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Focused Forms Training Business Forms Management Association

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1 Focused Forms Training Business Forms Management Association
The Forms Industry in Perspective Presented by: Essociates Group, Inc. Endorsed by: Business Forms Management Association Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

2 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Introductions Tell us your name, organization, experience, education, and three personal things about yourself that you would like us to know. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

3 What specific goals do you have for this class?
Class Goals What specific goals do you have for this class? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

4 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Organization This is a four day class, organized into eighteen sections, with quizzes, team exercises, discussions, and lots on interaction. It delivers a well-rounded understanding of business forms It provides practical information on forms design It presents Essociates Group’s approach to forms It prepares students for certification Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

5 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
The Forms Industry Structure Associations History Current State Future Scenarios New Seminal Events Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

6 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Structure Forms Users, Owners & Form Specifiers Forms Managers, Analysts, & Designers Paper Forms Manufacturers Paper Forms Distributors Electronic Forms Producers Forms Consultants Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Structure Other Manufacturers Commercial printers Quick printers Envelope Manufacturers In-plant printers Specialists Direct mailers Stock forms producers Information System Labels (ISL) Security printers Software-compatible forms manufacturers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Structure Electronic Forms Producers Software developers Integrators Systems developers Open source General purpose software providers In-house Information Technology (IT) Consultants Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

9 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
History Began with the Industrial Revolution Historical Seminal Events Carbon tissue Mainframe computer printers All-Points-Addressable (APA) printers Electronic Print Shop Personal computers Electronic Forms Browsers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

10 Significant Inventions
One-time carbon Carbonless paper Bar codes Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Scanning (OCR-ICR-OMR-NHR) Security paper Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Relational database technology HTML DHTML XML Scripting languages Desk-top publishing (What You See Is What You Get – “WYSIWYG” drawing software) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

11 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Current State Large, mature industry that is undergoing a transformation (FormTrac 04 Study) Megatrends fewer plies smaller sizes one part forms sheets versus continuous blank versus preprinted forms electronic format (paper-optional) and distribution Web forms Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

12 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Current State End Users – downsizing, outsourcing, transfer to IT, more specialized Manufacturing – mergers & acquisitions, closings, more specialization, diversification Distributors – Sales versus forms organizations eForms – Adobe & Microsoft; software developers, moving to XML development; X-form standard Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

13 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Future Scenarios Extrapolate current state Year “X” IT Takeover Radical technological advancements (New Seminal Events emerge) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

14 Future Scenarios Extrapolation
Loss of industry identity Merge with commercial printing Emergence of electronic forms technologies Diffusion of forms development into general business environment Loss of forms management as a separate business function Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

15 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Year “X” Production of most printed products will be digital Product production will be a commodity Inventories of printed products become obsolete Distribution will be digital Requisition systems become production ordering systems Print demand will continue to grow New digital printing technologies will emerge Digital asset management becomes essential Intelligent Electronic Forms (IEF) replace Print-on-Demand and Fill-and-Print forms Requires continued incremental gains only Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

16 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
IT Takeover User acceptance of digital forms becomes widespread Laws and business practices change to accommodate eForms technologies Forms technologies become more complicated and technical Business processes change to become fully online Dynamic forms (XML) replace HTML and PDF forms Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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New Seminal Events Nanotechnology – new RAM Ubiquitous wireless networks Digital inks Flexible, portable substrates emerge Low cost, effective voice-to-computer technology Others? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Introduction to Forms The forms profession needs to agree on a common set of definitions. The Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) has taken the lead. To be successful, standards must be developed and adopted by an International standards body. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Relationships Form Document Record Forms Management Document Management Records Management Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Definition Form: the basic business tool (whether printed or electronic) for collecting and transmitting information the catalyst for getting things done, and the record of what was done. Copyright 1986 – Business Forms Management Association Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

22 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Definition Document A document is a container of information. The container makes it possible to organize, present, and manage the information related to an event, person, or topic. The way data are organized and presented in the container provides meaning and context to the information. A document could be a form, letter, spreadsheet, memorandum, photograph, video clip, or report. The document can exist in any media. New York State Office for Technology – EDMS Cookbook Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

23 Comparative Definitions
Form A form is a specialized document that contains one or more fields for the capture and / or display of variable data. Record A specific instance of a form is a record. A document that is unique to a specific transaction becomes a record. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

24 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Form Types pForms – paper, or other physical substrates eForms – digital forms used in non-browser environments iForms – digital forms used within browsers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Forms Management Forms Management – includes specifications, analysis data, forms creation, approval management, user interactions, forms production and deployment, and inventory management Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

26 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Document Management Document Management – focus on issues such as searching, archiving, retrieving, scanning, indexing and process management Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Records Management Records Management – designation of official records retention requirements legal accessibility destruction authorizations storage and archiving methods Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

28 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Document Hierarchy DOCUMENT Report FORM Statement . . . etc. RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD RECORD Document Management Forms Management Records Management Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

29 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Associations Business Forms Management Association (BFMA) Document Management Industries Association (DMIA) AIIM International - The ECM Association ARMA International The Association for Work Process Improvement (TAWPI) North American Security Products Organization (NASPO) and others Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

30 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

31 Four Elements of Every Form
Intent Container Data Image Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

32 Four Elements of Every Form
INTENT justification for the existence of the form CONTAINER physical layout of data capture vehicle DATA variable information captured on the form IMAGE - interface among users, data and systems Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

33 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Intent Elements of Intent Business Functions Business Systems Workflow Analysis Workflow Tracking Business Rules Forms Workflow Considerations Cost Analysis and Return on Investment (ROI) Documentation Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

34 Intent: Business Systems
Business Functions All businesses have the same ten basic functions. Business Forms Handbook – 5th Edition These functions exist to some degree in every organization. It is useful to classify forms as to the primary business function they serve. These functions are divided into three cycles – Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable and Accounting. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

35 Intent: Business Systems
Accounts Receivable Cycle The Accounts Receivable Cycles begin with marketing and sales activities Once sold, goods and services must be either produced or purchased for resale Goods and services are then delivered and billed The final step is collection and deposit of the money Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

36 Intent: Business Systems
Accounts Payable Cycle All organizations purchase goods and services to be resold or consumed. Purchased goods and services are received. Physical goods (and electronic goods) are stored. The money is disbursed via A/P. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

37 Intent: Business Systems
Accounting The term “accounting” is used to describe all the activities that enable the business to operate. Accounting includes financial accounting as well as legal, human resources, administrative and shared services, and information technology. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

38 Basic Functions of Business Sales Order / Source Documents
SELLING Sales Order / Source Documents PRODUCTION Instructions for Filling Orders are Issued PURCHASING Purchase Request, Quotations & Purch. Order Issued Accounts Receivable Cycle Production Order Bill of Lading Invoice Statement Accounts Payable Cycle Purchase Requisition Receiving Report Material Requisition Voucher Check A C O U N T I G SHIPPING Goods Packed and Shipping Records Prepared RECEIVING Goods Received, Inspected and Recorded BILLING Invoices from Shipping and Production Records STORING Goods Stored or Sent to Production Departments ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE From Invoicing Records ACCOUNTS PAYABLE From Purchasing & Receiving Records ACCOUNTING Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

39 Intent: Business Systems
Primary Business Systems Although there are standard business systems, most organizations customize them according to their need. Identifying the Primary system a form serves will facilitate analysis functions at a later date, particularly as mergers, acquisitions, multiple locations, etc. occur and forms begin to proliferate. Many forms serve multiple business systems and it usually makes a lot of sense to design them accordingly. (For example, a multi-part Purchase Order may also serve as a Sales Order, a Receiving document, as Authorization for Payment. Its primary business system, however, is Purchasing.) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

40 Intent: Business Systems
Secondary Business Systems Identifying one or more Secondary business systems served by the form can also help when doing analysis. Secondary business systems can identify opportunities for combinations Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

41 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Workflow and Process Analysis Workflow analysis examines multiple processes. Process Analysis examines each of the processes within a workflow. Example: Purchasing workflow may include several processes -- requisitioning, bidding, contracting, vendor management, and more Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

42 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Steps in Workflow Analysis - 1 Define the Project Identify Available Resources Formalize the Analysis Project Plan Examine Current System Documentation Conduct Interviews Observe the Process(es) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

43 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Steps in Workflow Analysis - 2 Prepare Work Measurement Records, Flow Diagrams and Decision Tables Develop and Present Recommendations to Management Design & Deploy the Appropriate Forms Implement the System Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

44 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Steps in Workflow Analysis - 3 Document the Results Evaluate the Modified System Get Ready for the Next Project! Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

45 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

46 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Forms Workflow Considerations - 1 Pre-processing Requirements Post-processing Requirements Filing, Retrieval and Retention Requirements Signature Requirements Copy Distribution Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

47 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Forms Workflow Considerations - 2 Status Notification Security and Privacy Legal / Regulatory Review Data Collection Methods Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

48 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Project Management Tools - 1 Gantt Charts a horizontal bar chart graphically illustrating a schedule that helps plan, coordinate and track specific project tasks PERT Charts Program Evaluation and Review Technique – defines, schedules, organizes and coordinates objective project achievement steps Pareto Focus: Most problems (80%) are caused by few factors (20%) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

49 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Project Management Tools - 2 Graham Flowcharts Form-based process charting – provides visual representation of the workflow or process Microsoft Project and Visio Commercial Software used to create flowcharts Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

50 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Flowcharting - 1 List all the steps taken and their sequence in the process Confirm that actions taken and their sequence is appropriate Indicate intersections/conflicts with other processes Specify where decisions are required Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

51 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Flowcharting - 2 Identify progress delay points and unnecessary steps Determine where the flow may be improved / streamlined Measure elapsed time and wait time Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

52 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Business Rules Business rules control and limit processes They are generally implemented in the form itself Techniques are available that can enforce the rules to the user Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

