Presentation on theme: "Crisis and Absolutism in Europe. Europe In Crisis: Wars of Religion Section 1 What might have motivated the religious Wars and political conflicts between."— Presentation transcript:
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
Europe In Crisis: Wars of Religion Section 1 What might have motivated the religious Wars and political conflicts between Protestants and Catholics?
French Wars of Religion By 1560, Calvinism & Catholicism became extremely militant religions –Tried to win converts & eliminate each other’s authority Economic, social & political forces also played an important role in these conflicts Huguenots: French Protestants influenced by John Calvin –Only made up 7% of the French population but 40-50% of the nobility were Huguenots –Powerful threat to the monarchy
French Wars of Religion Catholics vs. Huguenots –Involved in many civil wars within France (thirty years of battles between the Huguenots & Catholics) –Other factors besides religion: Towns & provinces resisted the power of the French monarchy and wanted to join the Huguenots to weaken the monarchy
French Wars of Religion 1589: Henry of Navarre: political leader of the Huguenots –Became King of France (King Henry IV) Converted to Catholicism (b/c he realized he would never be accepted as a ruler by Catholic France as a Protestant) His coronation & his Edict of Nantes ended the religion war in France Edict of Nantes (1598): recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, but also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges as everyone else
Philip II & Militant Catholicism King Philip II of Spain (r ): greatest supporter of militant Catholicism –“The Most Catholic King” First Goal: to consolidate the lands he inherited from his father (Charles V) under strict Catholicism & Spanish Control –Spain, Netherlands, possessions in Italy & the Americas
Philip II & Militant Catholicism Major problems with the Spanish Netherlands –Many were Calvinists who opposed the fiercely Catholic Spanish rule –Struggle dragged on until 1609 when a truce was agreed upon & northern provinces of Netherlands called themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands Spain had seemed to be the most powerful nation of the age; however Philip II went bankrupt from spending too much on war Power shifted from Spain to France & Britain
England Like Spain, England developed a strong monarchy Tudor dynasty (r ): brought unity to the country after a long period of decline & disorder. Tudor monarchs: hardworking, able & popular & greatly expanded the power/authority of the monarchy Not absolute monarchs; Parliament set limits to their authority
England’s Tudors Henry VII (1485) Henry VIII Edward VI (only 9 yrs old, died shortly after becoming king) Mary –Protestant nobles tried to stop her from becoming queen, but people support her; she quickly sets out on a crusade to attack Protestants in England (burned 300 at the stake for heresy) –Died childless so her Protestant ½ sister, Elizabeth took the throne Elizabeth I
Became queen in 1558 (25 yrs old) Very forceful in her actions as queen Often battled with Parliament Earned loyalty & confidence of her subjects by using her authority for the common good of her people Refused to marry (thought it would be best for England)
Elizabeth’s England Protestants vs. Catholics (problem inherited from Mary’s England) Repealed laws favoring Catholics Act of Supremacy: named Elizabeth the “only supreme governor” of both church & state & she ran the Church of England as a Protestant church –Kept it a moderate Protestantism the kept majority of people satisfied
Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy Moderate Foreign Policy: wanted to avoid war & keep both Spain & France happy by supporting the weaker of the two Allowed Sir Francis Drake to seize & plunder the Spanish ships sailing the Caribbean Philip II of Spain wanted to invade England to further expand Catholicism 1588, Philip II sent his Spanish Armada (fleet of warships) to invade England England’s more powerful navy (as well as powerful storms) quickly defeated the Spanish fleet. EFFECT: England would remain a Protestant country & signaled the beginning of Spain’s decline as a sea power.
Section 2 What effect might social, economic, and religious conflicts have on European nations?
