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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe

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1 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
Start with the pictures – there are three in total click to show 1) ask students what they think of this building? 2) where do they think it is located? 3) who would possible live there? 4) what does this say about the person who lives there? Picture info: This is the palace of Versailles and it was home to the kings of France from It was a symbol of Louis the XIV’s absolute power over his people. What were are going to see in this chapter is how as a result of how as feudalism declined stronger national kingdoms like Spain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia emerged under the control of absolutes rulers. Absolute control was sought by rulers as way to seek stability. Economically we will see how absolute ruler wanted to control their countries economies and how some like Louis the XIV (14th) unrestrained spending caused his a huge debt to France. In Britain we will see how Parliament and the British people challenge the authority of the monarch and important political changes.

2 Europe In Crisis: Wars of Religion
Section 1 What might have motivated the religious Wars and political conflicts between Protestants and Catholics? First we must look at what helped lead us to the establishment of absolute leaders. Answer to the focus question: might include the desire for land, power , civil liberties. The focus of this chapter is how European nations gained and lost power as a result of religious and political conflicts.

3 French Wars of Religion
By 1560, Calvinism & Catholicism became extremely militant religions Tried to win converts & eliminate each other’s authority Economic, social & political forces also played an important role in these conflicts Huguenots: French Protestants influenced by John Calvin Only made up 7% of the French population but 40-50% of the nobility were Huguenots Powerful threat to the monarchy By the 1560 Calvinism and Catholicism became extremely combative or militant religions. Their struggle was the chief reason for the religious wars that plagued Europe during the 16th century ( 1500’s). Besides this though their were many social and economic conflicts that occurred to. The first of these wars we will focus on are those of the French. These wars were known as the French religious wars ( ). It is important to remember at this time that France was a strongly Catholic country and the Idea of being something of just Catholic was very new. They French kings were not very excepting of the Protestant faith and as a result many of the Catholics were prosecuted against. This did little though to stop the spread of this new faith. Huguenots were what French protestants were called. They had been influenced by the father of Calvinism John Calvin. It is important to remember that even though such a small amount of the French populist were protestant it is important to remember that it’s the majority of the nobility who were. That means they were a strong political threat to the catholic crown of France.

4 French Wars of Religion
Catholics vs. Huguenots Involved in many civil wars within France (thirty years of battles between the Huguenots & Catholics) Other factors besides religion: Towns & provinces resisted the power of the French monarchy and wanted to join the Huguenots to weaken the monarchy On the opposing side was a group known as the ultra-Catholics who strongly opposed the Huguenots. One thing they had on their side was the fact that they could recruit armies from northern and northwestern France. This struggle in power between the two faiths led to series of religious civil wars which lasted 30 years. Other factors also played a part in these issues as well-for example the fact that towns people were willing to help nobles in weakening the growing power of the French monarchy.

5 French Wars of Religion
1589: Henry of Navarre: political leader of the Huguenots Became King of France (King Henry IV) Converted to Catholicism (b/c he realized he would never be accepted as a ruler by Catholic France as a Protestant) His coronation & his Edict of Nantes ended the religion war in France Edict of Nantes (1598): recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, but also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges as everyone else For 30 years a battle raged in France between the two religious groups. In 1589 Henry Navarre ( a Huguenot political leader ascended to the thrown as Henry the IV. Henry married the daughter of the Catholic French Queen Catherine. Catherine did not like the Huguenots but thought it would be a way to established peace when really ahe had helped plan the massacre. On this day St. Bartholomew’s massacre happen, which was the murder of many Huguenot nobles. Henry IV realized just like any good political man That to become loved he must give a certain appearance so he became catholic to appease the majority of the population. Remember it was only a very small majority who were Protestant. A much larger majority was Catholic. Whose political ideology does this maybe remind you of? The Prince – for the betterment of the state. Henry also established the Edict of Nantes (similar to the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed Germans to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism). This Edict stated that Catholicism would be the official religion, but Huguenots would also be allowed to practice their right to worship and hold political office as well. Henry was a strong leader and help restore France after the many wars. Unfortunately though he was stabbed to death by a fanatic who did not agree with him.

6 Philip II & Militant Catholicism
King Philip II of Spain (r ): greatest supporter of militant Catholicism “The Most Catholic King” First Goal: to consolidate the lands he inherited from his father (Charles V) under strict Catholicism & Spanish Control Spain, Netherlands, possessions in Italy & the Americas During this time the biggest supporter of militant Catholicism was king Phillip II of Spain. His goals were to consolidate (bring together ) the lands he had received from his father Charles the 5th ne[hew of Queen Catherine of England Henry 8th first wife. He planned to do this through strict Catholic conformity and monarchial control. During the Middle Ages Spain had driven out of their lands the Muslims ( The Reconquista) and Spanish Jew( remember they were seen as the murders of Christ). Because of this heritage they saw themselves as the God’s chosen people to save the Catholics from the protestant heretics. So once again we see this it is for the will of God we do this. The pope called all catholic princes to defend the faith against a rising Muslim Ottoman empire ( the Turks).