53 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Business Rules Result in form design modifications to implement / support the rule Form Uses, Deployment and Access Logical Choices / Logic Branches Error Detection and Correction Standards – Fonts, Colors, Captions Logo / Image Controls Filing Methods Print Choices Completed Form Retention Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

54 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Selecting the Best Alternatives Examine the Improved Workflow Develop Alternative Solutions Select the Best Alternative, one that Reflects an Improved, Smooth Workflow Results in Effective Business Results Promises the Highest Efficiency Delivers Success at the Lowest Cost Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

55 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Example - 1 Accounts Payable: Multi-national company Process: 18,000 A/P Checks per month Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

56 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Example - 2 Problem: 9% of all checks cannot be processed without manual intervention to resolve missing or incomplete data (1600/month) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

57 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Example - 3 Problem: Additional costs include wasted time in divisions to get answers, delays to vendors, lost discounts, inaccurate customer billings Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

58 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Example - 4 Analysis: All manuals (rejects) average 30 minutes each to resolve (800 hours/month) Wage rate = $27. per hour = $21,600. per month, or $259,200. per year Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

59 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Example - 4 Analysis: Most missing data caused by improper or missing contract numbers, pricing, account codes, and freight charges All data is in Contracts Database, not easily accessible to Divisions Procedures and account numbers not adequate, available, or cross-referenced Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

60 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Example - 5 Solutions: Develop updated procedures manual and post on intranet. Provide an iForm, tied to Contracts database Add edits, with required fields for user input Provide training to Division A/P coordinators Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

61 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Results Reduced errors by almost 50% Savings totaled $125,000 annually Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

62 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Security Three Levels of Security Access to System (logon) Access to Form Access to Specific Information on the Form Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

63 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Signature Requirements More an issue with Electronic Forms than with Paper Forms When are Signatures required? What level of Security is needed? Electronic Signature Techniques Standards Evolving? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

64 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Status Notification & Copy Distribution Routing requirements (Procedures) Who Needs Actual Copies? Timeliness or Notification Relationships to Security Relations to Signatures Workflow Tracking and Reporting Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

65 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Miscellaneous Requirements Legal Review, Approval, Regulatory Agency Filing, Various State Versions, Compliance with OSHA (etc.), Section 508 Filing Where, When, By Whom, Filing System, Substrates, Indexing Retention Period, Costs, Access Rate, Role of Records Manager Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

66 Intent: Workflow Analysis
Miscellaneous Requirements Selecting the “form” of the Form Keep Forms Digital as long as possible Inefficient if “go to paper” is too early Form / Label Combinations Bar Codes, MICR, OCR, Keyboard Entry Electronic Forms: the paper form metaphor Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

67 Intent Intent Links www.ccpac.ca (Canadian public accountability)
Electronic Signatures Miscellaneous Requirements (Canadian public accountability) (Canadian Human Rights Act of 1977) (National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

68 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

69 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Acquisition of Hardware and Software – Calculator Old Process vs. New Process (Process Analysis) – Calculator Current State vs. Future State (Project Analysis) – Calculator Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

70 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Software and Hardware Acquisition Determine up front Costs for Purchase or Lease (Year 0) Estimate annual Maintenance, Upgrade and new Licenses Costs Estimate Benefits, including Productivity Gains, for future years. Remember, Cost Avoidance can be claimed in each year. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

71 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Old Process vs. New Process Elapsed Time for the process (People Time) Equipment Cost Software Cost Support and Training Cost Forms Production Cost Cost of New People Needed Other Measurable or Obvious Costs Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

72 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Project Return on Investment Weigh Costs of New Process against Costs of Old Process Add in Expected Benefits Develop a Framework for Capturing Costs Remember the Hoover Commission Iceberg Analogy Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

73 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
From 1955 – “The Iceberg” Hoover Commission Report “For every dollar spent to buy a form, it will cost twenty dollars to use that form.” That’s a Ratio of 20:1 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

74 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Current State vs. Future State Measure Cost of Current Form, including fixed costs (printing) and variable costs (productivity) Estimate the same costs for the new form Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

75 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Example - 1 A national manufacturer uses 2,500 Employment Applications per year Paper form is distributed to each of eight plants as it is printed The form changes annually, with unused forms discarded Applicants complete the form at the plant. It is reviewed and sent to Corporate for data entry. Data are compiled to report on hiring goals and activities. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

76 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI
Activity-based Costing Defining activities and outputs of specific activities Tracing resources to activities Tracing activities to determine costs of products / services Identifying cost drivers of non-value-added activities Eliminating non-value-added activities Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

77 Intent: Activity-based Costing
Traditional View of Costs Salaries $267,000. Benefits 59,000. Postage 17,000. Supplies 18,500. Telephone 12,000. Equipment 6,500. Travel 3,000. Miscellaneous 4,000. Total Budget $387,000. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

78 Intent: Activity-based Costing
Process View of Costs Receive Orders $161,499. Resolve Errors 119,797. Generate Confirmations 85,006. Answer Inquiries 19,212. Generate Reports, Mgmt. 2,329. Total Budget $387,000. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

79 Intent: Activity-based Costing
Obvious Focus for Reduction Resolve Errors Causes, Results, Actions, Solutions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

80 Intent: Tracking Workflow
Setting up an Analysis Database Provide information as to “how” a form is used Store information for next review Elements of an Analysis Database Establish a Review Date Forms Review Methods Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

81 Intent: Tracking Workflow
Drivers Macro Scheduled (reorder) Ad Hoc Workflow Software FileNet (Shana) Movaris PureEdge (IBM) Verity (Liquid Office) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

82 Intent: Tracking Workflow
Documentation Every Major Business System should have Workflow Documentation, including a detailed flowchart, updated every five years or when changes are implemented Forms Analysis Database should be updated daily as changes are identified Project Tracking is recommended for all projects – agree on cost savings achieved Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

83 Intent: Information Resources
Adobe Systems AIIM ARMA BFMA Canadian General Standards Board Cap Ventures, Inc. DMIA Enformation Central TAWPI The Ben Graham Corporation Robert Barnett and Associates Xplor International Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

84 Sample Workflow Exercise
Test of Knowledge Quiz Time Sample Workflow Exercise Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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86 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Outline Definitions Usability Elements Drawing Techniques Design Analysis Container Structure Design Elements Design Process Design Software Restrictions and Qualifiers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

87 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Definitions Forms Analysis the systematic execution of those steps necessary to assure that productivity is increased in preparation, use, filing and retrieval; the total number of forms within the system is minimized; data element relationships are apparent through consistency and adherence to standards; the effectiveness of the entire system, as well as the individual form, is enhanced; and the resulting business tool communicates. Copyright 1986 – Business Forms Management Association, Inc. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

88 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Definitions Design Analysis in addition to resulting in the design layout, increases productivity by creating a basic business tool which is self-instructive, encourages cooperative response, provides for easy entry of data, reduces the potential for error, facilitates use of the information, and enhances the organization’s image. Copyright 1986 – Business Forms Management Association, Inc. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

89 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Definitions Design Analysis the process of developing design and layout elements based on the workflow requirements This process examines tools and techniques available to the designer that solve the problems identified in the workflow. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

90 Container: Design Process Steps
Analysis (intent) Beta Testing Design Analysis Modifications – re-proof Develop Draft – Proof User Testing Alpha Testing Modifications – re-proof Modifications – re-proof Deployment Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

91 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Steps (Life Cycle of a Form) Using (usability) Reading Writing Filing Transmitting Archiving and Retrieving Let’s look at each of these elements. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

92 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Usability Elements - 1 Who will use the form? Education levels, vocabularies and life experiences How will the form be used? Data entry, pre- and post-processing, archiving, more Where will the form be used? Location and Environment Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

93 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Remember the Goal Most forms are digital at some point in their life cycle. Keep forms digital for as long as possible. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

94 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Usability Elements - 2 Terminology – Clearly understood by users Typeface (Font) – Larger & bolder, smaller & lighter Spacing – White space Graphics – Well placed and uncluttered Colors – Used judiciously; some colors can have adverse effects on users Information sequencing and grouping Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

95 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Reading Elements Data Capture Clarity of captions encourages clarity and accuracy of data entered. Appropriate sequencing of data aids in communicating information, not just data. Completed information facilitates action. Human-readable and machine-readable Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

96 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Writing Plain Language helps ensure that users understand what information is required that forms are to be filled in completely, and that the information captured on the form is appropriate and useful. Well-designed forms encourage fast, error-free entry of variable data. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

97 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Writing Methods Handwritten Keyboard Machine-Written (Marking Engines) On-Screen Display Voice Recognition Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

98 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Writing Elements - 1 Captions – Clear and simple; not complex Fields – Sufficient room for data entry Grouping - Data sections are organized logically so that related information is found together Sequencing– Fields are placed in sequential order Marking Engines – Understand machine requirements Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

99 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Writing Elements - 2 Multi-part – Designed to stay together to avoid mis-registration; Paper and Carbon or Carbonless are selected so that minimum effort is need to produce legible copies; Enough parts included to avoid need for photocopying When are multi-part forms appropriate? (Restaurant Example) Books, tags, registers, pegboard, self-mailers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

100 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Transmitting Elements Paper By hand, mail, fax, interoffice routing envelopes, print-on-demand Electronic By modem, networks, browsers, diskettes, CDs, DVDs, memory sticks There may need to be a combination of both. Note: Transmitting method(s) should be known BEFORE the form is designed Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

101 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Filing and Retrieving Elements Paper: File hole punching for prong or ring binders Frequent retrieval requires paper stock designed for multiple handlings Field location can facilitate filing Design orientation (portrait vs. landscape) Computer Output to Laser Disc (COLD) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

102 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Archiving - 1 Paper – Archiving Considerations Good: Acid-free paper Archival quality paper Permanent ink Bad: Thermal paper Groundwood paper Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