Economic & Social Crises In Europe Major economic problem: inflation –Caused by a great influx of gold & silver from the Americas & a growing population in the 16 th century which increased the demand for land/food therefore increasing their prices Failing economy in Europe
Witchcraft Trials Traditionally, witchcraft had been incorporated in villages for centuries However, b/c of the Inquisition & the obsession with militant religions many people were targeted & charged w/ heresy More than 100,000 were charged/executed as witches –As more were charged, the fear of witches as well as being accused of witchcraft grew –Commoners & women were the main targets –Faced intense torture until they “confessed” to witchcraft Hysteria eventually faded by 1650 b/c: –Gov were stronger & didn’t want their towns in a frenzy over trivial matters –Attitudes changed as people found it unreasonable to believe in evil spirits haunting the world
The Thirty Years War ( ) Called “the last of the religious wars” Religious disputes in Germany caused by: –Calvinism was not recognized by the Peace of Augsburg (1555) Events: –Began in 1618 in Holy Roman Empire –Struggle between Catholic forces (led by the Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperors) & Protestant nobles (mostly Calvinists) in Bohemia –Cardinal Richelieu of France had Catholic France join Protestant Sweden in fighting the Catholic Hapsburgs –All major powers besides England became involved –Most battles were fought on German soil destroying villages & countryside –Peace of Westphalia: officially ended the war in 1648 Major contenders gained new territories France emerged as a dominant nation in Europe Stated that all German states could determine their own religion More than 300 states that made up the HRE became recognized as independent states –Brought an end to the HRE as a political entity
Revolutions in England Series of rebellions in England After Elizabeth I died in 1603 (ending the Tudor dynasty) her cousin, James I (former king of Scotland), became the new king of England Causes of the English Revolution –King James I Believed in the divine right of kings: that kings receive power from God Parliament disagreed: thought Parliament & the king ruled England together as a team –Religion Puritans (Protestants in England) disagreed with King John’s strong defense of the Church of England Many prominent figures in the House of Commons became Puritans –King Charles I (James’s son) Also believed in the divine right of kings Added more ceremony to the Church of England (made Puritans believe he was trying to make it Catholic again) Accepted Parliament’s petition of no taxes without Parliament’s consent & then later rejected it Angered Puritans (some fled to the Americas & others stayed to fight)
English Revolution Civil War broke out in 1642 between supporters of the King (Cavaliers or Royalists) & parliamentary forces (Roundheads) Parliament was victorious mainly b/c of their New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell (military genius) New Model Army: made up of extreme Puritans (Independents) who were well trained & disciplined in new military tactics Results: –Parliament had Charles I executed on January 30, 1649 –Parliament abolished the monarchy & House of Lords Declared England a republic or commonwealth –Cromwell eventually could not work with Parliament & dispersed it by force Set up a military dictatorship & ruled until his death in 1658
English Revolution The Restoration: –After Cromwell died, Parliament set up the monarchy again with Charles II as king (son of Charles I) Charles was sympathetic to Catholics Brother, James, heir to the throne was a strong Catholic –Parliament was nervous about James & passed the Exclusion Bill (barred James from the throne) Created 2 political parties in England: Whigs (against James) & Tories (didn’t want to interfere) Charles II dismissed Parliament in 1681; died in 1685 & James II became king –Made religion a cause of conflict in England yet again –Had a son with his second wife making a Catholic Monarchy inevitable –Parliament got nervous
Glorious Revolution Group of English noblemen invited William of Orange to invade England William of Orange: Dutch leader & husband of James II’s daughter (Mary) William & Mary raised an army in 1688 & invaded –James II & family fled to France –“Glorious Revolution” occurred with no bloodshed –William & Mary take over England BUT adopt a Bill of Rights English Bill of Rights: set forth Parliament’s rights –Parliament was given the right to make laws & levy taxes –standing armies could be raised only with Parliament’s consent –Citizens had right to keep arms –Citizens had right to a jury trial –LAID THE FOUNDATION FOR A LIMITED, OR CONSTITUTIONAL, MONARCHY
Section 3 Response to Crisis: Absolutism. What effect would the exercise of absolute power have on a nation?
Response to Crisis: Absolutism Response was to seek more stability by increasing the power of the monarch Absolutism: system in which a ruler holds total power –Rulers thought their power came from God & they were responsible to no one except God –Tremendous powers Made laws Levied taxes Administer justice Control state officials Determine foreign policy
Louis XIV Major supporter of absolutism Became king of France in 1643 (only 4 yrs old) Chief minister: Cardinal Mazarin controlled gov. while Louis was too young to rule –Both Cardinal Mazarin & previous chief minister Cardinal Richelieu made great efforts to strengthen the power of the monarchy Took away all political and military rights of Huguenots Mazarin died in 1661 & Louis XIV took over at the age of 23 “Up to this moment I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. It is now time that I govern them myself. You (Secretaries & ministers of the state) will assist me with your counsels when I ask for them. I request and order you to seal no orders except by my command. I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport without my command; to render account to me personally each day and to favor no one.”—Louis XIV
Louis XIV Ran his government like a machine out of Versailles (equal to our D.C.) Kept threats to his power (high ranking nobles & royal princes) busy with court life to keep them out of politics Kept all officials at Versailles where he could watch over them Complete authority over three main areas: foreign policy, the Church & taxes –Nobles still had more influence on towns & their day-to-day operations Religious policy: wanted to convert all Huguenots to Catholicism –Ordered destruction of Huguenot churches & closed their schools
Louis XIV Economy –Put Jean-Baptiste Colbert in charge of finances –Colbert decreased imports & increased exports & granted subsidies to new industries –Built up roads & canals for better trade & communication –Raised tariffs on imports
Louis XIV Military –Wanted to build up army to 400,000 to make France a major power & competitor –Waged four wars between & 1713 to increase territory & power of France Caused many nations to form coalitions to ensure France did not dominate Europe Died in 1715 –Left France with tremendous debt & surrounded by enemies
Fun Facts about Louis XIV He only stood 5ft 5in tall so he wore high heals. He hated cities, but loved the country. Loved long rides in the country but would only stop if he needed to. He called himself the “Sun King “ because he believed like the sun, all power radiated from him.
