Monetary Fund World Trade Organization
7.2 The United Nations Q: The UN’s peacekeeping forces are __________. A)a standing army ready to be deployed at a moment’s notice B)assembled by the secretary-general each time a mission is deemed necessary C)able to serve in a country even if the government does not want them there D)funded out of the general UN budget
Answer: B) assembled by the secretary-general each time a mission is deemed necessary
True-False: An early example of the granting of authority for peacekeeping forces was the Suez crisis in 1956.
7.3 International Law Sources of International Law Enforcement of International Law The World Court International Cases in National Courts
Sources of International Law No legislative branch or central authority Treaties Custom General principles of law Legal scholarship
Enforcement of International Law Difficult to enforce Dependent upon
The World Court (International Court of Justice) The Hague, Netherlands Optional clause Main use Regional courts
The World Court hears international disputes, but with little power to enforce judgments. Here, in 2004, the judges rule in favor of Mexico’s complaint that the U.S. death penalty against Mexican citizens violated a 1963 treaty. ALL RISE
International Cases in National Courts Advantages Limits
7.3 International Law Q: International law depends on collective action, international norms for enforcement, and __________. A)reciprocity B)organizations C)laws D)courts
Answer: A) reciprocity
True-False: Recognized by the World Court as subsidiary to the others, one source of international law is historical scholarship.
7.4 Law and Sovereignty Laws of Diplomacy Just War Doctrine
International law prohibits attacks on diplomats and embassies. This fundamental principle, like others in international law, is ultimately enforced through reciprocity. When the founder of Wikileaks took refuge in the Ecuadorian embassy in London to avoid extradition to Sweden, the British government considered coming in and taking him, but thought better of it. Here, after six months in residency, he delivers a speech from the embassy balcony, 2012. OUT OF REACH
Just War Doctrine Laws of war Just wars vs. wars of aggression
7.4 Law & Sovereignty Question: Which of the following undermines the laws of warfare? A) The increase in the issuance of declarations of war by participants B) The just-war doctrine C) The convening of war crimes tribunals D) The increase in nonconventional warfare
Answer: D) The increase in nonconventional warfare
True-False: Diplomats, once accredited, enjoy special rights and protections in host countries.
7.5 Human Rights Individual Rights vs. Sovereignty Human Rights Institutions War Crimes The Evolution of World Order
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Individual rights vs. Sovereignty Idea of human rights flies in face of sovereignty Difficult to reach consensus on what are most important human rights Universal vs. relative Concept of human rights has at least three sources No globally agreed-upon definition of essential human rights Civil-political rights Economic-social rights
International norms concerning human rights conflict with state sovereignty, causing friction in relationships such as that of Burma (Myanmar) with the international community. Here, in 2008, Buddhist monks in Burma’s capital lead huge demonstrations against the repressive military government, which cracked down harshly within days. Western powers apply economic sanctions against Burma because of its human rights record. SEA OF RED
Human Rights Institutions Universal Declaration of Human rights Seven treaties to further define protections of human rights Regional Ios promote protection of human rights NGOs Responsibility to protect
War Crimes Large-scale abuses of human rights often occur during war Serious violations of this kind are considered war crimes Norms of legal conduct in war as well as international treaties Crimes against humanity International war crimes tribunals International Criminal Court Private military forces Laws of war, POWs, International Committee of the Red Cross Changing context of laws of war
Rwandan survivor visits memorial on tenth anniversary of the 1994 genocide.
War crimes include unnecessary targeting of civilians and mistreatment of prisoners of war (POWs). The most notorious war crime in Europe in recent decades was the massacre of more than 7,000 men and boys by Serbian forces who overran the UN “safe area” of Srebrenica, Bosnia, in 1995. Here, a mass grave in Bosnia is excavated in 2007. REMAINS OF WAR CRIMES
International Criminal Court Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda
The Evolution of World Order Most powerful states Dutch power in the 1600s 20th century Post-Cold War era
7.5 Human Rights Q: A just war can __________. A)be waged to change another state’s government, if it is violating human rights B)be waged for ethnic or religious reasons C)be waged only in response to aggression D)involve the use of nuclear weapons
Answer: C) be waged only in response to aggression
True-False: Under the law of war, soldiers have the right to surrender, abandoning their role as combatants and becoming prisoners of war.
Chapter Discussion Question How does the UN embody a tension between state sovereignty and supranational authority? And why the do world’s states participate in the UN, given their own individual national interests? What happens when those national interests diverge from international norms and laws?