103 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Archiving - 2 Electronic: Removable media Database Microfilm Computer Output to Laser Disc (COLD) Juke Box systems Magnetic Tape Tab Card systems Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

104 Container: Life Cycle of a Form
Archiving - 3 Long-term Storage (archiving) requires paper AND ink to withstand storage. Electronic Storage medium must migrate as technology advances. Data and Container must reference each other – stored together or stored separately. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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106 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Structure Open Design Provides flexibility for machine data entry Box Design Improves appearance; facilitates ease of use; improves readability Floating Box Design Used as data capture screen Columnar Design Modified box design for column headings instead of captions Zoning, Grouping and Sequencing Organizing data for user understanding Other Structure Considerations Graphics placement, specialty elements (OCR, MICR, bar codes, etc.) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

107 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Design Software High-end Design Specialized forms systems requiring dedicated operators; full capabilities such as secure features Desktop Design General purpose and specialized forms design Document Design Used for general printing, labels, envelopes, tags Code-based Design Not WYSIWYG – programming-based Web Authoring Tools Build web pages and web forms Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

108 Container Design Software Issues Operator training can be lengthy
Productivity can be a problem if heavy use Capabilities for forms can be limited Costs can be heavy (high-end) Proprietary nature can limit portability Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

109 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Drawing Techniques Techniques may differ depending on the design software you use Using Templates Using a grid and ruler (grid and component snap) Set margins, draw lines, draw boxes, input captions, draw text, insert graphics, draw fields and set field properties add calculations, set tab order, add custom code Other considerations: help screens, tool tips, accessibility Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

110 Container Forms Design Elements - 1
Captions Field questions; one per field; clear, concise and self-instructing Instructions If needed, they should be clear, concise and placed where needed (exception that proves the rule: income tax forms) Help Messages (eForms) Context-sensitive help systems Spacing Critically important element; Must be compatible with method of data entry; Two types: Vertical and Horizontal Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

111 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Form Design Elements - 2 Check boxes and radio buttons Reduce time required for data entry, number of errors, writing space, data extraction time Provide a uniform structure Minimize possible misinterpretation of questions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

112 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Form Design Elements - 3 Preprinted Data Can replace frequently input information Reduces writing time and the cost of using the form Grouping Information Place related data together on the form Improves efficiency by facilitating the entering, reading and comprehension of related data Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

113 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Form Design Elements - 4 Sequencing Information Places data in a logical order within the group Reduces writing, reading time Facilitates understanding Most frequently used information should be entered first, second most frequently used information next, and so on Within a system, sequence should be the same Cursor control on electronic forms guides the user, along with color highlights. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

114 Container Identification Forms Design Elements - 5
Desired corporate image, name, address & phones, logo Title – Brief, clear description of form’s purpose Form Number – A discrete number for use within the user’s system as an identification and control method Edition Date – Month/Year of each edition (Note that it’s NOT called a “Revision Date.” Even the first edition needs an Edition Date.) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

115 Container Forms Design Elements - 6 Margins
Blank space on all four sides of a form Improves appearance, neatness and readability When printing, provides lockup When filing, increased binding edge margin facilitates data retrieval Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

116 Container Forms Design Elements - 7 Routing Information Paper:
Marginal words, parts paper color Facilitates accurate copy routing If marginal words or preprinted instructions are used, typically placed in bottom margin of form (hence the term): “marginal words” Electronic , conditional fields, custom scripts, view and lock levels, integrated workflow Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

117 Container Forms Design Elements - 8 Selective Data Transfer – Paper
Blockout (or “Chinese” lettering) Carbonless – Desensitizing, pattern coating Carbons – Short, narrow, stripe, pattern, spot Paper – Short part, narrow part Perforation – Drop-stub perforation Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

118 Container Forms Design Elements - 9
Selective Data Transfer – eForms and iForms Locked Fields Hidden Fields Read Only Fields Print Only Fields View Only Fields Conditional Fields Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

119 Container Transmitting Elements – Paper Forms Design Elements - 10
“Snail Mail” – postcards, self-mailers, envelope required Fax – Adequate substrate size; high contrast; minimal use of screens (make them low percentages), avoid reverse printing, avoid colors Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

120 Container Transmitting Elements – Electronic
Forms Design Elements - 11 Transmitting Elements – Electronic – as attachment; software enabled Intranet – Intranet server; application integration (Lotus Notes, spreadsheets) Internet – Web server, browsers, server scripts; Completed data returned to user for printing in format suitable for eFiling Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

121 Container Forms Design Elements - 12 Filing Elements – Paper
Two Purposes – 1) Retrieval; 2) Archival Three Systems – 1) Alpha; 2) Numeric; 3) Subject Types – Binders (prong fastener, ring and post); Vertical visible; Cabinet & drawer systems; Microfilm or microfiche, Scan systems Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

122 Container Forms Design Elements - 13 Filing Elements – Electronic
Same purposes as paper Removable media Database storage Computer Output to Laser Disc (COLD) Container and data may be filed together or separately Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

123 Container Forms Design Elements - 14
Restrictions & Qualifiers - techniques to help insure data entry accuracy Paper Forms “Do Not Write Here” areas “Grayed-out” fields Combs, defined boxes Electronic Forms Required fields Hidden Fields Conditional Fields Pre-populated fields Locked Fields Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

124 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container Test of Knowledge Exercise Time . . . Analyze Workflow Design Analysis Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

125 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

126 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types Accounts Receivable (A/R) Cycle Accounts Payable (A/P) Cycle Accounting Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

127 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types A/R Cycle - 1 Selling – Sales Order Production – Production, Work or Job Order Shipping – Delivery Receipt, Bill of Lading, Air Bill, Shipping Label, Packing List Billing – Invoice, Credit Memo Collecting – Statement, Past Due Notice, Deposit Slip, Credit Application Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Container: Form Types A/R Cycle - 2 Combined Forms Sales Order / Shipping Record Sales Order / Invoice Sales Order / Invoice / Shipping Record Production Order / Invoice Production Order / Shipping Order Packing List / Delivery Receipt Packing List / Bill of Lading Shipping Order / Bill of Lading Invoice / Bill of Lading Invoice / Receipt of Goods Invoice / Shipping Record Bill of Lading / Delivery Receipt Invoice / Picking List / Packing List / Shipping Order Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

129 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types A/P Cycle - 1 Purchasing Requisition, RFQ / RFP, Purchase Order Receiving Receiving Report, Inspection Report, Debit Memo Storing Material Requisition, Inventory Record or Storage Record, Picking Tickets, Material Receipts, Material Returns, Material Transfers, Bin Tags, Labels and Inventory Forms Paying Check (Voucher), Remittance Advice, Check Register, A/P Ledger, Request for Check Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

130 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types A/P Cycle - 2 Combined Forms Purchase Order / Receiving Report Purchase Requisition / Purchase Order RFQ / RFP Purchase Order / Accounts Payable Check Receiving Record / Inspection Report Receiving Record / Incoming Stock Record Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

131 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types Accounting - 1 Supports, controls and unites the A/R and A/P Cycles Types Sales Manufacturing Disbursement Personnel General Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Container: Form Types Accounting - 2 Sales Information comes mainly from selling, shipping, billing and collecting functions; Generates reports about customers, sales reps, commissions, revenue and aging A/R Manufacturing Information comes mainly from production processes and the storage function Generates reports on production levels and efficiency, employee efficiency, equipment & facility utilization, personnel needs, personnel & production schedules, direct / indirect costs of labor & material, inventory reports, raw material, work-in-process, finished goods, other production-related items Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Container: Form Types Accounting - 3 Disbursement Generation of reports about distribution of expenses, cash requirements, departmental budgets Analysis of specific purchases, vendors, freight and quality control Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

134 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types Accounting - 4 Personnel Information comes from any function that has employees and includes time cards, job tickets, employee change of status notices, employment applications, tax forms, transfer notices, termination notices, deduction authorizations, etc. Generates payroll checks, vouchers, receipts, statements of earnings, individual earnings records, payroll registers, deduction records, payroll distribution reports, employee insurance records, employee retirement records. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Container: Form Types Accounting - 5 General Utilizes data from other four areas to produce its analyses and reports Financial Segment Trial balances, operating statements, balance sheets, operating budget reports, account journals, distribution journals, account ledgers and tax reports Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

136 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Container: Form Types Accounting - 6 General (continued) Plant and Equipment Segment Depreciation and amortization records and reports insurance value reports replacement value reports appraisal reports equipment registers equipment transfers equipment distribution reports equipment maintenance reports. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Container: Form Types Accounting - 7 General (continued) Corporate Segment Stock transfers stock certificates dividend checks proxy notices Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Containers Contacts Design Analysis enterprise.state.wi.us/static/forms/white_paper.html Paper Client Server Software Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Test of Knowledge Quiz Time Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Definition Variable information captured by, or displayed on, the form Purpose: Enables forms users to read and enter data on a form utilizing a variety of data capture techniques that minimize errors, increase productivity and encourage participation in the process Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

142 Data “Data” vs. “Information” Data: facts, text, graphics, sound, and video segments that have meaning in the User’s environment Information: Data that have been processed in such a way as to increase the knowledge of the person who uses the data Modern Database Management, 5th Edition, McFadden, et al Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

143 Data Data vs. Information Creating Information from Data
Data is plural; datum is singular (Latin) Data, by itself, is not particularly useful Information results from organizing data into understandable presentation Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

144 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Data Examples A customer’s first name, middle initial, and last name A record of a purchase order A picture of the CEO An index of company offices A description on a new insurance policy that will be sold A company logo. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

145 Data Paper, Electronic & Internet - 1 Paper-based Systems: Portable
Cost-effective Easy to understand Preferred by many users Easy to teach Large support infrastructure Many standards in place Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

146 Data Electronic forms: digital forms used in non-browser systems
Paper, Electronic & Internet - 2 Electronic forms: digital forms used in non-browser systems Can use general purpose software Don’t require much IT support Can use specialized design software to develop code Flexible deployment, both on-line and off-line Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