7 Philip II & Militant Catholicism
Major problems with the Spanish Netherlands Many were Calvinists who opposed the fiercely Catholic Spanish rule Struggle dragged on until 1609 when a truce was agreed upon & northern provinces of Netherlands called themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands Spain had seemed to be the most powerful nation of the age; however Philip II went bankrupt from spending too much on war Power shifted from Spain to France & Britain Unfortunately one of the richest parts of Phillips empire did not agree with Phillips controlling Catholic ways. The Netherlands had many Calvinist congregations. Phillip had to maintain an army to keep these subjects under control. Can you think of any governments this would relate to today? Also, the Netherlands had a strong economy while the Spanish one was beginning to fall. As, Phillip tried to establish more authority the Netherlands began to fight back. In 1566, he sent the Duke of Alva to crush the rebellions and execute 1,500 protestants. In 1579 William the Orange finally ended the fighting in 1609 when a truce finally ended the war. As a result the northern providences of the Netherlands was established the Golden age of the Dutch republic. This is because it held the center stage of one of Europe's greatest powers ( remember the Dutch east indies trading company and how this help make them a power in the Asian spice trade). The not only were strong economically, but practice religious tolerance and was broken into republics who elected their own governors. Fun fact during this time something that help the Netherlands in trade was tulip mania tulips came to Europe from turkey. People went crazy over the flowers and could not buy enough of them. People even took out loans to buy the flowers and in the market peeked and then crashed leaving many Dutch families loosing money and being left with unwanted bulbs. Click on picture 1 to read the story of the Tulip Click on picture 2 to watch video (2:04 min) Click on picture 3 to watch animated funny video (4:58 min) best video An economic bubble (sometimes referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, speculative mania or a balloon) is "trade in high volumes at prices that are considerably at variance with intrinsic values”. It could also be described as a situation in which asset prices appear to be based on implausible or inconsistent views about the future.

8 England Like Spain, England developed a strong monarchy
Tudor dynasty (r ): brought unity to the country after a long period of decline & disorder. Tudor monarchs: hardworking, able & popular & greatly expanded the power/authority of the monarchy Not absolute monarchs; Parliament set limits to their authority

9 England’s Tudors Henry VII (1485) Henry VIII
Edward VI (only 9 yrs old, died shortly after becoming king) Mary Protestant nobles tried to stop her from becoming queen, but people support her; she quickly sets out on a crusade to attack Protestants in England (burned 300 at the stake for heresy) Died childless so her Protestant ½ sister, Elizabeth took the throne Elizabeth I Henry the VIII had three children remember after six wives. Edward was his only surviving son after his death and died at the age of nine or ten depending on the resource. After this Henry VIII’s oldest child from his first wife who he divorced became queen and she was catholic. Bloody Mary who was known for trying to restore the Catholic faith of her mother by killing many protestants. After her death at the age of forty-six from the age of stomach cancer her step sister Henry VIII’s second child from second wife became queen. Middle Picture video about Bloody Mary (23:00 min)

10 Elizabeth I Became queen in 1558 (25 yrs old)
Very forceful in her actions as queen Often battled with Parliament Earned loyalty & confidence of her subjects by using her authority for the common good of her people Refused to marry (thought it would be best for England) She was the second child of Henry the VIII, her mother Anne Boylne is known as the whore. She was a very strong leader and during her reign England became a dominant world power. Her greatest love was England itself and her people. To prove this she never married and became known as the virgin Queen. The reason for this was that she wanted to prove that she was not to weak to rule because she was a women and would not have a marriage just for political gain. On proposal from the prince of France was that he would visit her bed twice a year and other than that they could do what ever they please. This she was not pleased with. She even had a ceremony where she was married to England itself. Elizabeth's quote to parliament on the issue of Marriage. that the Publick Care of governing the Kingdom is laid upon me, to draw upon me also the Cares of marriage may seem a point of inconsiderate Folly. Yea, to satisfie you, I have already joyned myself in marriage to an Husband, namely, the Kingdom of England...And to me it shall be a Full satisfaction, both for the memorial of my Name, and for my Glory also, if when I shall let my last breath, it be ingraven upon my Marble Tomb, "Here lieth Elizabeth, which Reigned a Virgin, and died a Virgin.“ She did this out of love for her people and not to subject them to a king who would hurt her reforms or pull her country and it’s people into war.

11 Elizabeth’s England Protestants vs. Catholics (problem inherited from Mary’s England) Repealed laws favoring Catholics Act of Supremacy: named Elizabeth the “only supreme governor” of both church & state & she ran the Church of England as a Protestant church Kept it a moderate Protestantism the kept majority of people satisfied Elizabeth repealed the laws which favored Catholics and named herself the head of the church of England and the state. She was very moderate with imposing the catholic faith. To put it simple as long as Catholics were respectful of her reign and followed laws and did not try to change the religion of the land she let them be.

