Educational attainment of population aged 15 or above in HK (Ed. Statistics, 2003) 199219972002 No schooling/ Kindergarten12.4% 9.3%7.0% 9-yr. basic ed.42.8% 39.2% 37.8% sen. sec. ed. 32.9% 34.3% 34.7% post-sec. & sub-degree 6.4%7.4%7.6% degree/above 5.5%9.8%12.9%
3. Emerging challenges Need for synchronization –Priority –Pace Need for communication –Time & effort Need for diversity –teaching, management, & public administration
4.1 Reallocation of school resources (Darling-Hammond, 1998) –less categorical specialist teachers, more regular classroom teachers –flexible student grouping: different class size for different subject taught –personalized teaching environment: multiage & multiyear classes (same class for 2-3 years)
4.1 Reallocation of school resources (Darling-Hammond, 1998) – lengthening the duration of each lesson => reducing the teacher-student workload – creating more time blocks for common planning during regular school time – funds spent on staff professional development rather than school restructuring
4.2 Good work: 3 basic questions (Gardner et al., 2001: 210-212) 1. Core values: “Why should my society entrust me with power and prestige?” 2. Exemplary beliefs & practice: “Which workers realize the calling best?” 3. Source of moral identity: “How do I feel about myself when I look in the mirror?”
4.2 Five levers for good work (Gardner et al., 2001: 212-219) 1.Creating new institution: “…to create a new institution, one designed to embody the values they cherish...” 2. Expanding the functions of existing institutions: “...he requested that 3 percent to 5 percent of the annual budget be put aside to address social and ethical issues from research on genetics…”
4.2 Five levers for good work (Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 212-219) 3.Reconfiguring the membership of existing institutions: “…to diversify the workplace, and particularly to bring traditionally under-represented groups into leadership positions. Many believe that diversification….. can improve the quality and the appeal of products.”
4.2 Five levers for good work (Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 212-219) 4.Reaffirming the values of existing institutions: “...New York Times… Bill Kovach…embodied the ‘intellectual dress code’ ….. ‘I care about each and every sentence in this paper and I care how we get them, and I have very clear views of how they are to be gotten.’….Kovach protected the members of his team: ‘Make the class, and I’ll back you,’ he told them….”
4.2 Five levers for good work (Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 212-219) 5. Taking personal stands: “When prominent, well-informed practitioners make moves that affirm the values, … and when they resist encroachment on their own legitimate prerogatives, others take heart…. On the other hand, if leading figures succumb to pressure….others are likely to become confused or disillusioned.”
4.2 Good work: Towards authentic alignment - maintaining an essential tension (Gardner et al., 2001: pp. 219-220) “As long as we humans live on this planer, we can expect strains, conflicts, crises. The more we anticipate these trials, the more honestly we deal with them, the greater the likelihood that we will survive them. Therein lies authentic alignment. We should be suspicious of superficial alignments that mask looming storm clouds, and we should take preventive action to thwart those potentially massive misalignments that will be difficult to repair.”
References Dable, G. J. (1998). Saving Money in Non-profit Organization. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Damon, W. (2001). Good work: when excellence and ethics meet. New York, NY: Basic Books. Miles, Karen H. and Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1998. Rethinking the Allocation of Teaching Resources: Some Lessons From High-Performing Schools. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 20(1): 9-29.
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