147 Data Internet forms – work within browsers
Paper, Electronic & Internet - 3 Internet forms – work within browsers Can actually be Internet or intranet Employ a variety of technologies, but all use HTML Require server scripts or client scripts to function effectively Can be connected easily to databases Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Sources Managing Data Collection and Display Data Storage Data Integrity Programming and Scripting Extensible Markup Language (XML) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Sources of Data - 1 Handwritten Optical Scan Typewriter Optical Mark Scan Keyboard Magnetic Ink Read Bar Code Scan Database Tables Radio Transmission Touch Screen Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Sources of Data - 2 Handwritten – optimal vertical space is 1/3”, horizontal space must be sufficient for length of expected data Typewriter spacing is generally 1/3” vertical, depending on carriage return standard Keyboard spacing can be variable, depending upon font selected Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Sources of Data - 3 Continuous form printers use 1/6” or 1/8” vertical spacing Horizontal spacing must be exact for the printer selected – usually 1/10” Sheet printers can allow any spacing, but generally require ¼” clear band Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Scanning and Imaging - 1 Paper-based scan forms Inks Alignment Creating image files (bit maps) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Scanning and Imaging - 2 Paper-based Scan Forms Generally, it is not recommended that existing paper forms be scanned to create an electronic form file that will need to be edited or deployed Some exceptions: ScanSoft’s Omniform, Adobe’s Capture Generally, scans create large bit maps Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Scanning and Imaging - 3 Alignment Most recognition engines require some alignment marks or edge identification Most sophisticated engines provide anti-skew algorithms Data recognition is improved when proper alignment is achieved Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Importing Files This is a very tricky endeavor, with mixed results Successful importation depends on how the creator designed the form Importing from one application to another is usually done via EPS or PDF file transfer Products such as FormBridge can be effective Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

156 Data Scanning for Data Capture - 1
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) requires a specific font, drop out inks and specific spacing. Optical Mark Reader (OMR) requires a specific density range for the mark (Use #2 pencil only) Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) uses E13B font, magnetic ink or toner and has very tight tolerances. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

157 Data Scanning for Data Capture - 2
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – (continued) Optical Character Recognition is the process of converting an image of text, such as a scanned paper document or electronic fax file, into computer-editable text. It is used to convert machine print to ASCII. The text in an image is not editable; the letters are made of tiny dots (pixels) that together form a picture of text. OCR recognized the image and makes it editable. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

158 Data Scanning for Data Capture - 3
Optical Character Recognition – (continued) During OCR, the software analyzes an image and converts the pictures of the characters to editable text based on the patterns of the pixels in the image. After OCR, you can export the converted text and use it with a variety of word-processing, page layout and spreadsheet applications OCR also enables screen readers and refreshable Braille displays to read the text contained in images. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data ICR and NHR Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) Generally used to convert hand print to ASCII (Rejects cursive script) Natural Handwriting Recognition (NHR) Used to convert all forms of handwritten information to ASCII Accepts all forms of constrained and unconstrained handwriting, hand print, and cursive script Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Optical Mark Readers OMR uses specially-prepared forms, printed in light blue ink. OMR readers look for dark marks (typically circles or rectangles) in specific locations on a form. Each position on the form can be assigned a different meaning, depending on the need. OMR is typically read by specialized page readers (that may also read a bar code or other mark that uniquely identified each iteration of a form) or by conventional flatbed scanners, with appropriate software, on a PC Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

161 Data Intelligent Mark Recognition IMR is the next generation of OMR.
More sophisticated software can accept “checkmarks, “X marks,” or “tics” provided that they are sufficiently bold. Incompletely filled spaces can typically be differentiated from erasures. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

162 Data Magnetic Ink Character Recognition - 1
E13B is a special font for MICR printing Contains ten (10) specially designed numeric characters and four (4) special symbols (transit, amount, on-us, and dash) CMC-7 is a special font used in most Spanish-speaking countries Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

163 Data Magnetic Ink Character Recognition - 2
MICR E13B was created according to ISO specifications. ABA and ANSI standards also apply. Specifications also define location of the MICR on checks. MICR clear band 5/8” from bottom MICR Encoding band – center of clear band Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 1 Definition: an automatic identification technology allows data to be collected accurately and rapidly Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 2 Bar Code Symbol A Bar Code Symbol consists of a series of parallel, adjacent bars and spaces. Predetermined width patterns are used to code actual data into the symbol. To read information contained in a Bar Code symbol, a scanning device, such as a light pen (or wand) is moved across the symbol from one side to the other. As a scanning device is moved across the symbol, the Bar Code width pattern of bars and spaces is analyzed by the Bar Code decoder and the original data is recovered. The most visible application of this technology is the supermarket industry, where it has been in use since Bar Code is now the de facto automatic identification technology for virtually any application. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 3 Bits of information are encoded within bar codes. The data are read by bar code scanners and are often used in conjunction with databases. Bar codes don’t require human-input, can be read by automated machines, and are virtually error-free. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 4 Uses: Bar codes are used in many retail operations. They’re also used on many form products: Shipping forms Labels ID Cards Direct mail pieces Invoices Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 5 Bar Code Scanners Scanners look at the pattern of light and dark bars and decode a bar code, returning the string contained in them. Bar codes usually return a reference to a database. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 6 Common Bar Codes UPC – numeric only, fixed length and check digit Code 39 – Alphanumeric, variable length Postnet – US Post Office for ZIP codes Code 128 – Used in shipping industry, has 3 versions Interleaved 2 of 5 – numeric only Codabar – Numeric – FedEx PDF417 (two dimensional) - portable data file Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 7 Other Bar Code Capabilities Two-dimensional bar codes can be created during a form fill session The bar code containing the fill data is printed on the form The bar code can be scanned to capture the fill data Useful when “wet signatures” are required Radio Frequency Codes (RFID) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Bar Codes - 8 Issues with Bar Codes Laser Printers Toner can flake off after multiple contact reads Read Rates Poorly applied bar codes can generate high reject rates Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Definition: “An organized collection of logically related data” Metadata: “data that describe the properties or characteristics of other data” - including data definitions, data structures and rules or constraints Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Types File processing systems Each application contains its own data Hierarchical Data are organized in sequential order Relational Data stored in tables with keys defining relationships Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Relational Databases Data Structure Data are organized in the form of tables with rows and columns. Data Manipulation Powerful operations (SQL) are used to manipulate the data. Data Integrity Business rules are applied to maintain integrity during manipulation. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

175 Data Relational Databases - Important Terms
Primary Key an attribute that uniquely identifies each row in a table Foreign Key an attribute that also serves as the primary key in another relation in the same database Composite Key a primary key that consists of more than one attribute Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

176 Data Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
A standard method of sharing data between databases and other programs ODBC drivers use the standard Structured Query Language (SQL) to gain access to data from outside sources Each database program requires a different driver Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Use for Electronic Forms Any form that provides the ability to save and recall the variable fill data requires the use of a database It may be a simple table or a multiple table database, or even multiple databases Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Use for Electronic Forms – (continued) Databases can be “Read,” where data are extracted from a table and placed in the form, or “Write,” where data are extracted from the form and placed in the data table, or both. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Use for Internet Forms Database must reside on the Internet server of be connected to the server. Database interaction is managed by CGI scripts or related technology. Important to remember that HTML does not interact with databases. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Management - 1 All database programs are managed with DBMS (Database Management System). Data Administrator – the person who takes overall responsibility for data, metadata, and policies about data use Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Management - 2 Database Administrator the person who is responsible for physical database design and for dealing with technical issues, such as security enforcement, database performance, and backup and recovery, associated with managing a database. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Database Management - 3 What every Forms Manager should know Make friends with the DBA or Data Administrator; they can make your life easy or difficult Take the time to learn the issues related to security, access, and data integrity. This will help you understand what you can and cannot do with forms. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Collection - 1 One of the primary purposes of a form is to collect data. With paper forms, the data become a permanent part of the form. The container and the data are frequently filed, archived, retrieved and used together forever. In most cases, the data are extracted from the container in a process of data entry. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Collection - 2 Data collection in electronic forms generally comes from the keyboard and mouse. Data can originate into the electronic form from bar code scan, OCR scan, from a PDA, or from a database. Requirements for collection can be both more rigid and more flexible. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Collection - 3 Data collection for Internet forms is very similar to that for electronic forms. Difference is in how the data are handled. The browser displays a static page (HTML) and the data cannot be recognized or validated until sent to the server and validation returned. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

187 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Data Data Collection - 4 Once input into the form, data can be placed in a file printed saved to a database, or converted to XML for integration into other applications. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

188 Data Data Collection and Display- 1 Formats Types
Restrictions and Qualifiers Fonts Screen Resolution and Scaling Masks Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

189 Data Data Formats Data Collection and Display- 2
Data formats can increase or decrease the utility of the data collected. Most software programs use proprietary formats, but support standard formats. Many, many forms are in use (see links at end of “DATA” section). Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

190 Data Data Collection and Display- 3 Data Formats – (continued)
Standard ASCII HTML, XML Proprietary .doc, .xls, .ppt (Microsoft) .g, .elf (Amgraf) Generally Accepted PDF, EPS, PostScript, DBF (dBase) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

191 Data Data Collection and Display- 4 Data Type Four Objectives:
A detailed coding scheme recognized by system software for representing organizational data Four Objectives: Minimize storage space Represent all possible values Improve data integrity Support all data manipulations Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

192 Data Data Types – Oracle Data Collection and Display- 5
CHAR (size), where size is the maximum length DATE LONG NUMBER DECIMAL LONG RAW SMALLINT FLOAT LONG VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER MLSLABEL VARCHAR2 INTEGER (size) RAW Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

