Presentation on theme: "Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20151 Sovereignty I n The principle of state sovereignty ä UN Charter art. 2.1 – sovereignty and equality ä Jus cogens? n Sovereignty."— Presentation transcript:
Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20151 Sovereignty I n The principle of state sovereignty ä UN Charter art. 2.1 – sovereignty and equality ä Jus cogens? n Sovereignty and jurisdiction ä Sovereignty as a ”position” and jurisdiction as a ”function”, but no clear distinction! ä Rights to excercise jurisdiction ä Duties to excercise jurisdiction n Sovereignty and territory ä Territorial jurisdiction and personal jurisdiction – immunity ä Extraterritorial jurisdiction – non-intervention n Sovereignty and ownership ä Differences and similarities ä ”Sovereign rights”
Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20152 Sovereignty II n State immunity ä The 2004 ILC Convention on State Immunity (not in treaty collections), UNCLOS art. 29-32, 95-96 and 102 ä Immunity from what? ä Which acts are subject to immunity? ä Which persons are subject to immunity? n Is international cooperation undermining or reinforcing sovereignty? ä Limits on the exercise of sovereignty in treaties? ä Transfer of power to international institutions? ä Why would or should states accept limitations on sovereignty and transfer of power?
Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20153 Conflicts of sovereignty n Jurisdictional overlaps – burden of proof n Activities in one country creating problems in another country ä Trail Smelter Arbitration – acid rain in Norway ä Customary law principle – Rio Declaration princ. 2 and CBD art. 3 ä The obligation to cooperate – ILC Draft articles on prevention (2001) ä Who has jurisdiction? Subjective or objective territorial jurisdiction? n Long term interest in the development in other countries ä The emphasis on prevention rather than reparation ä The case of rain forests
Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20154 Beyond the sovereignty of states n Areas beyond the sovereignty of states ä The deep seabed, the open sea, air space outside the territorial sea, space and celestial bodies ä General principles of law, customary law or treaty based cooperation? ä ”Common property”? High seas, space ä ”Common heritage of mankind”? Resources of the deep seabed and celestial bodies ä The Antarctic treaty system n Other forms of ”common interest” resources ä Genetic resources – biodiversity ä The climate ä The ozone layer ä Environmental quality – air and water
Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20155 International and domestic trends n The occupation of open access resources ä Extension of sovereignty at sea and on the seabed n Increasing cooperation with regard to open access and shared resources – protection and management ä The problem of open access resources – global ä The controversy of shared resources – bilateral to regional n Common interests in resources under national sovereignty ä Scarcity of natural resources – the issue of access ä Cultural and ideal interests – World Heritage Convention ä Potential future exploitation – CBD art. 15.1 n Emerging integrated approaches to resources ä From regulation based on specific use(s) to regulation based on sustainable development
Ole Kr. Fauchald27.04.20156 UNCLOS and marine treaties n Establishment of 200 n.m. EEZ + extending continental shelves ä Obligation and incentive to protect the environment ä Coast state vs. flag state jurisdiction ä Is it working in practice? n Link to International Maritime Organization, e.g. art. 21.2 ä Harmonization of standards ä Strengthening of standards? n Link to fisheries treaties (art. 116-120) ä The 1995 Agreement on migratory species + regional regimes n Link to environmental treaties, including UNEP’s regional seas program (art. 192-237)