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Chapter 3: The Constitution Section 2
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 2 Chapter 3, Section 2 Objectives 1.Identify the four different ways by which the Constitution may be formally changed. 2.Explain how the formal amendment process illustrates the principles of federalism and popular sovereignty. 3.Understand that several amendments have been proposed, but not ratified. 4.Outline the 27 amendments that have been added to the Constitution.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 3 Chapter 3, Section 2 Key Terms amendment: a change to the written words of the Constitution ratification: the act of approving a proposed amendment formal amendment: one of four ways to change or add to the written language of the Constitution Bill of Rights: the name given to the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee many basic freedoms; all ten amendments were ratified in 1791
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 4 Chapter 3, Section 2 Introduction How has the Constitution been amended through the formal amendment process? –The majority of amendments have been proposed by a two-thirds vote of Congress and ratified by three-fourths of the state legislatures. –An amendment can also be ratified by state conventions held in three fourths of the states. This has only happened once.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 5 Chapter 3, Section 2 Changing with the Times The amendment process allows the Constitution to adapt to the changing needs of our nation and society. –The United States has gone from a farming nation of less than 4 million people to a high-tech country with a population of more than 300 million. –Portions of the Constitution have been added, deleted, or altered as a result of amendments.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 6 Chapter 3, Section 2 The Amendment Process Article V of the Constitution describes the amendment process. –Amendments may be proposed: By a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress. [Done for 26 of 27 amendments.] By a national convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the state legislatures. [Done for the 21 st amendment.]
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 7 Chapter 3, Section 2 The Amendment Process, cont. Amendments can be ratified: –By three-fourths of the state legislatures. –By conventions in three-fourths of the states. [A method not yet used.]
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 8 Chapter 3, Section 2 Federalism Checkpoint: How does the federal amendment process reflect the concept of federalism? –Amendments are proposed at the national level and ratified at the state level by legislatures or conventions. –A state can reject an amendment and later decide to ratify it. But a state cannot change its mind after it votes to ratify an amendment. –The President cannot veto proposed amendments.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 9 Chapter 3, Section 2 Popular Sovereignty The amendment process is based on popular sovereignty. –The people elect the representatives who vote to propose or ratify amendments. –Some critics argue that conventions are a better way to ratify amendments than state legislatures, because state legislators are rarely elected based upon their views on an amendment. –The Supreme Court has ruled that states cannot require a proposed amendment to be approved by popular vote before the state legislature can ratify it.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 10 Chapter 3, Section 2 The Bill of Rights Checkpoint: What is the purpose of the Bill of Rights? –They spell out many basic rights and liberties. –Many people would not support the Constitution until a Bill of Rights was promised.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 11 Chapter 3, Section 2 Proposed Amendments Most suggested amendments are never proposed by Congress. –Congress has sent only 33 of some 15,000 suggested amendments to the states. Six proposed amendments were not ratified by the states. –Congress can set a “reasonable” time limit for ratification, usually around seven years. Failed amendments include one declaring the equal rights of women (ERA) and one banning amendments dealing with slavery.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 12 Chapter 3, Section 2 The 27 Amendments Many of the 27 current amendments were proposed in response to legal disputes, social conflicts, or perceived constitutional problems. –The 12 th Amendment resolved a problem with the presidential election process. –The 13 th Amendment abolished slavery.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 13 Chapter 3, Section 2 The 27 Amendments, cont. The 15 th, 19 th, and 26 th Amendments each extended voting rights to a new segment of society: –African Americans –Women –18-year olds Inez Milholland
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 14 Chapter 3, Section Amendments 1-10 –Bill of Rights Amendment 11 –States immune from certain lawsuits Amendment 12 –Changes in electoral college procedures Amendment 13 –Abolition of Slavery Amendment 14 –Citizenship, equal protection, and due process Amendment 15 –No denial of vote because of race, color or previous enslavement The 27 Amendments, cont.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 15 Chapter 3, Section Amendment 16 –Congress given the power to tax incomes Amendment 17 –Popular election of U.S. –Senators Amendment 18 –Prohibition of alcohol Amendment 19 –Women’s suffrage Amendment 20 –Change of dates for presidential and congressional terms Amendment 21 –Repeal of prohibition (Amendment 18) The 27 Amendments, cont.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 16 Chapter 3, Section Amendment 22 –Limit on presidential terms Amendment 23 –District of Columbia allowed to vote in presidential elections Amendment 24 –Ban of tax payment as voter qualification Amendment 25 –Presidential succession, vice presidential vacancy, and presidential disability Amendment 26 –Voting age changed to Amendment 27 –Congressional pay The 27 Amendments, cont.
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Slide 17 Chapter 3, Section 2 Review Now that you have learned how the Constitution has been amended through the formal amendment process, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. –How has the Constitution lasted through changing times?
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