12 Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy
Moderate Foreign Policy: wanted to avoid war & keep both Spain & France happy by supporting the weaker of the two Allowed Sir Francis Drake to seize & plunder the Spanish ships sailing the Caribbean Philip II of Spain wanted to invade England to further expand Catholicism 1588, Philip II sent his Spanish Armada (fleet of warships) to invade England England’s more powerful navy (as well as powerful storms) quickly defeated the Spanish fleet. EFFECT: England would remain a Protestant country & signaled the beginning of Spain’s decline as a sea power. She also did not see the use of war, she instead wanted to keep England out of it. Instead she played diplomatic wars playing France and Spain against each other. She would go back an forth siding with which every was weaker to keep a balance and no war. In the end though she would not be able to avoid conflict with the Spanish. In the end the Pope Sixtus the V had summoned a papal Bull and asked Phillip the II of Spain to carry out the act of invading England and bringing back the heretic Queen to be judge in Rome. Phillip carried out the order with his armada, but the armada was not what he had planned because Spain was going broke. England was lucked out because they had faster ships and were able to catch the armada and attack dividing it. The armada disorganized turn to sail back around the top of Scotland. There they hit a storm and the ships were badly battered. Because of the bankrupt Spanish kingdom Spanish military never recovered which let England and France now take the lead in dominance. This also gave Elizabeth now fifty at this time still more of a foothold as a leader and love of her people when she rode out to fight with the troops instead of be sent into hiding like most leaders would have don’t at the time. Click on photo for battle speech (1:49)

13 Section 2 What effect might social, economic, and religious conflicts have on European nations? Answer to starter question: They might place hardships on the people, cause bitterness, and lead to war. We will learn in this section how the struggle for power led to uprisings through Europe.

14 Economic & Social Crises In Europe
Major economic problem: inflation Caused by a great influx of gold & silver from the Americas & a growing population in the 16th century which increased the demand for land/food therefore increasing their prices Failing economy in Europe In the first section we talked about how religious wars led to religious wars and fights for political control. Now we are going to look at how economic crises plagued Europe, how France became the dominant nation in Europe and how conflicts between the king and English parliament led to a constitutional monarchy. Between 1560 and 1650 Europe experienced a an economic crisis. What started this was a was a growing population which increased the demand for land and food. Since the demand was high and the supply would become strained the prices were driven up. There was also and increase in gold and silver from the Americas which led to inflation as well. Sellers understood that money was coming in so they felt they could charge more. Two examples of this economic decline were in Spain and in Italy. Spain had grown rich off silver from the new world, but eventually supplies began to run low. Spanish ships were also attacked by pirates, which meant not all the silver was making its way to Spain. They had also lost the Muslim and Jewish merchants because of religious persecution, which meant they lost their merchant businesses. Italy, once the source of the Renaissance now also suffered. They were declining as well. Populations in 16th century Europe began to grow big time during the Renaissance because the population recovered after the black death. In 100 yrs the population increased from about 60mil to 85 mil. By 1650 the population began to decline as a result of plague, warfare and famine. This all helped in aiding to the social tensions.

15 Witchcraft Trials Traditionally, witchcraft had been incorporated in villages for centuries However, b/c of the Inquisition & the obsession with militant religions many people were targeted & charged w/ heresy More than 100,000 were charged/executed as witches As more were charged, the fear of witches as well as being accused of witchcraft grew Commoners & women were the main targets Faced intense torture until they “confessed” to witchcraft Hysteria eventually faded by 1650 b/c: Gov were stronger & didn’t want their towns in a frenzy over trivial matters Attitudes changed as people found it unreasonable to believe in evil spirits haunting the world Witch craft was something not unheard of at this time and actually had stemmed from the village Celtic cultures of early European history. During the religious zeal ( excitement) of the Inquisition the hunt for heretics had been extended to include witches. A witch hysteria began to rise and hundreds of thousand died as a result of it. 75% of the victims were women over the age of 50 who were poor, homeless and without property. It was thought that these figurers caste spells of the devil on the weak and vulnerable like infants. Witch craft persecution in Switzerland (5:09 min)

16 The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Called “the last of the religious wars” Religious disputes in Germany caused by: Calvinism was not recognized by the Peace of Augsburg (1555) Events: Began in 1618 in Holy Roman Empire Struggle between Catholic forces (led by the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperors) & Protestant nobles (mostly Calvinists) in Bohemia Cardinal Richelieu of France had Catholic France join Protestant Sweden in fighting the Catholic Hapsburgs All major powers besides England became involved Most battles were fought on German soil destroying villages & countryside Peace of Westphalia: officially ended the war in 1648 Major contenders gained new territories France emerged as a dominant nation in Europe Stated that all German states could determine their own religion More than 300 states that made up the HRE became recognized as independent states Brought an end to the HRE as a political entity Even though it seemed that the religious disputes of Germany had been settled by the Peace of Augsburg religious disputes continued in Germany. The original agreement had been that the prince of each German state would choose the religion of his subjects. Churches could either be catholic or Lutheran, but fact that Calvinism had developed during this time and was not recognized by the Peace of Augsburg. The division between the Lutherans and Catholics caused many trust issues and both tried to gain followers. Both though felt threatened by the spread of Calvinism. This issue will lead to one of the last religious wars known as the Thirty Years War. It is important to remember that religion was not the only part of the this war but so was territorial power. Eventually what developed as a result of this was the creation of the Protestant league by the Lutherans and the Catholic League by the Catholics. Ferdinand II will be the spark that starts the war. he was the Catholic prince of the Holy roman Empire( aka what we think of as modern Germany just bigger). Besides the empire he also ruled the Czech republic of Bohemia, who did not trust the catholic king. Ferdinand decided to close some of the Protestant churches which started a revolt in Bohemia and when he went to stop it Protestant princes decided to challenge their emperor. The thirty year war. Part 1( Hapsburg Triumphs) during the first 12 yrs of the war Hapsburg and armies from Russia and Spain crushed Protestant troops and put down the Bohemian uprising. Part 2( Hapsburg defeats) Later the Protestant Gustavos Adolphus of Sweden and his arm change the war. They drove the Hapsburg armies out of northern Germany. Later Catholic France and dominate the remaining years of the war. This is where politics come into play. Remember that France wants power and domination of Europe. They fear the power of the Hapsburg Family more than that of the protestants. So as a result Cardinal Richelieu sends his troops to join the Protestant forces to defeat the Hapsburgs. Germany as a result of this war lost much. They lost 4 million people, trade and agriculture were destroyed, economy was ruined. These are main reasons Germany did not actually become a unified state like we know it today until the 1800’s. Peace of Westphalia ended the 30yrs war. It weakened the Hapsburg states and awarded territory to France. Made German Princes independent of the Hapsburg emperor Ended religious wars in Europe Established a new type of negotiation where peace terms after a war are decided by all parties involved This Treaty recognized Europe as a group of Equal independent states not under and a catholic empire as had been in Germany. Germany was now divided into 300 separate German states each with the right to choose their own religion and foreign policy.

