Presentation on theme: "T HE E UCHARIST IN H ISTORY OLM Liturgy and Sacraments Fr. Llane Briese."— Presentation transcript:
T HE E UCHARIST IN H ISTORY OLM Liturgy and Sacraments Fr. Llane Briese
T HE D EVELOPMENT OF THE C HURCH ’ S T EACHING ON THE E UCHARIST Section One
At the Last Supper, Jesus commanded his disciples to repeat this action, thus instituting the Eucharist: “The command of Jesus to repeat his actions and words ‘until he comes’ does not only ask us to remember Jesus and what he did. It is directed at the liturgical celebration, by the apostles and their successors, of the memorial of Christ, of his life, of his death, of his Resurrection, and of his intercession in the presence of the Father.” (CCC 1341, cf. 1Cor 11:26, Luke 22:19). Jesus does NOT give a series of instructions as to HOW! “D O T HIS IN M EMORY OF M E …”
Our earliest testimony comes from a few sources: Church Orders: Regulate common life of Christians The Didache (as early as I c. near Antioch): clear witness to Jewish background of worship Traditio Apostolica (III c. in Rome?) includes prayers of ordination of bishops, priests, and deacons. Didascalia Apostolorum (230 by a bishop in Syria) deals with organization of liturgical assembly et al. Apology of St. Justin Martyr (~155) Mystagogical Catecheses: As early as 2 nd century St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 387): Used in Easter Octave Liturgy St. John Chrysostom (d. 407, Antioch) St. Ambrose (d. 397, Milan) T HE E ARLIEST T ESTIMONY
“On the day we call the day of the sun, all who dwell in the city or country gather in the same place. The memoirs of the apostles and the writings of the prophets are read, as much as time permits. When the reader has finished, he who presides over those gathered admonishes and challenges them to imitate these beautiful things. […] Then someone brings bread and a cup of water and wine mixed together to him who presides over the brethren. He takes them and offers praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Spirit and for a considerable time he gives thanks that we have been judged worthy of these gifts. When he has concluded the prayers and thanksgiving, all present give voice to an acclamation by saying: “Amen.” When he who presides has given thanks and the people have responded, those whom we call deacons give to those present the “eucharisted” bread, wine and water and take them to those who are absent. S T. J USTIN M ARTYR : A POLOGY ( MID -II C.)
A N E ARLY M EDIEVAL C ONTROVERSY As the Germanic lands became Christian, new theological problems arose. 3 theological articulations of the Eucharist: Radbertus (d. 859): physical realism Ratramnus (IX c.): symbolic realism figure : what is perceptible to the senses reality: what faith tells us is present Berengar (d. 1088): empty symbolism Radbertus and Ratramnus use the same terms differently. The Council of Trent placed the positions of Radbertus and Ratramnus in a new framework.
T RANSUBSTANTIATION Three key questions: What is it? ( substance ) What does it look/taste/etc. like? ( accidents ) For what purpose is it? ( effects ) The Real Presence in the Eucharist is just as real as Jesus’ presence on Earth 2,000 years ago, but his mode of presence is different. Therefore, it is sufficient to receive only one species. The substance subsists only as long as the accidents do as well.
T RANSUBSTANTIATION Natural Body of Christ Sacramental Body of Christ Substance: Jesus Accidents: Jesus In the Incarnation, the Holy Spirit came upon Mary to produce the human nature of Jesus. Substance: Jesus Accidents: Bread and wine In the Eucharist, the Holy Spirit comes upon bread and wine to produce the Sacrament.
V ATICAN II ON THE P URPOSE OF THE E UCHARIST Vatican II, Sacrosanctum Concilium (1963), 47: “At the Last Supper, on the night when he was betrayed, our Savior instituted the Eucharistic Sacrifice of his Body and Blood. He did this in order to perpetuate the sacrifice of the cross throughout the centuries until he should come again, and so to entrust to his beloved spouse, the Church, a memorial of his death and resurrection: a sacrament of love, a sign of unity, a bond of charity, a paschal banquet in which Christ is eaten, the mind is filled with grace, and a pledge of future glory is given to us.”
1517: Luther begins the Protestant Reformation 1517: 95 Theses in Wittenburg, Germany. 1520: In Babylonian Captivity of the Church, Luther critiques Catholic understanding of the Mass. 1520s-1530s: Reformers call more of the Church’s faith in the Eucharist into question. Three Reformers: Martin Luther: Professed consubstantiation Ulrich Zwingli: Professed that communion was symbolic. John Calvin: Also professed that communion was symbolic. T HE P ROTESTANT AND C ATHOLIC R EFORMATIONS
Biggest Debates Related to Liturgy: Private Masses Communion Under Both Kinds Latin as Liturgical Language Transubstantiation Helps explain differences in worship between various Christian communities.
The Catholic Response: The Council of Trent (1545-1563) addressed almost every aspect of the Church. Three sessions concerned the Eucharist: Session 13 (1551): Affirmed Transubstantiation Session 21 (1562): Described the Use of the Sacrament Session 22 (1562): Affirmed the Sacrificial Nature of the Mass. Greatest Contribution: Clarified the Catholic Understanding of the Eucharist. T HE P ROTESTANT AND C ATHOLIC R EFORMATIONS
T HE E UCHARIST : A P LURALITY OF M EANINGS Section Two
CCC ON THE P URPOSE OF THE E UCHARIST 1359-1361: Church’s Sacrifice of Thanksgiving 1362-1372: The Memorial of Christ’s Sacrifice 1373-1381: Christ’s Real Presence in an Absolutely Unique Way 1382-1390: Christ’s Banquet in Holy Communion 1402-1405: Eucharist as an Eschatological Banquet —”A Pledge of the Glory to Come”
CCC ON THE F RUITS OF H OLY C OMMUNION 1391: Augments our Union with Christ 1392: Nourishment in Our Spiritual Life 1393-1395: Separates Us from Sin 1396: Christ Unites All His Faithful in One Body—The Church “[G]rant that we, who are nourished by the Body and Blood of your Son and filled with his Holy Spirit may become one body, one spirit in Christ.” 1397: Commits Us to the Poor 1398-1401: Reminds Us of Our Need to Pray for Christian Unity