3Canada’s Evolution to a Fully Independent State Canada is born July 1, 1867 at Confederation. National Policy grows the country “from sea to sea.”Laurier begins our own Navy in 1909Battle of Vimy Ridge 1917 in WWI is our “birth” on the world stage as a distinct nation separate from Britain
4Canada signs Treaty of Versailles at the end of WWI on its own separate from Britain and joins the League of Nations on its own.1930s-Statute of Westminster allows us to have our own foreign affairs policy separate from BritainWe join WWII a week after Britain;not automatic anymoreThe Commonwealthis created asan associationof former BritishColonies in 1931.
51965-P.M. Lester Pearson gives Canada its own distinct flag, the Maple Leaf, replacing the old British Red Ensign1968-Trudeau makes country bilingual, recognizing our unique nature and large French minority1982-Trudeau’s Patriation of the Constitution means we can make all of our laws without British consent. Quebec does not signthe Constitution
61759-French lose the Battle of the Plains of Abraham to British 1759-French lose the Battle of the Plains of Abraham to British. Thus begins the conquest of New France
8NATIONALISMNationalism is a term referring to a doctrineor political movement that holds a nation, usually defined in terms of ethnicity or culture, has the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community based on a shared history and common destiny. Nationalists feel that nationality is the most important aspect of one's identity, while some of them have attempted to define the nation in terms of race or genetics
9JUMP AHEAD 200 YEARS! Quebec Nationalism Pre 1960s-Quebec was run by the wealthy English, the Catholic Church and a dictatorial leader namedMaurice Duplessis.Financially, French people earned half of what the English did and had no language rights. The province was very "behind the times."JUMP AHEAD 200 YEARS!
101960-Duplessis dies and a new Liberal premier, Jean Lesage, ushers in a new era where French rights are established and a cultural shift occurs-The Quiet Revolution. Quebec modernizes. It goes from being a province of high birth rates and rural living to urban and the lowest birth rate in N. America! In the 1960s, French Quebecois culture is celebrated, not discriminated against anymore!
111967-Visiting Montreal during Canada’s Centennial year, French President Charles de Gaulle make a speech in favour of Quebec’s Independence. He proclaims, “Vive le Quebec libre!” An angry PM Pearson asks him to leave Canada
12At the same time, a terrorist group, The FLQ use bombs to blow up symbols of the English: Queen Victoria statue, General Wolfe statue, Cdn. Govt. offices, mailboxes.A separatist/Nationalist movement is growing demanding an independent QuebecIn 1968, PM Pierre Trudeau, a strong Quebec Federalist, makes Canada bilingual and vows to fight to keep Quebec in Canada. COOL GUY! John Lennon and Yoko “dug him!”
131970 October Crisis: FLQ kidnap James Cross, a British diplomat and Pierre Laporte, a Liberal politician. They kill Laporte and dump him in a car trunk. Trudeau brings in the War Measures Act giving police and the Army sweeping arrest powers to stop the crisis.Crisis ends with terrorists going to Cuba and Cross being freed. English Canada are impressed with Trudeau’s strong leadership: “How far will I go? JUST WATCH ME”
151976 Rene Levesque’s Parti Quebecois wins election and form Quebec’s first Separatist gov’t. 1980-1st Referendum of Separatism held:60% NON 40% OUI after Trudeau makes an influential speech
161982-Trudeau patriates (brings home from Britain) Constitution without Quebec’s signature on it. They still haven’t signed it.1984-Trudeau resigns. Brian Mulroney elected PM1987-Mulroney’s Meech Lake Accord offers “Distinct Society” status to Quebec. It fails, as does 1992’s Charlottetown Accord. Both were attempts to get Quebec to sign the Constitution.1992- Mulroney resigns and the Bloq Quebecois is formed, a federal Separatist party to push their Nationalist agenda in Ottawa.
171995- Second Referendum Held by PQ and BQ 50.6% NON49.4% OUITOO CLOSE!!!
18Late 1990s- Jean Chretien brings in the Clarity Act which makes rules for any future referendum (e.g. A clear question)
192006- Stephen Harper’s government recognizes the Quebecois “Nation” withinthe country of Canada.WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
20In the 2007 Provincial election the Parti Quebecois did the worst ever, coming in third place. Does this mean separatism is dead?
21WHAT WILL THE FUTURE HOLD? ANOTHER REFERENDUM?SEPARATION?
22What more can Canada do to please some Quebecois What more can Canada do to please some Quebecois? Will this issue ever be resolved?