Presentation on theme: "Global Problems, Global Solutions. The fast, interdependent spread of open society, open economy, and open technology infrastructure. Globalization."— Presentation transcript:
The fast, interdependent spread of open society, open economy, and open technology infrastructure. Globalization is a decentered process that occurs at an unprecedented speed; it is dynamic and fluid. Today’s speed, impact, scope, depth, and costs of globalization are unparalleled Globalization is not the exclusive cause of transsovereign problems but facilitates their spread. Transsovereign problems constitute the negative aspect of globalization.
Proponents: globalization makes the world smaller and brings people closer together. More globalization is answer to global problems such as poverty, crime, North-South gap etc. Opponents (Skeptics): globalization is neoimperialism, driven by a few dominant states and major corporations. Cusimano-Love: Globalization has both positive and negative consequences; we must harness the positive consequences
Transsovereign relations are a hindrance and potential ally in managing global problems. Globalization challenges state sovereignty and its capacity to deal with transsovereign challenges. Consequently, transsovereign problems attain a wider reach and impact at an unparalleled pace. Most challenges today arise from weak rather than strong states. Transsovereign problems often weaken state authority further, prompting a loss of sovereignty and in some cases “failed states.”
How to curtail problems without closing of markets Unilateralism does not work; collaboration among states and non-state actors needed Different actors have different interests, capabilities and constituencies Problems often located in economic and social arenas of state in which gov’t has minimal control Intermestic politics—boundary between domestic and foreign policies is blurred Contracting out traditional state functions to private and multilateral organizations may further weaken sovereignty
Failed states intensify the transsovereign problems of global terrorism, organized crime, refugee flows, disease, poverty, nuclear trafficking, and WMD. Failed states are a magnet for NGOs and IGOs which attempt to alleviate the situation; this further weakens state sovereignty.
External and internal forces challenge the sovereignty of the state A. External challenges: forces of globalization B. Internal challenges: crisis of authority; intrastate conflict, subnational movements, crisis of economic development population growth limited resources economic degradation etc.
Sovereignty is dead; sovereignty is a nostalgic fiction (Kenichi Ohmae) State is “retreating” as its rationale and functions change (Susan Strange; Rosenau, Rosecrance) Sovereignty continues to prevail; the state remains the most effective and powerful actor in international relations (Krasner)
HOW CAN TRANSSOVEREIGN PROBLEMS BE EFFECTIVELY ADDRESSED WITHIN A SYSTEM THAT CONTINUES TO ASSUME THE CENTRALITY OF THE “STATE-AS-ACTOR”? DEMOCRATIZATION AND CAPITALISM ARE THE BEST GUARANTEES FOR PEACE AND PROSPERITY AROUND THE WORLD. HOW CAN THEIR EXPANSION BE SAFEGUARDED WITHOUT FURTHER DEEPENING AND WIDENING TRANSSOVEREIGN PROBLEMS ALREADY IN EXISTENCE?
Centered on the centrality of the state as predominant actor Dilemma is tied directly to anarchy in the international system In order to survive in the anarchical system, a state resorts to the build-up of its military in order to enhance its chance of survival A state’s action to protect its own safety (security) is perceived as a threat to the security of other states Result: arms race; state may end up less rather than more secure Challenge: how to keep strong, potentially imperial states at bay without making them stronger?
Globalization + Weak States +transsovereign problems=New Security Dilemma Spread of globalization is a formula for global peace and prosperity, assuming that the negative repercussion of globalization, i.e. the intensification of transsovereign problems can be eliminated or at least minimized. Challenge: how to protect against transsovereign problems and “weak” states with a response that prohibits weak states from getting weaker and intensifies transsovereign threats? New Security Dilemma warrants new solutions; solutions not centered on the exclusivity of the state-as- actor; centrality of military response may not be effective in dealing with most transsovereign problems
The contemporary world of international relations is witnessing a transformation. Unprecedented challenges of transsovereign problems cannot be addressed by resorting to the traditional means of military force. The reality of globalization and the involuntary consequences of transsovereign problems transforms the nature and structure of the sovereign state as actor in international relations. Sovereignty is definitely changing! The new security dilemma underscores the inclusion of nonmilitary responses to maintain “order” and “peace” globally. We need to build new coalitions with the private sector as well as focus on reorganizing traditional defense systems and military forces to respond to non-state threats. Global problems require global solutions not state solutions.