193 Data Data Types – MS Access Data Collection and Display- 6
TEXT DATE/TIME YES/NO MEMO CURRENCY OLD OBJECT NUMBER AUTONUMBER HYPERLINK Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

194 Data Data Masks Data Collection and Display- 7
Pre-defined display schemes that take user input and force the display into the selected format Can be used in a variety of situations, including paper forms, electronic forms, Internet forms, and database design Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

195 Data Data Masks – (continued) Data Collection and Display- 8
Paper forms use combs, small boxes for individual character input, pre-printed dashes and parentheses. Electronic forms use pre-defined masks that force a particular input, such as telephone, ZIP code, Social Security Number, dates, and more. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

196 Data Data Restrictions and Qualifiers Data Collection and Display- 9
Designed to restrict user input to a specified range, series of choices or data types Can be effective for paper forms, but have increased utility with electronic and Internet forms. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

197 Data Data Restrictions and Qualifiers – (continued)
Data Collection and Display- 10 Data Restrictions and Qualifiers – (continued) Paper forms use radio buttons, checkboxes and pre-printed instructions. eForms use: Hidden Fields All Upper Case List Boxes Conditional Fields Numeric Only Grouped Check Boxes No-printed Fields Combo Boxes Unrestricted Check Boxes Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

198 Data Fonts Data Collection and Display- 11
A consistent design for the display of the full set of English or other language characters, including special characters such as punctuation and numbers For a look at the number and complexity of available fonts: Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

199 Data Fonts – Common font families Data Collection and Display- 12
TrueType PostScript Web Embedding Fonts Tool (WEFT) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

200 Data Fonts Uses Data Collection and Display- 13
Selection of a particular font gives the designer control over what the user will see. Most fonts have specifications that enable fast rendering Proper selection and use of fonts is one of the most important design contributions. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

201 Data Misuse of Fonts Data Collection and Display- 14
Mixing fonts on a page Improper use of bold, italics and underlining Improper use of color Hard-to-read fonts Fonts incompatible with web Using uncommon fonts for distribution (licensing issue) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

202 Data Display Data Collection and Display- 15
Successful viewing on a user’s screen requires a design that supports standard monitor settings. Standard design resolution for most browsers is 800 X 600 or 1024 X 768. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Scripts Scanning Fields Importing Calculations Programming Spell Checking Error Detection and Correction Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data CGI - 1 Common Gateway Interface (CGI) a programming interface between a web server and the system’s backend functions – such as processing systems and databases allows web servers to perform data functions and interact with users Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data CGI - 2 Common Gateway Interface (CGI) - continued Server-side programs or scripts – all processing occurs on the server Client-side solutions include Java applets, Java scripts, and ActiveX controls Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Fields - 1 Understanding Fields Each database has its own field definitions. Make sure your form design is compatible. Proper field design, with associated masks and properties, can help users interact better with your form. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Fields - 2 Common Field Types Text Numeric Multi-line Date Time Radio buttons Text boxes Check boxes Combo boxes Buttons Signatures OLE Blob Graphics Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Fields - 3 Database Field Types Specific to each database Must be the same on the form as in the database Three general categories: Numeric types Date and Time types String (character) types Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Calculations - 1 Using Excel Using VB Script Using JavaScript Calculation Wizards Example: Adobe Acrobat Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Calculations - 2 Using Excel Uses cell descriptions instead of field names Math performed in logical sequence Formulas must be exact syntax Can use “point and click” Formulas can be dynamically copied Most of us have learned how to use Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Calculations - 3 Using VB Script Must provide “Dimension” (DIM) statements for variables Uses field names – must be precise Uses exact syntax Can use “do” loops to simplify code Must set initial values Calculations performed continuously Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Calculations - 4 Using JavaScript Not related to Java, the programming language Works within HTML code Has functions similar to VB Script Works within Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) but not with Netscape Has its own syntax and rules Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Calculations - 5 Using Calculation Wizards Provide “point and click” capability for simple calculations Convert the click results to JavaScript or some other language Not yet readily available in some forms programs Example: Adobe Acrobat Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Spell Checking Imbedded in most design programs Available in Client software Not generally available within browsers Plug-ins are available Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

216 Managing Data Error Detection and Correction
Requires custom VB or JavaScript Tests for conditions and defines a path to action depending on condition Example: Test for a null (blank) value for a required field. If answer is “Yes,” display a message box with statement “You must enter a value.” Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Data Storage - 1 Paper Forms Filing systems Archives Records Management systems Issues include: speed of access accuracy cost of storage retention requirements security destruction costs Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Data Storage - 2 Electronic Forms Database Tables Flat Files Electronic Data Management System (EDMS) Application software (WORD, Excel, Acrobat, , others) Issues: control access security costs legal liability Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Data Integrity - 1 Paper Forms “Chinese” lettering Printing boxes for use input Pre-printing forms for ZIP, telephone, SSN Carbonless desensitizing and spot carbons Preprinted helpers such as MM/DD/YY Spot Carbons Checkboxes and radio buttons Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Data Integrity - 2 Electronic Forms Drop down selections Check boxes (grouped & ungrouped) Pre-fill from database Error checking routines (programming) Assigning qualifiers to fields Masks (forced formatting) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 1 Languages Visual Basic Java JavaScript HTML, DHTML, XML PERL, PHP, ASP C++ Many others Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 2 Scripts Server scripts CGI Servlets Client scripts Applets Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 3 Scripts What are they? CGI is a standard for interfacing external applications, such as a web page, with information servers, such as HTTP or web servers. What do they do? They tell the server how to interact with the browsers and return HTML pages to the browser. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 4 Scripts – continued They are small executable programs and can be written in any language. Usually, they are written in a scripting language, such as PERL or PHP, so they do not need to be compiled Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 5 Servlets – What are they? Servlets are programs written in Java that run in conjunction with a web server. They are Sun Microsystems’ version of CGI. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 6 Applets – What are they? Java applets are small, fast programs that can run on any kind of computer. This makes them perfect for use on the Web because the program can be downloaded and run on a Mac or a PC or a Unix workstation. Today, they are used mainly in graphics and animation. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data Programming - 7 Java Beans and ASP Java Beans are components based on JavaSoft’s Java Beans component architecture. A component is a piece of code that functions independently and has the ability to interact with other components. Active Server Pages is Microsoft’s version of component architecture. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 1 Extensible Markup Language HTML has limits. It is simple, easy to use, and generally tolerant of syntax. This makes it popular, but limits its ability to handle information. XML is the answer to the lenient, but limited, HTML. XML is a language for creating other languages. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 2 XML is: A preferred data exchange method Wildly popular with developers The technology behind most pages on the Internet Complicated and abstract Without bounds Expensive to implement Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 3 eXtensible refers to the capability for an author to define custom tags and a custom document structure Markup refers to the tagging method used to specify the name and attributes of data. Language refers to the syntax, rules, and structure approved by the W3C for creating custom metadata definitions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 4 Terminology A Schema defines the custom markup language that you create with XML. It specified the tags you can use in your documents, and which tags and attributes those tags can contain. Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) lets you extract and transform the information into any shape you need. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 5 Terminology – continued Document Type Definitions (DTD) specify a particular set of definitions for a schema. XML Schema – Developed by the W3C and is more flexible that the older DTDs. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 6 Why XML? It is emerging as the web standard for sharing data between applications Self-describing data Complete integration of all traditional databases and formats Modifications to data presentation – no reprogramming required Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Managing Data XML - 7 XML forms are not yet prevalent. Several XForms solutions are under development. The predominant use of XML is for data exchange to and from HTML forms. Day 4 link back Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 1 Bar Codes MICR (for good overall description of the technology) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 2 MICR Security Features CGI Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 3 Common Field Types Calculations (for VB Script tutorial) VB Script Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 4 JavaScript XML Spell Checker Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 5 Business Intelligence OMR Data Formats Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 6 Scripts Servlets Applets Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Data Data Links - 7 JavaBeans Active Server Page (ASP) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Test of Knowledge Quiz Time . . . Exercise . . . Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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244 Image Definition and Purpose
Image: interface among users, data and systems Purpose: Considers how users interact with the form, ease of use, the overt and covert message the form conveys, and how people access the form Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Image Components of Image User Interaction Language Conventions Marketing Message Corporate Image Avoiding Errors Preventing Abandonment Style Guides Accessibility Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Image Alignment Methods - 1 Symmetrical Centered on page Conservative, formal, and restful Used for announcements and promotional materials Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

247 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Alignment Methods - 2 Asymmetrical Creates more interest and can be dramatic and exciting Can be left aligned, right aligned, or justified left and right Most common for forms is left aligned Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

248 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Language Conventions Define how users interact with printed page English and French: Top to bottom Left to right Capitalization rules Punctuation rules Grammatical rules Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

249 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 1 Form Zones Identification Instruction Introduction Body Closing Source: Graphics Design for 21st Century Desktop Publishers, Marvin Jacobs, CFSP and Linda Studer Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

250 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 2 Logical Order (Sequencing) Readers expect logical order FirstName, M.I., LastName Address1, Address2, City, State / Province, ZIP / Postal Code Request data in the order users like to think Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

251 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 3 User Interface Paper Forms Design for the anticipated audience Understand how the audience will use the form Use appropriate white space - helps form user read and retain information Use plain language – reduces misunderstanding Avoid jargon – doesn’t insult user Keep it as simple as possible Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

252 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 4 User Interface Electronic Forms Same principles apply Need to understand the rules of the medium Graphical User Interface (GUI) refers to the software design that presents the computer language in human-understandable format Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

253 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 4 People read differently on the web First, they look at the center of the page Next, they will look to the left Then, they will look to the right Finally, they will scroll vertically (but not horizontally) They generally lose patience quickly (in an average of 11 seconds) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

254 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 5 Three web design styles: Home page-centric Most navigation revolves around the home page, with links to others, but with a “home” link common Link from anywhere Navigation bars on left and bottom of each page, with return to home page not necessary Transactional Pages are in sequence, with “next” and “back” buttons common Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

