Presentation on theme: "Using Maps in the History Classroom Casey Christensen Nicole Gilbertson Saddleback Valley TAH March 6, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Using Maps in the History Classroom Casey Christensen Nicole Gilbertson Saddleback Valley TAH March 6, 2013
Agenda Using maps in the history classroom How maps lie Reading maps in the history classroom
Map analysis in the standards Common Core: *Key Ideas and Details: CCSS.ELA- Literacy: RH.11-12.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. *Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem. California History-Social Science Analysis Skills: *Chronological and Spatial Thinking: 3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to interpret human movement, including major patterns of domestic and international migration, changing environmental preferences and settlement patterns, the frictions that develop between population groups, and the diffusion of ideas, technological innovations, and goods. 4. Students relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
Primary vs. Secondary How do you use maps as primary and secondary sources in your classroom?
Why do we use maps in history? Provide students with historical context Give students a sense of boundaries and spatial understanding Consider the environmental and geopolitical factors involved in historical actors’ decision making Offer information on a variety of topics to show comparisons, trends, and change over time
John Smith, published in England in 1612
South Carolina, 1671
Territory in California (From Mexican perspective 1840s) Diseño del Rancho Cuyama : Calif. By Esteban Ardisson: 184-?
Territory in California from American perspective (1840s) Map of the County of Los Angeles and parts of San Bernardino and San Diego Co’s, H. J,.1884 - 1885.
“Modern” maps—as secondary sources
With more accurate “center” of world
From perspective of Australia
Political boundaries vs. cultural boundaries
... To portray meaningful relationships for a complex, three- dimensional world on a flat sheet of paper or a video screen, a map must distort reality. As a scale model, the map must use symbols that almost always are proportionally much bigger or thicker than the features they represent. To avoid hiding critical information in a fog of detail, the map must offer a selective incomplete view of reality. There’s no escape from the cartographic paradox; to present a useful and truthful picture, an accurate map must tell white lies.... Map users generally are a trusting lot: they understand the need to distort geometry and supress features, and they believe the cartographer really does know where to draw the line, figuratively as well as literally. As with many things beyond their full understanding, they readily entrust mapmaking to a priesthood of technically competent designers and drafters working for government agencies and commercial firms. Yet cartographers are not licensed, and many mapmakers competent in commercial art or the use of computer workstations have never studied cartography. Map users seldom, if ever, question these authorities, and they often fail to appreciate the map’s power as a tool of deliberate falsification or subtle propaganda. Monmonier, Mark. How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991, p. 1.
How to read a map: Information: Title: should tell the reader "what," "where," and "when" about the map. The date should help the reader fit the map into its proper chronological niche. Orientation: By convention, cartographers place North at the top of maps. If there is a deviation from that practice, the map should have a compass rose or some other symbol to help orient the user. Scale: The map scale should be shown so that the reader can make judgments about distances. Legend: There must be a key that explains the symbols used by the cartographer. With regard to symbols: Old maps often use different symbols and were drawn or printed by different methods than the maps we are familiar with. Grid: The map needs to have a coordinate system, in the form of parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude, so that the area can be placed in its proper geographic location on the globe.
How to read a map… Analysis (creating context): Author/Publisher (Point of view): Knowing who created the map may offer hints as to the map's bias or biases. Does this person or organization have a vested interest in how the map is perceived by the map reader? Audience: Who was the intended audience? What message did the mapmaker want to send? Why was the map produced? Place of Publication: In what country or city was the map published? What language(s) does the map employ? This could provide insights into potential nationalistic biases. Date: When the map was constructed helps to place the map in its chronological context. Does the map reflect true facts? Post-1990 maps of Europe should show one Germany, not two. Origin: Was the map drawn? printed in limited numbers? mass-produced? This is often related to the date the map was initially created. Context: How does the map fit with earlier and later maps? How does the map reflect new discoveries? What was going on in the world when the map was created?
Map Analysis Tool Use the map analysis tool to analyze the map, The Organization of Territories in the U.S. Since 1803, From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923. Consider how these maps describe change over time. Consider how and when you might use this map with your students.
Defining a geographical location Review the maps of the Middle East. Consider what the maps tell us about the Middle East. What defines the term, “Middle East”? Is the term based on geography, politics, religion, etc. Use the maps as evidence to support your answer. What are the boundaries of the “Middle East”? What other sources might we need to define the concept, “Middle East”?
Where do we find maps? Perry-Castaneda Map Collection Library of Congress: American Memory Maps Le Monde Diplomatique map collection African Americans in Motion What sources have you found useful?