Presentation on theme: "International Organizations. Internationalization Globalization Conflict and cooperation on the international scale Reducing conflict and enhancing cooperation."— Presentation transcript:
Internationalization Globalization Conflict and cooperation on the international scale Reducing conflict and enhancing cooperation Issues: How to provide for human security How to facilitate social development How to protect and advance human rights Organizing an international order As an alternative to international anarchy
HOW TO BUILD AN INTERNATIONAL ORDER 1. The oldest method: an empire Direct compulsion of the weak by the strong, or: “Hegemonic stability” 2. A more democratic approach: sovereign states Voluntary agreements between sovereign states to work out and maintain international rules of behaviour (international law) Where are the guarantees that states will abide by the rules? 3. The states must be democratic Democratic in what sense? Have elections? 4. Transform societies to establish conditions for social justice, equality, development, well-being THE 20 TH CENTURY EXPERIENCE
International governance and state sovereignty Are they at odds? International governance presumes limits on national sovereignty – But many states feel they are not sovereign enough So, the issue is not how much sovereignty, but what kind of sovereignty? Sovereignty to control a nation’s resources? Sovereignty to ignore international environmental protection rules? Sovereignty to violate human rights?
On the one hand: The sovereign state remains the key organizing principle of the global society The nation-state is considered the legitimate political unit Empires are no longer considered legitimate Struggle for state sovereignty is continuing – power to regulate economic forces in the interests of the nation is clearly insufficient Inequalities of power among states “Concert of Great Powers” The Superpowers Nuclear vs. non-nuclear states
The proliferation of sovereign states has a positive impact on world politics The greater the number of sovereign states, The more dispersed the power in the global society The more collective the international governance Multilateralism vs. unilateralism
On the other hand, sovereignty can be abused. It can be invoked: To violate human rights To justify acts of aggression To violate international law To ignore international opinion Nationalism has two faces: National liberation Imperialism
The key variable: democracy The more democratic a state, the less likely are its rulers to abuse sovereignty the more cooperative and responsible it will be in its relations with other states the more interested it will be in democratic international governance Democracy enhances sovereignty by giving the state a strong base in society - And it also limits it by making the rulers more accountable both domestically and internationally
But what about cases when democracy destroys a state? Or makes it incapable of any independent actions? In such cases, a state may go authoritarian to defend its sovereignty Should democratic states tolerate this authoritarianism? Or should they violate state sovereignty in the name of democracy? Current consensus: only in extreme cases
International organizations are created on the basis of interests and concerns which transcend interstate borders Examples: Universal Postal Union Universal Postal Union, UPU: Worldwide postal organizationUniversal Postal Union, UPU: Worldwide postal organization International Red Cross/Red Crescent International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) - HomeInternational Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) - Home International Labour Organization International Labour Organization - ILO Web siteInternational Labour Organization - ILO Web site World Health Organization WHO | World Health OrganizationWHO | World Health Organization Greenpeace http://www.greenpeace.org/international/ http://www.greenpeace.org/international/ Amnesty International Amnesty International - Working To Protect Human Rights WorldwideAmnesty International - Working To Protect Human Rights Worldwide Medecins Sans Frontieres/Doctors Without Borders Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) U.S. Web SiteDoctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) U.S. Web Site The Trilateral Commission The Trilateral CommissionThe Trilateral Commission North Atlantic Treaty Organization http://www.nato.inthttp://www.nato.int
Structures and networks of the growing global society What do they do? What goals do they pursue? What impact do they make on the human condition? World government or global governance?
Types of international organizations By membership: States: Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) Global (UN, IMF)) Regional (NAFTA, EU, NATO) Investors: Transnational corporations (TNCs) Individuals: Civil society organizations (CSOs) Legitimate Illegitimate (terrorist groups, organized crime structures)
By focus of activity: International security Trade and investment Economic development Human rights Social problems Protection of the environment Political agendas Others UNIVERSAL (all of the above) – The United Nations system
What interests, what forces determine the activities of these organizations? Powerful states weigh in on political issues TNCs weigh in on economic issues The global society is shaped by the structures of power in the same way as are national societies: those possessing more power will have more say in making policy So, the challenge is to develop international organizations in such a way as to reduce the inequalities of power The struggle for a democratic global society - The best path to a viable international order
Issues in the struggle How representative are the IGOs? Do the IGOs have influence over TNCs? Do CSOs have influence over IGOs? The status quo: IGOs are dominated by the most powerful states They have less power than TNCs CSOs have minimum impact on IGOs Concentration of political, economic and military power on a global scale
An alternative model, based on democratic principles: Power in IGOs would be distributed more equally between states IGOs would be directly accountable to citizens CSOs would have real influence on IGOs As a result, international institutions have a greater amount of democratic power - To counterbalance the current concentration of state/corporate power
Citizens will have more control over nation-states and IGOs The power gap between major powers and the other states will be reduced The global society will have more control over the TNCs Can it be done?
The United Nations System Welcome to the UN. It's your world.