17 Revolutions in England
Series of rebellions in England After Elizabeth I died in 1603 (ending the Tudor dynasty) her cousin, James I (former king of Scotland), became the new king of England Causes of the English Revolution King James I Believed in the divine right of kings: that kings receive power from God Parliament disagreed: thought Parliament & the king ruled England together as a team Religion Puritans (Protestants in England) disagreed with King John’s strong defense of the Church of England Many prominent figures in the House of Commons became Puritans King Charles I (James’s son) Also believed in the divine right of kings Added more ceremony to the Church of England (made Puritans believe he was trying to make it Catholic again) Accepted Parliament’s petition of no taxes without Parliament’s consent & then later rejected it Angered Puritans (some fled to the Americas & others stayed to fight) At this time there will also be a series of War in England dealing with the roles parliament and the king should play in governing England. Queen Elizabeth the Virgin Queen died with no children and therefore her cousin had to ascend to the throne James I. He believed he received his power from God “Divine Right”. Parliament did not agree with this and felt that the leader and parliament should work together. The Puritan ( Protestants in England influenced by Calvinist ideas) also did not like how James I did not have plans to make the church of England more Protestant. Many England’s well to do gentry had become Puritans and it was not a good idea to alienate them or make them mad. These issues continued onto his son Charles I who also believed in the divine right of Kings. Parliament feared this after his father and passed a petition stating a king could not raise taxes without the consent of Parliament. Charles did try to raise taxes in order to pay for his wars with France and Spain. Parliament to refused to give him funds with out signing a petition that stated Charles I could not imprison subjects without due cause levy taxes without the consent of Parliament not house soldiers in private homes impose martial law during peace time. Charles I agreed to follow this but then did not and did not call Parliament back into session. He also tried to enforce Anglican ritual into the church of England which the Puritans did not like and left for America.

18 English Revolution Civil War broke out in 1642 between supporters of the King (Cavaliers or Royalists) & parliamentary forces (Roundheads) Parliament was victorious mainly b/c of their New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell (military genius) New Model Army: made up of extreme Puritans (Independents) who were well trained & disciplined in new military tactics Results: Parliament had Charles I executed on January 30, 1649 Parliament abolished the monarchy & House of Lords Declared England a republic or commonwealth Cromwell eventually could not work with Parliament & dispersed it by force Set up a military dictatorship & ruled until his death in 1658 When Charles I tried to put all the realm England and Scotland under one faith the Scots rebelled and Parliament would not give Charles I the money to put them down. Charles I tried to kill the leaders of parliament but they escaped. Londoner’s were enraged by the kings taxes and raged outside the palace. King Charles escaped to the north of England where people were still loyal to him. Civil war broke out and those loyal to Charles I became known as the Royalist or Cavilers. On the other side were the Puritan supporters of Parliament the Roundheads because of their short hair. In 1647, under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell and the new model army Cavilers were defeated and the king held prisoner. Charles I was brought to trial and sentences to death. This was revolutionary at the time because before a king had been overthrown in, killed in battle, or put to death in secret. Never before had it been a public trial and execution. Video of Charles I 1st pic part 1 7:00 min 2nd pic part 2 7:00 min 3rd pic part 3 7:00 min Cromwell was now the leader of England. He did away with the house of Lords ( upper house of parliament who had not supported him) and the monarchy and for the first time and only time England became a republican government. A constitution was eventually written ( the first in any modern European state) it was eventually torn up by Cromwell and he became a dictator. He was not tolerating of Catholics and sought to reform by society by outlawing theater, sporting events, and dancing. One thing he did do good though was allow Jews back into England who had been banished in he ruled until his death in 1658.

