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SSoeharto did so in two steps : 1. Reconceptualized FP based on the need to build internal strength. 2. Purifying the interpretation & implementation.

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Presentation on theme: "SSoeharto did so in two steps : 1. Reconceptualized FP based on the need to build internal strength. 2. Purifying the interpretation & implementation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 SSoeharto did so in two steps : 1. Reconceptualized FP based on the need to build internal strength. 2. Purifying the interpretation & implementation of the true “bebas-aktif” FP. It believe that Indonesia’s FP can only be “independent and active” after it achieve a necessary internal strength.

3  Principally the New Order’s FP can be identified into 4 stages period of time : 1. ( ): Stage of Rehabilitation. 2. ( ): Stage of Growth 3. ( ): Stage of Maturity 4. ( ): Stage of Declining.

4  Internal circumstance : - Economic crisis (650% of inflation); - Fulfilling basic needs; - Debt problem : US $ 785,6 million while the national liquidity = US$ 485 million. - Relatively unstable political situations.  External circumstance : - The Cold War Era.

5  Making as many as friends as possible : 1. “Good Neighborhood Policy”; - termination of “Gayang Malaysia” and normalization of relation between Jakarta-Kuala Lumpur, also with Philippines, establishing the ASEAN; 2. Joining back to the UN; 3. Normalization of diplomatic relations with several big countries such as the US and Britain; 4. Developing special diplomatic relations with Japan.

6  Stabilizing Domestic FP and Gaining Capitalist Bloc’s Entrust; - Freezing Diplomatic relations with China.

7  Tokyo Conference : Moratorium and Rescheduling of the Debt;  Paris Conference : the development of the IGGI (at the first step, it’d got US$ 200 million soft loan);  Became of member of IMF;  The US gave loan of US$ 8,2 million;  Japan gave loan of US$ 30 million;  I’d got FDI such as Freeport Sulfur Company.

8 IInternal circumstances : - Pembangunan Nasional (National Development) as the core task of Soeharto’s Regime. - Good Economic condition: surplus beras di Golkar as a new political power and Soeharto’s political vehicle. - Several political crisis (ex: Islam as a threat) and repressive policy; East Timur, Malari 1974 ; Depolitization of Uni (NKK) 1976; Monolithic Principle.

9  International circumstances : -Vietnam War (triumph against the US in 1975) - Oil Crisis/oil booming in , The peak of the Cold War Era.

10  Stronger position in International arena.  Got more and more trust and fund.  In helping to solve starvations problem in Africa.  The position became more important to the West after their lost in Vietnam War 1975.

11  International circumstances: › Global era. › Human rights became the main issue in IR.

12  Be GNB chairman. APEC host in Bogor.  Normalized diplomatic relation with china.  International community started to problemitezed several human rights abuses in Suharto's regime.  Indonesia terminated economic assistance of IGGI.

13  Domestic circumstances: › The increasing of democratic, human rights, and civil society movements. › Too much human rights abuses › A lot of demonstrations. › Political and economic crisis.

14  International circumstances: › Wave of democratization. › Universal human rights movements increased. › Too much hostility.


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