Presentation on theme: "Legal & Ethical Aspects of Access Management DELAMAN Access Management Workshop 29-30 Nov 2004 Heidi Johnson (AILLA) Gary Holton (ANLC)"— Presentation transcript:
Legal & Ethical Aspects of Access Management DELAMAN Access Management Workshop 29-30 Nov 2004 Heidi Johnson (AILLA) Gary Holton (ANLC)
Definitions Legal -- what people can do Ethical -- what people should do
Legal aspects Copyrights The right to: make, distribute, and/or publish copies; perform/display publicly; make derivative works. Binding legal agreement regarding how resources can be shared Law varies in different jurisdictions Archives must respect local laws
Who holds copyright? Creator Depositor (Collector) Archive Assignment of copyright among these parties varies by jurisdiction
Purpose of copyright Protect the rights of creators in order to encourage creativity. Permit commercial monopoly Note: copyrights are legally treated as property, which can be assigned or sold.
Limitations of legal copyright Copyright is woefully inadequate for protecting language resources Most formulations of copyright and intellectual property law apply to individuals and serve to protect individual knowledge or creativity Yet (many) language resources represent traditional or collective knowledge -- precisely the type of knowledge which is exempt from copyright protection
Ethical aspects For most language archives, legal issues (copyright) are of little relevance (beyond satisfying the institution’s lawyers) Moral or ethical issues are more relevant Different peoples have different views about tribal vs. individual ownership of creative works AND different individuals within a given group have different views about all this.
Radical claim #1 Language archives must respect restrictions placed upon resources by creators and depositors Why? Moral answer: respect for an expanded notion of intellectual property (“moral rights”) Pragmatic answer: without such guarantees creators (and depositors) will be reluctant to entrust resources to archives
Who cares? Why not just accept unrestricted resources and let someone else deal with the restricted ones? Preserving the world’s linguistic heritage is not a 90% game most of the world’s under-documented linguistic diversity exists among marginalized societies which may feel to need to impose access restrictions
Access restrictions change Access restrictions must be maintained, as they change with time Restrictions often vary with endangerment, with the greatest restrictions occurring in the “severely endangered” stage and decreasing thereafter In general, restrictions decrease with time: distance makes content less sensitive; people get used to the idea of publication
Corollary to Radical Claim #1 Language archives must respect (and implement) restrictions, but Language archives can't arbitrate inter-tribal or speaker-researcher disputes. We probably need a presumably temporary, highly restricted, "still-working-it-out" mode. Our systems are going to have to be flexible enough to change, sometimes often.
Types of access restrictions usage-based non-commercial use (this takes care of 99%) member-based indigenous community members family members research/education project members
Types of access controllers Archives automatic controls, e.g. passwords, time limits Depositors individuals, usually academics, usually accessible by email Creators usually not very accessible at all, but possibly so. Community/cultural organizations Stable institutions with email, addresses (e.g. Koskun Kalu, Kuna Cultural Congress). ephemeral (ad-hoc) bodies (e.g., Dena’ina Language Advisory Board)
Radical claim #2 Language archives must not allow local legal restrictions to inhibit preservation of and access to the world’s linguistic heritage
Balancing resource sharing and access restrictions rights portability rights have to travel with resources rights are managed by originating archive other member archives respect rights of originating archive distributed access management give control over who gets access to depositors and/or creators and/or speaker organizations. the same restrictions apply everywhere.
Radical Claim #3 Language archives need to define the terms of the rights management issue, by: defining the problem space: it's a question of who is allowed to use which resources for what purposes; providing specific tools for bundling rights with resources; implementing modules, protocols, etc. for granting/restricting access educating depositors and users
Some “real” scenarios 1) vetting by community organization 2) protection of work-in-progress 3) control-freak depositor 4) archive with undocumented materials
How is access granted? interface must be straightforward with not too many options depositors likely to be reachable by email creators may not be
Some questions for the future commercial access -- is this just another kind of restricted access what are the implications of P2P file sharing for DELAMAN archives?
Rights portability -- a tentative model ingesting archive depositor user depositor creator (….) DELAMAN archive DELAMAN archive