19 English Revolution The Restoration:
After Cromwell died, Parliament set up the monarchy again with Charles II as king (son of Charles I) Charles was sympathetic to Catholics Brother, James, heir to the throne was a strong Catholic Parliament was nervous about James & passed the Exclusion Bill (barred James from the throne) Created 2 political parties in England: Whigs (against James) & Tories (didn’t want to interfere) Charles II dismissed Parliament in 1681; died in 1685 & James II became king Made religion a cause of conflict in England yet again Had a son with his second wife making a Catholic Monarchy inevitable Parliament got nervous After Cromwell died Parliament looked to reestablish the English monarchy. They did this by bringing out of exile Charles I son Charles II. This time is known as the time of restoration during which parliament made sure to keep most of it’s power. Parliament made sure the church of England was reestablished and that rights of Puritans and Catholics were limited. Charles II was sympathetic to Catholics and suspended some of the laws against Catholics and Puritans which made parliament suspicious. Also during this time Parliament passed an important Guarantee of freedom known as Habeas Corpus. This gave every prisoner the right to order a document ordering the prisoner to be brought before a judge and have his case heard. Because of this a monarch could not put someone in jail for not for opposing the ruler. The charges needed to be known and specified. You could also not be held in jail forever without a trial. Today we still follow Habeas Corpus and you can not be held in jail for more than 24hrs without being charged with a crime. After Charles II dies his brother comes to the throne James II. He is a strong catholic and tries to bring Catholics into higher offices which went against parliament so he dissolved it. Parliament planned to throw him out but stop short of the rebellion because instead of giving up his faith James II had agreed to raised his daughter Mary and Anne as Protestant. Parliament knew James was old and wouldn’t live long and his daughters would come to power avoiding religious war, or so they thought. With his 2nd wife James II had a son he raised catholic who would be next in line since he was a son and by pass his protestant sisters. Parliament again feared that religious war and persecution loomed.

20 Glorious Revolution Group of English noblemen invited William of Orange to invade England William of Orange: Dutch leader & husband of James II’s daughter (Mary) William & Mary raised an army in 1688 & invaded James II & family fled to France “Glorious Revolution” occurred with no bloodshed William & Mary take over England BUT adopt a Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights: set forth Parliament’s rights Parliament was given the right to make laws & levy taxes standing armies could be raised only with Parliament’s consent Citizens had right to keep arms Citizens had right to a jury trial LAID THE FOUNDATION FOR A LIMITED, OR CONSTITUTIONAL, MONARCHY There is a solution to this problem though of religious war-the Dutch. Mary James II oldest daughter had married William the orange of, prince of the Netherlands. Parliament invited William and Mary to invade England. William did and out of surprise there was nearly no bloodshed, hence the Glorious Revolution. James II, his wife and son flee to Catholic France leaving the thrown open for William and Mary. William and Mary were made King and Queen and agreed to recognize parliament as their partner in governing. This meant that England had become a constitutional monarchy limiting the power of the monarchy. There was also the English bill of rights signed which stated a leader could not…….. suspend parliament’s laws levy taxes without the consent of parliament no interfering with the freedom of speech in parliament no penalty for a citizen who petitions a king about grievances ( complaints about the king-cant be put in jail) citizens could bare arms citizens were granted trail by jury A cabinet was also established to help break stand still between the monarch and the parliament. The cabinet is made of ministers of the majority party and the head of the Cabinet is known as the Prime minister which is still established in British government today.

21 Section 3 Response to Crisis: Absolutism.
What effect would the exercise of absolute power have on a nation? Answer to starter question: a ruler with unlimited power could impose his or her own desires and goals for good or ill. Students will learn how absolute leader built powerful nations and empires.

22 Response to Crisis: Absolutism
Response was to seek more stability by increasing the power of the monarch Absolutism: system in which a ruler holds total power Rulers thought their power came from God & they were responsible to no one except God Tremendous powers Made laws Levied taxes Administer justice Control state officials Determine foreign policy As Europe emerge from the middle ages many changes in society. There was the decline in feudalism, rise in cities, and the growing middle class of merchants and artisans which until this time period had not been a class. colonies had been discovered in the new world which brought forth a new type of financial security for many European mother countries and pay for their different ambitions. All of these changes brought forth reasons for monarchs to gain absolute control. Not only was is a time of great change but a time of great upheaval as well. As we have talked about there were many religious and territorial conflicts during this time period which led to religious warfare. This caused governments to build huge armies which caused leaders to raise taxes to pay for the armies. The taxes strained the already struggling population more. remember 80-90% percent of your population are still peasants and they are the ones who pay the taxes. Sometimes as a result of this peasants revolted against their leaders. As a response to uprisings and the issues of the time leaders tried to increase their power in order to keep control and stability. As absolute monarchs they regulated everything from religious worship to social gatherings as a way to control the ideals at the time being spread. What is an absolute monarch- they are someone that had all the control of power within their state and did not share it with a parliament or nobles. They believed that power was given to them by god- making them divine. Because of this they only answered to god and not their subjects. They had the power to decided foreign policy, make laws and administer justice.

