Presentation on theme: "Explorers’ Unit. What drove exploration during the 16th and 17th centuries?"— Presentation transcript:
What drove exploration during the 16th and 17th centuries?
During the 1500's (16th century) and 1600's (17th century) European countries began exploring across the Atlantic Ocean. Christopher Columbus was one of the first explorers to attempt this great feat. His accomplishments sparked the interest of exploration in many other countries.
Name of your explorer/your names Extradorindary Explorer Fact Insert picture/illustration of Explorer here. Introduction to your explorer. This should include his name, the country he sailed for, and the time period in which he explored. Support/Explain the discoveries that were made by your explorer. (How did the world benedit from his/her discovery or discoeries? Insert a picture or illustration of the route of your explorer. Extraordinaray Explorer Fact This slide shoulde include your details about your explorer’s voyage. Purpose of the voyage is explained. (Why did he go on this voyage and what was the destination?0 Difficulties or hardships that were encountered are explained,. Extradindary Explorer fact Explain in detail whether your explorer is considered to be successful or not. Be sure to use support in your explaination. This is where you can mention any other interesting facts that you found about your explorer. If none found, try to add an image that is appropriate to your presentation.
What is an explorer? Easier - There have always been explorers. Explorers are people who travel to or investigate unknown places. In traveling, they make or follow a route, path, or trail. Prehistoric men and women who ventured out across the continents were among the first explorers. Harder - Explorers are usually thought of as people who purposely visit and study an unknown geographic area. The golden age of exploration began in the fifteenth century as sailors from Europe ventured out and explored the world, locating routes across its oceans and continents and defining the earth's physical shape, size, and positions. Today however, explorers are persons who systematically search, examine, and investigate for the purpose of discovering unknowns in all aspects of our universe; making new discoveries and expanding frontiers in science, medicine, technology, and our environment. ers.htm
More Organized exploration began with the development of trade in the Middle East. The first recorded voyage into unknown seas was a four year expedition to the land of Punt around 2,500 BC. glish/index.php3?subject=why/intro
Trade and riches Trade has also provided one of the key reasons for exploration throughout the years. Commerce and trade in the exotic goods as well as the need to find faster trade routes and ensure that treaties allowed access to the countries. 15th century Europe. Populations began to grow creating an increased demand for food. spices such as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg and cloves. These could be used for preserving and flavouring meats. In the move to a cash economy, there was a demand for gold and other precious metals and stones. Some of this was to press coins that could be used for currency as wealth grew. These spices were only found naturally in India and certain areas of the east. The positioning of the Arab traders between the countries of Europe and the source of spices put them in an enviable position of pretty much controlling much of the traffic that occurred. "By the time these commodities reached Europe, they commanded prices so high that the profits of one Arab shipload of spices, so it was said, handsomely paid the expenses of five other spice ships if they were lost at sea." (Discovery p. 40) This was the case with Magellan. While four ships were lost in the voyage, the remaining one that made it back had more than enough spices to pay for the trip.Magellan The European traders were not heavily into sharing potential profits and so sought some means of getting these spices through to Europe with the problems of the pesky Arab traders they had to confront if going overland. ndex.php3?subject=wh y/trade
spread the key ideas of their religion. They had a particular animosity to the Moslem faith and took the chance to push their ideas when they could. Thirst for fame, glory and general recognition of the individual that became part of the Renaissance. Christopher Columbus was able to ask for great personal glory from those who may have wanted to employ him. The Spanish conquistadors who explored the Americas were typical of the explorers motivated by many factors summed up by the phrase "God, Gold and Glory"Christopher Columbus Renaissance in Europe saw a resurgence in ancient scientific learning, much of which had originally developed in early Greek times. The development of the quadrant and the astrolabe as well as a better understanding of the functioning of the magnetic compass enabled more accurate navigation. This along with improvements in cartography and better ships did not ensure a completely safe journey but certainly improved things a lot. The icing on the cake when it came to exploration and possible conquest of other areas was the improvement in effective and reliable firearms.. These enabled the Europeans to not only map and chart other areas, but also to establish trading posts and begin the process of exploitation that marked much of the next few centuries. In some ways, a circle had developed. As countries found and conquered new areas, so this exploitation enabled them to amass wealth from various sources. They became more powerful and were able to take over even more areas.
