Presentation on theme: "SSoeharto did so in two steps : 1. Reconceptualized FP based on the need to build internal strength. 2. Purifying the interpretation & implementation."— Presentation transcript:
SSoeharto did so in two steps : 1. Reconceptualized FP based on the need to build internal strength. 2. Purifying the interpretation & implementation of the true “bebas-aktif” FP. It believe that Indonesia’s FP can only be “independent and active” after it achieve a necessary internal strength.
Principally the New Order’s FP can be identified into 4 stages period of time : 1. ( ): Stage of Rehabilitation. 2. ( ): Stage of Growth 3. ( ): Stage of Maturity 4. ( ): Stage of Declining.
Internal circumstance : - Economic crisis (650% of inflation); - Fulfilling basic needs; - Debt problem : US $ 785,6 million while the national liquidity = US$ 485 million. - Relatively unstable political situations. External circumstance : - The Cold War Era.
Making as many as friends as possible : 1. “Good Neighborhood Policy”; - termination of “Gayang Malaysia” and normalization of relation between Jakarta-Kuala Lumpur, also with Philippines, establishing the ASEAN; 2. Joining back to the UN; 3. Normalization of diplomatic relations with several big countries such as the US and Britain; 4. Developing special diplomatic relations with Japan.
Stabilizing Domestic FP and Gaining Capitalist Bloc’s Entrust; - Freezing Diplomatic relations with China.
Tokyo Conference : Moratorium and Rescheduling of the Debt; Paris Conference : the development of the IGGI (at the first step, it’d got US$ 200 million soft loan); Became of member of IMF; The US gave loan of US$ 8,2 million; Japan gave loan of US$ 30 million; I’d got FDI such as Freeport Sulfur Company.
IInternal circumstances : - Pembangunan Nasional (National Development) as the core task of Soeharto’s Regime. - Good Economic condition: surplus beras di Golkar as a new political power and Soeharto’s political vehicle. - Several political crisis (ex: Islam as a threat) and repressive policy; East Timur, Malari 1974 ; Depolitization of Uni (NKK) 1976; Monolithic Principle.
International circumstances : -Vietnam War (triumph against the US in 1975) - Oil Crisis/oil booming in , The peak of the Cold War Era.
Stronger position in International arena. Got more and more trust and fund. In helping to solve starvations problem in Africa. The position became more important to the West after their lost in Vietnam War 1975.
International circumstances: › Global era. › Human rights became the main issue in IR.
Be GNB chairman. APEC host in Bogor. Normalized diplomatic relation with china. International community started to problemitezed several human rights abuses in Suharto's regime. Indonesia terminated economic assistance of IGGI.
Domestic circumstances: › The increasing of democratic, human rights, and civil society movements. › Too much human rights abuses › A lot of demonstrations. › Political and economic crisis.
International circumstances: › Wave of democratization. › Universal human rights movements increased. › Too much hostility.