23 Louis XIV Major supporter of absolutism
“Up to this moment I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. It is now time that I govern them myself. You (Secretaries & ministers of the state) will assist me with your counsels when I ask for them. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport without my command; to render account to me personally each day and to favor no one.”—Louis XIV Louis XIV Major supporter of absolutism Became king of France in 1643 (only 4 yrs old) Chief minister: Cardinal Mazarin controlled gov. while Louis was too young to rule Both Cardinal Mazarin & previous chief minister Cardinal Richelieu made great efforts to strengthen the power of the monarchy Took away all political and military rights of Huguenots Mazarin died in 1661 & Louis XIV took over at the age of 23 There were many absolute rulers in Europe at this time but the best example was the King of France Louis XIV “The sun king”. French Culture during the 17th century dominated Europe from everything from fashion, language, and manners. They were one of the most dominant country in Europe at the time, hence why they were looked to. For 50 years before the reign of Louis XIV France had suffered struggle government breakdowns and instability in the government. Louis XIV’s father was Henry IV who had set up the Edict of Nantes which had brought religious tolerance to France. After his death his son took his shots at the throne. He was just a child at the time so until he was of age a royal ministers ruled for him. the minister played a key role in keeping the monarchies power. Louis XIII became king and appointed Cardinal Richelieu to be his minister which made up for him being a week king. Cardinal Richelieu strengthened the monarchy by taking away the political power of the Huguenots ( French protestants- remember Henry IV had been one until he converted to the Catholic faith) because he felt they were a threat to the catholic king. He forbade Protestant cities to even have walls incase they attacked the king they could not run and hide. He also hired spies to spy on nobles and ordered nobles to take down their fortified castles. He also involved France in the 30 yrs War to gain them political control. In 1643 Louis XIV becomes king at the age of four. Until He is of age to rule cardinal Mazarin is leader. Mazarin’s greatest success was the ending of the 30yrs war which made France on of the greatest powers in Europe. Mazarin also raised the taxes in order to support the central government which the nobles did not like. As a result of this violent riots threatened to tare France apart.

24 Louis XIV Ran his government like a machine out of Versailles (equal to our D.C.) Kept threats to his power (high ranking nobles & royal princes) busy with court life to keep them out of politics Kept all officials at Versailles where he could watch over them Complete authority over three main areas: foreign policy, the Church & taxes Nobles still had more influence on towns & their day-to-day operations Religious policy: wanted to convert all Huguenots to Catholicism Ordered destruction of Huguenot churches & closed their schools As a result threats from nobles when Louis XIV became king he weakened the nobilities power. He removed them from political affairs and used intendents to collect taxes and administer justice- they also communicated with him regularly about the affairs of the state. Another way that Louis XIV kept a tight reign was through court life at his grand Palace of Versailles. 1) it was the personal house hold of the king. chief offices of the state were located there, and it was a place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves. Louis XIV also used court life to keep nobles busy and close to him. He invited them court and to parties, but did not allow them into the royal council. Click on picture of Versailles to show just how magnificent it really was 3:26 min Even though Louis did not allow his nobles to take part in the royal council he still needed them when it came to looking after his providences and the with the people. Nobles were more connected to what was going on in the providences so Louis bribed them to carry out his policies on a local level. Louis also had complete religious control over the France and fear of a religious uprise from the Huguenots. He persuaded anti-protestant policies aimed at converting the Huguenots to Catholicism. He had their churches and schools closed and as many as 200,000 protestants left France for England, unites providences ( Netherlands), and German states where protestant faiths were excepted.

25 Louis XIV Economy Put Jean-Baptiste Colbert in charge of finances
Colbert decreased imports & increased exports & granted subsidies to new industries Built up roads & canals for better trade & communication Raised tariffs on imports One thing about Louis XIV’s life style was the fact that it cost money and lots at that. He needed someone to manage it and make sure that money kept rolling in. In order to finance his palace, wars, and maintaining his court he hired Jean-Baptist Colbert. Colbert. Cobert focus on the trade of France limiting the number of imports brought into a country and putting a high Tariff ( tax) on any that were brought in. As a result of this people were forced to buy French goods keeping the money in their economy. To help raise money he increased the number of new industries and the number of French goods exported to other countries. He also pushed French people to move to the colonies in Canada to help send in raw material like fur which was the equivalent to gold in Europe because of how many people desired it.

26 Louis XIV Military Died in 1715
Wanted to build up army to 400,000 to make France a major power & competitor Waged four wars between & 1713 to increase territory & power of France Caused many nations to form coalitions to ensure France did not dominate Europe Died in 1715 Left France with tremendous debt & surrounded by enemies Under Louis XIV France was the most powerful nation in Europe. France also had the largest population in Europe, which allowed for France to have the largest standing army and advanced in training and weaponry. This was not enough for Louis XIV and he strived to control more of Europe by attacking Spain, the Dutch and a few others. Interesting fact the Dutch flooded their country in order to keep the French out. This tactic was successful and saved the Dutch Netherlands. The rest of Europe had decided they had enough of Louis and joined together to fight him. France in in the 1680’s suffered a series of poor harvest which hurt it’s economy but Louis did not lower taxes on the people because of the need to fund his wars, which as a result fuel the fire that will lead to the eventual French revolution and the overthrow of absolute power in France. Near the end of his life Louis XIV had realized the suffering he had caused his people through religious non-tolerance, war and taxes. Sadly his regret did not change the mind of his people who were happy to see him go.