255 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 6 Electronic forms are displayed as “dots of light” Flickering lights can generate eye fatigue When reading, users blink less often, increasing strain Older eyes require larger print and more white space Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

256 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 7 Forms are not “literature.” Avoid overusing adjectives and adverbs. Avoid “bureaucratic” language. Avoid acronyms unless the form is targeted to a specific audience that will understand them. Don’t mix font styles, point sizes, bold, or italics unnecessarily. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

257 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image User Interaction - 8 User Considerations Users generally want a copy. Users generally want to print. Users generally want to save locally. Depending upon complexity, users may want draft mode (interim saves before submitting). Link to slide 425 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

258 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Marketing Message - 1 Externally used forms are marketing tools. Forms may be customer’s primary contact with the organization. Logos are legal representations and must be protected. Forms must support the corporate image. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

259 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Marketing Message - 2 Customers notice color, substrates, clarity. Badly designed forms lead to high abandonment rates, which can result in lost orders and lost customers. Inefficient forms create data capture errors, which add to cost and affect customer satisfaction. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

260 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Marketing Message - 3 Customer retention is everyone’s job. With high cost of customer acquisition, it is more cost-effective to keep the ones you already have. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

261 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Marketing Message - 4 Color is important - color “sells” Color has a cost with offset and flexographic printed forms Color is “free” with electronic forms, but remember that users will print and that has a cost Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

262 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Corporate Message - 1 Forms Management must be strategically aligned with the organization strategy. is a service department. is as much about supporting revenues as about controlling costs. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

263 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Corporate Message - 2 Example: Controlling Bootleg Forms Given today’s desktop environment, bootleg forms are a reality. Choices: Be seen as a forms cop or be seen as a service source. Message should be the latter. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

264 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Corporate Message - 3 Style Guides Should contain: Company Mission Statement Vision Statement Values Statement Marketing Objectives Style Guide is a marketing tool Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

265 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Corporate Message - 4 Style Guides – continued We recommend that all organizations create and actively use a Style Guide. Style Guide contents include: Logos and colors Fonts Substrates Formats Approvals Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

266 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Corporate Message - 5 Focus is on Marketing message and maintaining a positive Corporate image. Cost considerations include costs of: Color Hard to reproduce logos Substrates Non-compliance Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

267 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Avoiding Errors Why do users leave fields blank? Common, but perplexing problem with forms Usability studies lend some insight Rob Barnett and Caroline Jarrett offer interesting commentary. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

268 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 1 Laws in Canada have even stronger provisions against discrimination than do US laws. Human rights laws attempt to balance individual and collective rights. Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the overarching legislation. Many codes have provisions for goods, facilities and services. This includes virtual facilities. Most companies have not considered how human rights codes affect their web sites. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

269 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 2 Laws in the US provide some of the “How To” Section 508 requires that Federal agencies’ electronic and information technology be accessible to people with disabilities. Is a major consideration for forms designers within government and will probably trickle down to the private sector. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

270 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 3 Section continued There are 16 rules for Accessible Web Sites. Rule 14 applies to forms: “Make electronic forms accessible via assistive technology.” When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

271 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 4 What is “Accessibility”? Electronic forms must provide users with options they can select. Options may include large type, keyboard access to all commands, sound (read captions and instructions), Braille output, color choices, and more. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

272 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 5 Quick Tips Images and Animations Use the alt attribute to describe the function of each visual. Image Maps Use the client-side map and text for hotspots. Multimedia Provide captioning and transcripts of audio: and provide descriptions of video. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

273 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 6 Quick Tips - continued Hypertext Links Use text that makes sense when read out of context, e.g., avoid “click here.” Page Organization Use headings, lists, and consistent structure. Use CSS for layout and style where possible. Graphs and Charts Summarize or use the longdesc attribute Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

274 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 7 Quick Tips – continued Scripts, applets, and plug-ins Provide alternative content in case active features are inaccessible or unsupported. Frames Use the noframes element and meaningful titles Tables Make line-by-line reading sensible and summarize Check your work Validate. Use tools, checklists, and guidelines at org.TR/WCAG Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

275 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 8 Special equipment needed for accessibility is the responsibility of the user. Functionality includes: Special keyboards for access to commands Large Type Fonts Braille printers Video devices Audio devices Color choices (color blind) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

276 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Accessibility - 9 Products Available JAWS® for Windows Information from screen is read aloud Outputs to refreshable Braille displays Cerenade – 508 component Microsoft products Adobe products Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Image Links Tools, Checklists, and Guidelines Canadian Links Article on Canadian Accessibility Public Accountability Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

278 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Image Test of Knowledge Quiz Time . . . Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Forms Management Definition Forms Management The systematic process of increasing productivity and minimizing errors in information capture, transmission, and recovery through the use of workflow analysis and graphic design techniques; providing administrative control; reducing procurement, storage and use costs through standardization; and ensuring the adequacy, business as well as legal, of all historical records. Copyright, Business Forms Management Association, 1986 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

281 Forms Management An Overview of the Elements
Develop a Forms Strategy – Strategic Alignment Program Establishment – Mission, Vision, Values, Objectives and Goals Program Manual and Style Guide Forms Control Techniques Form File Structure Database Contents and Functions Formats, Software and Media Types Procurement Warehousing and Distribution Roles Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

282 Forms Management Why do Forms Programs Fail?
Silos – no central strategy Lack of management support - Transfer of responsibility Downsizing/Outsourcing of Forms Management functions Conflicting definitions – no standards Issues with software / understanding of forms Forms Cop vs. Forms Support Complexity Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

283 Forms Management Strategy versus Tactics
Strategy the process of positioning an organization for competitive advantage; planning for the direction of the enterprise prior to engagement. It is perspective and direction. Tactics Managing of resources while engaged; the current plan; a set of actions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

284 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Why Develop a Strategy? People cannot implement what they do not know. People don’t implement properly what they don’t understand. People don’t implement what they are not committed to. People give up on strategy whose implications have not been anticipated. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

285 Forms Management What is a Forms Strategy?
Enterprise agreement on goals, solutions supported, tools to be used, and implementation policy Consistent application of a set of practices to be used for the development and deployment of forms throughout the organization Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

286 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management No Strategy? There is always a “strategy.” If you don’t have a formal strategy, one will evolve for you. Forms are compelling – users need them and will develop them if you don’t. Islands of non-compatible eForms will materialize. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

287 Forms Management Who Needs to be Involved?
Forms Management – coordination Information Technology – databases Web Administrator – deployment Warehouse, Printing, Purchasing User Departments – need Sales and Marketing – define how we communicate to the public Finance – require positive ROI Legal – Signatures, records requirements Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

288 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Who are the Audiences? Inside the firewall Knowledge workers All personnel within the organization Outside the firewall Customers Suppliers Prospects Stakeholders Public Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

289 Forms Management Internal Considerations
Is there a Corporate Style Guide? What policies and procedures will be affected? Executive Support Training, Support Staffing Skills Required Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

290 Forms Management External Considerations Outside the firewall
Signature technology and support Non-repudiation Require registration? Access control Filler software requirements Routing, printing, and local save Shipping and distribution Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

291 Forms Management Ten Critical Success Factors - 1
Establish measurable goals. Align your business and your IT operations. Get executive support up-front. Let business goals drive functionality. Minimize customization by leveraging out-of-the-box functionality; avoid scope creep. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

292 Forms Management Ten Critical Success Factors - 2
Use trained, experienced suppliers. Actively involve end users in the solution design. Invest in training and empower end users. Use a phased rollout schedule. Measure, monitor and track. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

293 Forms Management Critical Elements of a Program - 1
Establish workflow analysis process. Develop Return-on-Investment requirements Develop goals for data capture and management – database connectivity. Develop standards for edition control and archiving – creating legal records. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

294 Forms Management Critical Elements of a Program - 2
Develop a deployment strategy – catalogs, portals, distributed POD. Define eCommerce requirements – credit cards, personalization, security, privacy. Establish a policy for non-repudiation – validation of user identity. Establish a policy for electronic signatures – technology, vendors, costs, “take to paper”. Define a workflow integration policy – routing, storage, retrieval, tracking. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

295 Forms Management Critical Elements of a Program - 3
Integrate eForms with paper forms management – catalogs, design, management. Software selection – workflow, design, mapping, database connectivity, server scripts, technologies supported: (paper forms, browsers, XML, ODBC, JavaScript, CGI, scripting, open source, extendable, more) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

296 Forms Management Critical Elements of a Program - 4
Interfaces to Records Management and Document Management systems Search functionality Managing obsolescence Training and help desk support Programming support Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

297 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Summary Bringing the organization together with a single strategy is difficult. It will require developing a business case and selling it to management. It can return significant benefits in important areas such as new customer acquisition, customer retention, customer service, process improvements and cost control. Developing any forms strategy is the responsibility of the forms department. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

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Strategic Alignment Corporate Strategy Mission What is the corporate Mission Statement? Vision Has the CEO established a Vision Statement? Values Sets the tone Objectives What Corporate Objectives are published? Goals List the 3 or 4 major Corporate goals – include your line management Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

300 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Department Strategy Mission Vision Objectives Goals Budget Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

301 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Department Mission Support the Corporate Mission Focus on revenue generation and customer retention Don’t forget cost reduction Define the Value Proposition Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

302 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Department Vision Establish your view of what the department will look like in the future Trends, technologies Develop scenarios based on technological change – be a Visionary Define expected benefits to the company Cost avoidance, enhanced reputation, industry leader Be the resource person for your area of expertise Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

303 Strategic Alignment Department Objectives
Provide definitions and gain agreement Align with Document Management Align with Records Management Align with Information Technology Define limitations and risks Learn the technology Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

304 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Department Goals - 1 Must be specific, realistic, measurable and with a time frame Must be relevant and important Generally shorter term Calculate ROI on everything Projects Equipment and software Personnel costs Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