Absolutism in Central & Eastern Europe After the Thirty Years War there were 300 “Germanies” –Two of them (Prussia & Austria) emerged as great European powers Prussia –Absolutist Leader: Frederick William the Great Elector Built large army Set up the General War Commissariat: levied taxes for the army & agency for civil government Son became the first official king of Prussia (Frederick I) Austria –Gained new empire of considerable size (Czech republic, Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia) –Unable to become an absolutist state b/c it was made up of so many different national groups –Austrian Emperor was the Hapsburg emperor (archduke of Austria, king of Bohemia, & king of Hungary) Each area had its own laws & political life
Russia Under Peter the Great Ivan IV: first ruler to take the title of czar (Absolutist) –“Ivan the Terrible” Very ruthless (stabbed his own son to death in an argument) –Expanded Russia’s territory eastward –Crushed the power of the Russian nobility (aka the Boyars) –Dynasty ended in 1598 followed by Time of Troubles –Michael Romanov became new czar in 1613 Romanov dynasty lasted until 1917
Russia Under Peter the Great Peter the Great: one of the most prominent leaders in the Romanov dynasty –Became czar in 1689 –Absolutist monarch –Wanted to “Europeanize” Russia Especially European technology This would allow him to grow a major army & navy necessary to make Russia a major power –Military Drafted peasants for 25 year stints of service Built a massive army Formed first Russian navy Divided Russia into provinces Created a “police state” of well ordered communities
Russia Under Peter the Great Culture changes: –Peter taught his subjects Western customs & manners No beards, short coats, women could mingle with men Needed a port to trade with Western Europe: St. Petersburg –Became the new Russian capital
Section 4: The World of European Culture. How might art, literature, and philosophy be influenced by the turbulence of the period?
European Culture Mannerism: an artistic movement that emerged in Italy in the 1520’s and 1530’s; it marked the end of the Renaissance by breaking down the principles of balance, harmony, and moderation –Elongated & contorted figures were used to show suffering, heightened emotions & religious ecstasy –Famous mannerist: El Greco (from Crete) –Reflected the religious upheavals of the Reformation
European Culture Baroque Period: an artistic style of the 17 th century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements –Inspired by the religious revival within the Catholic church –Used dramatic effects to arouse emotions & reflected a search for power (associated with Absolutism) –Famous Baroque artist: Gian Lorenzo Bernini Italian architect & sculptor “Throne of Saint Peter” –Famous Baroque artist: Artemisia Gentileschi Italian painter “Judith Beheading Holofernes”
European Culture Golden Age of Literature William Shakespeare: famous playwright of the Elizabethan Era –comedies & tragedies –Globe theater –Master of the English language Spanish Literature –Lope de Vega: 1,500 plays –Miguel de Vervantes: wrote novel, Don Quixote
Political Thought Thomas Hobbes: alarmed by the revolutionary upheavals in Europe –Wrote Leviathan (1651) Work on political philosophy to deal with the problem of disorder Claimed that before society was organized, people were nasty & brutish to each other & only cared about their own survival To save themselves from destroying each other, they established a social contract in which all would be governed by an absolute ruler Absolute power was needed to preserve order in society
Political Thought John Locke: Wrote political philosophy work called Two Treatises of Government (1690) –Argued against the absolute rule of one person –Believed that before society was organized, people lived in a state of equality & freedom –Believed we all started out with natural rights Rights with which they were born: life, liberty, property –Believed government existed only to protect those natural rights –Contract between government & people involving mutual obligations Gov. protects people & their rights, so the people would act reasonably toward gov. However, if the contract was broken (gov. didn’t protect people) then the people could elect a new government –Note: people, according to Locke meant the landholding aristocracy, not the landless masses –Not an advocate for democracy, but his ideas would influence our democracy that we enjoy today