27 Fun Facts about Louis XIV
He only stood 5ft 5in tall so he wore high heals. He hated cities, but loved the country. Loved long rides in the country but would only stop if he needed to. He called himself the “Sun King “ because he believed like the sun, all power radiated from him.

28 Absolutism in Central & Eastern Europe
After the Thirty Years War there were 300 “Germanies” Two of them (Prussia & Austria) emerged as great European powers Prussia Absolutist Leader: Frederick William the Great Elector Built large army Set up the General War Commissariat: levied taxes for the army & agency for civil government Son became the first official king of Prussia (Frederick I) Austria Gained new empire of considerable size (Czech republic, Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia) Unable to become an absolutist state b/c it was made up of so many different national groups Austrian Emperor was the Hapsburg emperor (archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, & king of Hungary) Each area had its own laws & political life Remember how because of religious issues the 30yrs war had started and as a resulted in the end the Hapsburg family has losing control over all German states because of the Peace of Westphalia. This peace had divided German into 300 separate states. Two of these states became great European powers. Prussia followed the example of France by establishing a strong army. Fredrick William the Great Elector did this because he realized Prussia had no natural defense so a large military was the next best thing. The army stood an estimated 40,000 strong the fourth largest in Europe. To help maintain such a large military it needed overseeing so he established the General War Commissariat to levy a permanent tax. The Commissariat soon became the an agency for civil government as well. This group was made up of the Junkers ( YUNG-kuhrz) who were landed aristocracy and also served as officers in the army. Austria had been home to the Hapsburg family who had controlled the holy roman empire which had overseen all the German states until the end of the 30yrs war. After this war the empire had collapsed and the Hapsburgs were left with Austria and goals of a great empire destroyed. The goal of the Hapsburgs was to expand their empire to what it had once been. They did this through war and gaining the lands of Czech republic, Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia. The downside to this large empire was the fact that it was made up of so many different nations and as a result the Hapsburg could never achieve the about monarchy like that of France and Prussia. Since each area had its own laws and culture no common sentiment could be found.

29 Russia Under Peter the Great
Ivan IV: first ruler to take the title of czar (Absolutist) “Ivan the Terrible” Very ruthless (stabbed his own son to death in an argument) Expanded Russia’s territory eastward Crushed the power of the Russian nobility (aka the Boyars) Dynasty ended in 1598 followed by Time of Troubles Michael Romanov became new czar in 1613 Romanov dynasty lasted until 1917 In the 15th century Russia became a state under the control of the Muscovy family. In the 16th century Ivan IV became the first to take the title of Czar the Russian word for Caesar. Ivan IV is mostly known for expanding the Russian empire eastward and for his ruthlessness. He was a great ruler from , but after the death of his wife Anastasia that all changed. He had accused the boyars of killing her, the Russian nobility. He organized a police force to attack the boyars he considered traitors. This time is known as the time as the bad period. He had many boyars, their families and those who worked their land killed. Eventually in 1581 he killed his eldest son who would have been a strong ruler and left his weak son to take the throne. Video on Ivan IV ( 5:00) Picture if building is a basilica which Ivan had built

30 Russia Under Peter the Great
Peter the Great: one of the most prominent leaders in the Romanov dynasty Became czar in 1689 Absolutist monarch Wanted to “Europeanize” Russia Especially European technology This would allow him to grow a major army & navy necessary to make Russia a major power Military Drafted peasants for 25 year stints of service Built a massive army Formed first Russian navy Divided Russia into provinces Created a “police state” of well ordered communities After Ivan IV’s 1598 death a time known as the time of troubles followed. In 1618 a representative government was formed and choose the next czar. The chose Michael Romanov ( grandnephew of Anastasia Ivan's wife). Which started the Romanov Dynasty which last 300 years until its end in 1917 with the execution of Anastasia’s family, which there is a Disney cartoon after. One of the best known members of this family was Peter the Great, who was an absolute ruler and claimed divine right. He had goals to make Russia like all the other great European nations. His first step in doing this was to visit the west. While he was there he realized that only by incorporating such changes could he make his military great. One goal was to reorganize the army. He employed both European and Russian officers, which before had only been the boyars ( Russian nobility). He drafted peasants to serve the military for 25 years of service in stints. Which allowed him to build an army of 210,000. he divided Russia into providences and expected each administer to carry out his will making each a police state( well-ordered community governed by law).

31 Russia Under Peter the Great
Culture changes: Peter taught his subjects Western customs & manners No beards, short coats, women could mingle with men Needed a port to trade with Western Europe: St. Petersburg Became the new Russian capital He also order a book of western etiquette to teach western manners. He ordered Russian men to shave their beards and for women to get rid of veils which covered their faces. He also wanted women to come out in to society. He also felt it was important to have a port that would open Russia up to Europe. He felt the Baltic sea which was controlled by Sweden was perfect and to acquire it he started a war. He won the war and as a result started the city of St. Petersburg which remained the capital till to build this capital Peter forced 25, ,00 serfs to work in the horrible swamp conditions where many died from disease. Other accomplishments of peters’ were the newspaper which he edited the first edition himself, the potato, and opening a school of navigation and the arts and sciences.

32 Section 4: The World of European Culture.
How might art, literature, and philosophy be influenced by the turbulence of the period? Possible answers: These disciplines might reflect aspects of the religious and political issues of the time. students will learn how artists expressed identification with or, reaction to the issues of the day.