305 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Department Goals - 2 Report on progress every month Include a continuing education plan for yourself and your people Have a succession plan (so you can be promoted) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

306 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Budget Develop a line item budget Develop an activity-based budget Make sure they balance Keep them current Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

307 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Establishing Metrics Determine management requirements Measure progress daily Acquire proper tools Build a Style Guide and Program Manual Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

308 Strategic Alignment Develop a Reporting System Track what is important
This means what is important to management and customers (internal and external) Gain agreement every step of the way You cannot manage that which you do not measure Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

309 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Develop a Database Establish entities and relationships Logical Design Physical Design Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

310 Strategic Alignment Database Contents and Functions
Form Identification (name, number, edition date, referenced systems) Form Ownership, Authority, Review, Contact Information Legal Requirements System Relationships and Requirements Stocking and Distribution Information Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

311 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Putting it Together Regular Reviews Use the database to identify opportunities Provide visibility up the Management Ladder Get as high up the management chain as you can as often as you can with your results Modify all the above after each review to stay in alignment Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

312 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

313 Forms Management Program Establishment
Obtain Senior Management Support Send out a Call for Forms Evaluate the samples collected Enhance data collected with samples Build Forms Analysis Database Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

314 Forms Management Set Up Process Analysis
Define the processes of the workflow Study the steps in each process Identify impediments to the workflow Define process improvement options Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

315 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Forms Control - 1 Form Identification – numbering Form Identification – titles Indexing and Filing Form Testing Obsolescence studies Management reporting Special Projects Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

316 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Forms Control - 2 Indexing and Filing Paper and other physical media Electronic (server-based) Internet (browser-based) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

317 Forms Management Forms Control Techniques
Establish form number standard Include edition date with form number Establish standard criteria for adding new forms to the system Install form ownership controls Set up review cycle procedures Define forms deletion criteria Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

318 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Forms Software Specialized software is usually more productive Design Mapping Filling Process analysis and flowcharting Order management Warehousing and distribution Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

319 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Form Files - 1 Form file types: Form Catalog – usually electronic List: alphabetically by title, by form number, by sponsoring department Form History Include: design instructions, proof approvals, copy of each edition, production notes, artwork Functional File Sample of form filed by function, helps spot duplications, improve productivity by reducing clerical effort, spot consolidations Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

320 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Form Files - 2 Form File Structure Identify data elements for form file Establish security procedures for controlled access to form files Define form samples standards Build individual form specifications Cross-reference to related forms Identify forms function for each file Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

321 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Forms Testing Alpha Testing Test with form owner Beta Testing Test in real work environment Rollout Test with all users (within company and with general public) Feedback and Revisions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

322 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Obsolescence Studies Macro Analysis Review database for lack of usage; automatic obsolete, wait for feedback Reorder Analysis Challenge on reorder; look for combinations Ad Hoc Analysis Project-oriented, e.g., study all envelopes Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

323 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Management Reports Why are they important? Information at fingertips,show value to company, justify your existence Management wants statistics Total forms, number of reprints, eliminations, revisions, new forms, more Management wants cost savings Project results – hard dollar and productivity Managements wants results Tell them what you do Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

324 Forms Management Forms Control Sphere of Influence
Procurement Warehousing Catalogs Pick ‘n’ Pack eCommerce Distribution Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

325 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Strategic Alignment Roles Form Owner Forms Analyst Form Specifier Forms Designer Form Buyer Forms Administrator Form User Forms Clerk Forms Filler / Forms Manager Records Manager (Department) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

326 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Forms Management Test of Knowledge Quiz Time . . . Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

327 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

328 Physical Container Design
Introduction Tell us your name, organization, experience, education, and three personal things about yourself that you would like us to know. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

329 Physical Container Design
Class Goals What specific goals do you have for this class? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

330 Physical Container Design
Paper - 1 Questions: What is tensile strength? What is basis weight? What is calendaring? What is opacity? What is brightness? What is caliper? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

331 Physical Container Design
Paper - 2 Characteristics – grain direction; wire / felt sides; acidity; permanency; durability; opacity; brightness; whiteness; color; impression quality; moisture content; basis weight; caliper; equivalent weight Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

332 Physical Container Design
Paper - 3 Types – form bond (20/24#), OCR, MICR, safety, rag / cotton content, translucent, lightweight, carbonizing; Offset (50/60/70#), ledger, index; Tag; laser / inkjet; text; cover (80/100#); coated Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

333 Physical Container Design
Paper - 4 Form Bond lb. Register bond CW bond (chemical wood) Laser bond Dual purpose bond Rag-content bond Offset – 70 lb. 50-60 lb. is most common Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

334 Physical Container Design
Paper - 5 Pressure Sensitive Labels Face stock Adhesive Silicon release coating Carrier (backer) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

335 Physical Container Design
Paper - 6 Other Forms Papers Ledger Tag Cover Coated OCR / MICR / MOCR Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

336 Physical Container Design
Paper - 7 Specialty Papers Foil Vinyl Mylar Tyvek Microencapsulated (scented) Transfer Tape Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

337 Physical Container Design
Paper - 8 Coated Papers Carbonless Paper CB, CFB, CF – Coated Back, Coated Face and Back, Coated Face; self-contained; standard colors; backprinting not recommended (cannot write on back until sensitized set is disassembled) Sensitizing – addition of chemical coating to all or parts of a forms bond sheet; eliminates need for spot or pattern carbons or desensitizing Desensitizing – addition of chemical coating to all or parts of a forms bond sheet to facilitate selective data transfer prevention Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

338 Physical Container Design
Paper - 9 Carbon Paper Ink finishes – medium, hard, extra hard, intense and extra intense Reuse – individual sheets can be reused as with a sales book Specialty – stripe, pattern, spot, color carbon Other – double-sided, OCR, Carbonless-compatible Write Test – should always be conducted Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

339 Physical Container Design
Paper - 10 Thermal Heat sensitive Thermal Transfer Melted ribbon Top Coating Toner adherence Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

340 Physical Container Design
Paper - 11 Security Papers Level 1 Contain pantographs Level 2 Add brown stain and black stain Level 3 Add features such as hidden fibers, visible fibers, florescent fibers, standard watermarks, top coatings Level 4 Add polyester strips, custom watermarks, planchettes Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

341 Physical Container Design
Inks - 1 Ingredients pigments, vehicles, driers, antioxidants, waxes, starches, lubricants, plasticizers Drying absorption, evaporation, oxidation / polymerization Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

342 Physical Container Design
Inks - 2 Colors (remember Roy G Biv) White is all colors reflected; Black is all colors absorbed Pantone Matching System (PMS) Process – CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) Printing Process – RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Screen Display Laser Heat resistant; Pressure drying Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

343 Physical Container Design
Inks - 3 Security Inks Drop out Double strike Bleed through Thermo chromatic White opaque Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

344 Physical Container Design
Inks - 4 Other Types of Inks Types – letterpress, litho, flexo, gravure Specialty Types – MICR, OCR, heat resistant, inkjet, high gloss, fluorescent, metallic; Thermo-chromatic, UV Potential Problems – bleeding, powering, feathering, fill-in, fuzzy, ghosting, hickeys, mottle, picking, piling, rubbing, scuffing, screening, scumming, setoff, flaking, spreading, strike-through, tinting Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

345 Physical Container Design
Print Technologies - 1 Types Non-Impact – laser, ink jet; thermal, thermal transfer; magnetography; dielectric and ion deposition Impact – dot matrix; daisywheel; band; chain Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

346 Physical Container Design
Print Technologies - 2 Types Character prints one character at a time; one printhead; typically desktop-type Line Up to 132 printheads; extremely fast; large data processing Page prints a full page at a time Dot matrix characters formed from an array of dots Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

347 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 1 Printing Types Offset Litho – image applied to flexible metal (or paper) printing plate via bright light, chemical processing; image applied to substrate via rubber blanket and “oil and water don’t mix” reaction Uses: Forms, high-end labels, commercial printing Flexography – direct image process via flexible, relief-image plates; no water used Uses: Paperboard, corrugated cardboard, film, foil, laminates Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

348 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 2 Printing Types – continued Gravure (intaglio) - direct imaging process; image etched directly onto the surface of printing cylinder; very fluid inks Uses: high fidelity reproductions, e.g., National Geographic magazine Thermography – addition of special powder to wet ink to create the appearance of embossing when dry; high shine; less expensive than engraving; head used to set the ink powder Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

349 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 3 Composition High End – Mecca 2000, Digicomp Desktop - OneForm Plus, F3, Informed, Adobe Designer Page Layout – QuarkXpress, PageMaker, Freehand, many others Proofing Types – photocopy, contact print, blueline, velox, PMT, film positive, chromalin, matchprint, press proof, digital image Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

350 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 4 Platemaking Offset Litho – metal or paper plates; film negative to plate, film positive to plate, computer-to-plate; all use bright, xenon light to expose image onto plate; chemical processing to expose right-reading image Flexo – rubber or photopolymer plates; reverse image to plate; chemical processing to expose reverse-reading image Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

351 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 5 Presses Web – unwind / infeed, printing, numbering / imprinting, processing, rewind / delivery Sheet-fed – sheet bed, printing, numbering / imprinting, delivery Perfecting – prints both sides of the web simultaneously Pack-to-Pack – unfolds, prints and refolds a pack of preprocessed paper Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

352 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 6 Presses – continued Multi-web – prints, collates and folds a multi-part form in one pass Dry Offset – no dampening system; indefinite life of plates; typically used for long-run printing of stock forms and stock tab Letterpress – platen (offline processing and numbering); flat-bed cylinder and rotary (small commercial printers) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

353 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 7 Presses – continued Digital Xerox Docutech HP Indigo Xiekon Heidelberg (Kodak engine) Canon Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