In the 20th century, national and personal prestige began to take over as there was less and less land to conquer and claim. The race to the North Pole, to the South Pole, to the moon, to Mars, Everest and the depths of the oceans. National prestige combined with technological knowledge fuelled the race to the moon and beyond. The USA and the USSR seemed to use the exploration of space and the race to be there first as a way of enhancing national pride.
Current "explorations" often have more to do with overcoming physical challenges than discovering the unknown. Explorations to the planets such as Neptune have changed our understanding of some of the laws of physics within the universe - still these explorations are usually the product of developing technologies where rockets head into the unknown. The challenges faced by people are those where the limits of human endurance are challenged even if there is some understanding of what will be found when we get there.
Future explorations will probably be guided by these principles. There will always be the desire to know "what if?" and whether this is about space, the human body or the floor of the ocean, there will always be a frontier to explore. While some will argue that the need to know what if is the most important, others will begin to question why and even ask, "should we be doing this at all?"
Personal Characteristics of an Explorer No one can ever thoroughly explain what causes someone to leave the familiar spaces of home in order to face the unknown. The desire to explore has been felt ever since people began to wonder what lies around the next corner. There is always the po ssibility that they will find something wonderful, new, and exciting. There is also the chance that an explorer will face many difficulties and dangers. Today, we know much about the world around us but early explorers were confronted with many unknowns. They prepared carefully in order to minimize the dangers. Exploration required a sturdy ship and a dependable crew. The success of the voyage also depended on the right equipment, supplies and information. As important as these things were, the spec ial qualities of the leader determined the success or failure of the voyage. What are the personal characteristics of someone who might become an explorer? ds/sec4/Unit_2/Unit_IIQ1R5.html
Personal Characteristics of an Explorer (Suggested Answer) The following quotation is Samuel de Champlain's description of the characteristics of a "good and perfect navigator." Above all to be a good man, fearing God, not allowing His sacred name to be blasphemed on board his ship,...and careful to have prayers said morning and evening....He had better not be a delicate eater or drinker, otherwise he will be frequently upset by changes of climate and food....Be continually on his guard against scurv y, and be provided with remedies against it. He should be robust and alert, have good sea±legs and be indefatigable...so that whatever accident may befall he can keep the deck and in a strong voice order everyone to do his duty. He must not be above le nding a hand to the work himself, to make the seamen more prompt in their attention.... He should be pleasant and affable in conversation, absolute in his commands, not too ready to talk with shipmates, except the officers; otherwise he might be despised. He should punish ill-doers severely, and reward good men, gratifying them from ti me to time with a pat on the back, praising them but not overdoing it, so as to give no occasion for envy --that gangrene which corrupts the body and if not promptly quenched leads to faction and conspiracy among the crew....He should never let himself be overcome by wine, for if an officer or seaman becomes a drunkard it is dangerous to entrust him with resposibility; he might be sleeping like a pig when an accident occurs...and be the cause of loss of vessel...He should turn night into day, watch the greater part of the night, always sleep clothed so as to be ready to come on deck promptly if anything happens. He must keep a provate compass below and consult it frequently to see if the ship is on her course..He must be...cognizant of everything concerning ship handling, especially of making sail. He should take care to have good food and drink for his voyage, and such as will not spoil, to have good dry bins to keep bread or hardtack; and, especially for long voyages, to take too much rather than too little....He must be a good economist in issuing rations, giving each man reasonably what he needs, otherwise dissatisfaction will be created,...and entrust the distribution of victuals to a good and faithful steward, not a drunkard but a good manager; for a careful man in this office is above all price. From Samuel Eliot Morrison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), p rossroads/sec4/Unit_2/Unit_IIQ1R6. html
Explorer Record Sheet Explorer Name______________________________ _______________ Personal Background: Country Represented: Goals of the Explorer: Goal of Explorer's Patron: Ships/Supplies: Route: Hardships: Contact with Indians: Time Frame: Results: rossroads/sec4/Unit_2/Unit_IIQ2R1. html