33 European Culture Mannerism: an artistic movement that emerged in Italy in the 1520’s and 1530’s; it marked the end of the Renaissance by breaking down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation Elongated & contorted figures were used to show suffering, heightened emotions & religious ecstasy Famous mannerist: El Greco (from Crete) Reflected the religious upheavals of the Reformation During this chapter we have talked wars, economic disaster, reform and political conflicts. All of these issues would have shown up in the art a literary works of the time. Much like our own news papers and blogs today. Two forms of art we will look at are mannerism and the baroque styles of art, which much like the art of the renaissance started in Italy and spread throughout Europe. The first we will focus on is mannerism. This style started in 1520’s -30’s as a result of the reformation which brought about much religious turmoil. People began not caring so much about being worldly but wanted to have religious experience because of the uncertain world around them. So we have in a way circled back around to the religious focus of the middle ages much like clothing fashions come back around so do ideals. The art of mannerism broke down the laws of balance, harmony , and moderation of the middle ages and instead figures now were deliberately elongated to show suffering and heightened emotion and religious ecstasy (happiness). El Greco ( the Greek) studied in Venice and moved to Rome where he insulted Michelangelo so he had to move to Spain to make a go of his career. He used shades of yellow and green to create stormy backgrounds in his art which represented the religious upheavals of the time. It is also thought that he had a magnetism and that is why his figure were distorted . El Greco painting adoration of Sheppard's.

34 European Culture Baroque Period: an artistic style of the 17th century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements Inspired by the religious revival within the Catholic church Used dramatic effects to arouse emotions & reflected a search for power (associated with Absolutism) Famous Baroque artist: Gian Lorenzo Bernini Italian architect & sculptor “Throne of Saint Peter” Famous Baroque artist: Artemisia Gentileschi Italian painter “Judith Beheading Holofernes” Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Throne of St. Peter picture These artist tried to bring together the ideas of renaissance art and spiritual feeling of the 16th century. This type of art reflected a search for power. It was quickly adopted by the Catholic courts of leaders at the time such as the Hapsburg family. Churches and places of this style were very rich in detail. Kings and princes wanted others to be in awe of their power. Example of the power and religious awe would be the popes miedeval chair in this photo when one looks at it is shows the awe effect for the one who sits there. Angels and rays of like are coming down to those who look upon it with a holy power.

35 European Culture Golden Age of Literature
William Shakespeare: famous playwright of the Elizabethan Era comedies & tragedies Globe theater Master of the English language Spanish Literature Lope de Vega: 1,500 plays Miguel de Vervantes: wrote novel, Don Quixote During this time just like the art work literature showed the understanding of human condition. Because of theaters like the globe people could play 2 pennies for a play which meant all from noble to vagabonds could see the plays. Many like Shakespeare wrote plays to entertain the masses and insight into human thought and physiology. The story Don Quixote tells the story of an old night who does not see the realties around him unlike his squire who is a realist. Eventually both characters and the reader come to see how in life it is valuable to have both hard work and to be a visionary, because to work hard means dreams can be achieved.

36 Political Thought Thomas Hobbes: alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in Europe Wrote Leviathan (1651) Work on political philosophy to deal with the problem of disorder Claimed that before society was organized, people were nasty & brutish to each other & only cared about their own survival To save themselves from destroying each other, they established a social contract in which all would be governed by an absolute ruler Absolute power was needed to preserve order in society During the time of political upheaval throughout Europe the concepts of power and order were pondered and written about. Two famous political writers of the time were Thomas Hobbes and John Locke who wrote about the subjects after the English revolution which had resulted in a constitutional or limited monarchy. John Locke had been alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in England from an absolute monarchy- republic- to limited monarchy. He felt this was a case of unordered society. In reaction to it he wrote Leviathan. In this work he stated how he believed humans before society organized them were solitary, nasty, brutish, and short. That they were not guided by reasons or morals but self preservation. To fix the disorder people agreed to have a state run by an absolute ruler to keep them from destroying each other. He felt a ruler with absolute control was needed.

37 Political Thought John Locke: Wrote political philosophy work called Two Treatises of Government (1690) Argued against the absolute rule of one person Believed that before society was organized, people lived in a state of equality & freedom Believed we all started out with natural rights Rights with which they were born: life, liberty, property Believed government existed only to protect those natural rights Contract between government & people involving mutual obligations Gov. protects people & their rights, so the people would act reasonably toward gov. However, if the contract was broken (gov. didn’t protect people) then the people could elect a new government Note: people, according to Locke meant the landholding aristocracy, not the landless masses Not an advocate for democracy, but his ideas would influence our democracy that we enjoy today Locke on the other hand believed that before society was established humans lived in a state of peace and equality. In this state no one was the sovereign all humans enjoyed certain natural right ( rights you are born with) life, liberty, and the property. In the natural state though people found it hard to protect these rights so they established a government to protect them and judge those who threatened them. This social contract meant that people followed the law and the government protected their rights. If the government did not the people had the right to throw out the leader or government and get a new one. It is important to remember though that Locke sis not believe in democracy and when he speaks of the people he only means the land owning wealthy.

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