354 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 8 Collators continuous and unit set carbon interleaving capability fastenings - gluing and crimping cross perforation to paper and carbon, if used additional processing – punching; perfs parallel to the web; bar coding; slitting and crash numbering Other – pack-to-pack; cut sheet Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

355 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 9 Encoders Inline with press or collator Offline as stand-alone Numbers that are typically scanned Utilizes a ribbon instead of inkpad Typical numbering systems – Arabic, MICR, OCR, barcodes Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

356 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 10 Bindery Spot stitching Stapling Line sewing Bundlers Shrink wrappers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

357 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 11 Bindery – continued Cutters Drills Folders Film wrapping Inserters Stitchers Edge binding Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

358 Physical Container Design
Manufacturing - 12 Affixers Offline stand alone: integrated with a collator; inline Affixes envelopes, cards, coins, packets, labels and other products to forms Tippers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

359 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

360 Physical Container Design
Design Analysis - 1 Understanding requirements (Intent of the form) Convert to design elements Look for areas of improvement (meet with users) Select the “form of the form” Calculate expected ROI Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

361 Physical Container Design
Design Analysis - 2 Macro Analysis Regular (scheduled) Reviews Ad hoc Analysis Process Diagrams Return-on-Investment Analysis End Result: Solve the Business Problem Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

362 Physical Container Design
Design Analysis - 3 Pertinent Issues Sources of Data: Handwritten Optical scan Typewriter Optical mark scan Keyboard Magnetic Ink read Bar Code scan Database tables RFID Video Read Audio Tape Touch screen Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

363 Physical Container Design
Design Analysis - 4 Questions – Who will use this form? What do people do with the form? What is the fill environment? Where do the data come from? Where will the users use the form? When is the form completed? Why is the form necessary? How do people use the form? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

364 Physical Container Design
Design Analysis - 5 Form Users (from an analyst’s perspective) Form Owners Technical Users (specifiers) Process Users Counselors (coaches) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

365 Physical Container Design
Design Analysis - 6 Cardinal Principles: Forms must be easy to WRITE Forms must be easy to READ Forms must appear easy to USE Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

366 Physical Container Design
Product Types - 1 Cut Sheets Typically single-ply; more and more multi-part carbonless being used; hand-filled or used in non-impact printers Continuous Single or multi-part; carbons or carbonless; for non-impact and impact printers Unit Sets Multi-part; carbons (stub) or carbonless (glued edge); hand or typewriter filled Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

367 Physical Container Design
Product Types - 2 Mailers Single-ply; postcards; folded sheets, heat seal, pressure seal, Info-Seal Secured Documents Negotiable documents (checks, bonds); transcripts, currency, prescriptions, gift certificates, many more Sales Books and Registers Book-bound unit sets Pegboard A specific form system typically used in medical / dental offices. “One-write” systems Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

368 Physical Container Design
Product Types - 3 Envelopes stock and custom; window and standard; usually contain an adhesive for sealing (lick ‘n’ stick; peel ‘n’ seal; latex); business; specialty Labels ISL; Product ID (prime): Specialty; Cheshire; pressure sensitive and re-moistenable Tags Products; tag paper stock; wired; fabric; unit sets; continuous; single or multi-part Other: (Books, stencil labels, joined web) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

369 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

370 Physical Container Design
Secured Documents - 1 Design Features Micro Printing Intricate borders Void pantographs Guioches LogoDot Distortion Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

371 Physical Container Design
Secure Documents - 2 Paper Features Brown Stain Black Stain Watermarks Florescent Fibers Planchettes Security Threads Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

372 Physical Container Design
Secure Documents - 3 Inks ThermoChromatic UV Sensor Erasure-resistant special bleeds Florescent White ink Scratch off Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

373 Physical Container Design
Secure Documents - 4 Printing Features Drop out inks Double strike numbers Holograms Artificial watermarks Split fountain printing Foils, laminates Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

374 Physical Container Design
Secure Documents - 5 Issues Secure access to checks Secure features on checks Secure distribution Accountability of numbers, waste Special printer software to detect presence of features Positive pay systems Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

375 Physical Container Design
Acknowledgment Essociates Group, Inc. wishes to acknowledge and thank WARD KRAFT and others for their time and generosity in providing the form samples we used in this class. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

376 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

377 Standards & Conventions
Definitions - 1 size / orientation fonts & rule weights positioning logo usage / proximity grouping density / white space color instructions / help format specifications Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

378 Standards & Conventions
Definitions - 2 form title bold type form number reverse type edition date color text page numbering screening captions check boxes Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

379 Standards & Conventions
Size – ref: Page 16 of Model Style Guide Usually 8 ½” x 11” – paper forms “Standard” size envelopes Positioning Logo and company name at top left Title at top right Form Number / Edition Date at bottom left; page number at bottom right Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

380 Standards & Conventions
Group / Sequencing By Zones Identification Zone – Company and form identification (logo, form title, company name and address) Instruction Zone – Provide any instructions for the overall form Introduction Zone - Name, address, phone, fax, fields displayed together Body Zone – One or more sections regarding form purpose Closing Zone – Totals, signatures, routing Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

381 Standards & Conventions
Color – ref: Page 17 of Model Style Guide Paper / screened background – white Logo often displayed in color on external forms and (sometimes) in black and white on internal forms Ink for container usually black Emphasis / spot color – usually red or a color pulled from the company logo if it is printed in color on the form Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

382 Standards & Conventions
Format – ref: Page 14 of Model Style Guide Left to right / top to bottom Data sectioning / logical sequence fields White space Upper-left corner captions Check boxes always to the left of captions Signatures usually at the bottom of form Distribution at bottom (multi-part form sets) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

383 Standards & Conventions
Fonts and Rule Weights – Use serif fonts for Instructions / Help Use sans serif fonts for captions 12-14 point form title / 7 – 9 point captions ½ point to 1 point full value rules Hairline rules – less than ¼ point Screened rules where appropriate Screened areas in lieu of rules Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

384 Standards & Conventions
Logo Usage / Proximity – ref: Page 18 of Model Style Guide Adhere to Style Guide rules Use only approved design(s), size(s) and color(s); avoid any distortion Use only where authorized Honor standard isolation area rules Remember that its business forms can be good marketing tools for the organization Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

385 Standards & Conventions
Density and White space – ref: Page 14 of Model Style Guide Design for BOTH form users: the one who completes the blank form the one who reads the completed form Make the form look easy to complete Don’t pack a gallon into a pint container Use white space to separate discrete sections of the form and to guide the eyes of the users. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

386 Standards & Conventions
Instructions and Help – ref: Page 13 of Model Style Guide Write for a third-grade reader Language on form may be a second language for the user Flesch test Paper forms: locate instructions near to where they’re needed use plain language; stay away from jargon Electronic forms: Use tool tips where appropriate Supply a “search” capability when possible Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

387 Standards & Conventions
Specifications Paper forms: Adhere to industry manufacturing standards whenever possible to control costs Clarify manufacturing requirements discuss all the specifications with your vendor Electronic forms: Identify related databases; system(s) Integrate electronic workflow(s) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

388 Standards & Conventions
Form Number / Edition Date – ref: Page 12 of Model Style Guide Form Number: 4 or 5 digits No “significant” characters Prefix or suffix ONLY to specify version: language or ‘state/legal’ variations Edition Date: (mm/dd/yyyy) Even the first edition gets a date! Changes ONLY when layout changes Record Number: (AutoIncrement) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

389 Standards & Conventions
Uses of Form Number Search / Find Reference in procedures Identity on form Legitimizes the form Form Number Does Not: Define responsible department or cost center Provide account codes Provide system ID Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

390 Standards & Conventions
Page Numbering No need to number one-page forms Indicate “Page __ of __ pages” on all pages Include form number and edition date with page number on subsequent pages Position page numbers in footer area Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

391 Standards & Conventions
Captions – ref: Page 13 of Model Style Guide Captions in upper / lower case type Upper-left corner captions preferred Caption followed by rule: acceptable Caption below rule: NOT acceptable (except for some signature lines) Length of variable data entry, not the caption, controls size of the entry space Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

392 Standards & Conventions
Bold Type Use for section headings only Reverse Printing Use sparingly and be sure they are BOLD type – no exceptions; avoid, if possible, on faxed forms Color Text Use limited to special emphasis only Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

393 Standards & Conventions
Screening – ref: Page 14 of Model Style Guide Use to de-emphasize structural rules use to differentiate special data areas Avoid on faxed forms Check boxes Position to the left of choice option position the box and the caption snugly together as a visible unit Leave sufficient space between selections to avoid “which goes where?” confusion Other graphic devices Use as needed and appropriate Day 4 return link Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

394 Standards & Conventions
Quotable Quotes “Proper prior planning prevents pitifully poor performance.” “If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will take you there.” Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

395 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

396 Physical Container Design
Design Techniques - 1 Zoning Special Areas Design Styles Grouping Sequencing Spacing Drawing Objects Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

397 Physical Container Design
Design Techniques - 2 Restrictions and Qualifiers Paper forms Style Guides Design Standards Design Conventions Using Life Cycle Pre- and Post Processing Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

398 Physical Container Design
Design Technique - 3 Drawing Objects Adding Fields Paper forms Proofing Testing Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

399 Physical Container Design
Design Issues Automated Processing Roll-feed Systems Roll Rewinders Folding, inserting and mailing For Manual Forms Decollating Bursting Trimming Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

400 Physical Container Design
Testing - 1 Traditional Methods Opinion surveys Pilot studies Readability scores Flesch Test Fog Index Focus groups Problem: doesn’t focus on real user problems, only opinions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

401 Physical Container Design
Testing - 2 Observational Methods What they show us Why people go wrong Real needs of users Highlight specific problems Form filler behavior Form is studied in real environment We see what really happens Enables progressive improvements Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

402 Physical Container Design
Deployment Strategies Produce for inventory Produce on demand & ship to user Pick ‘n’ pack Print-on-demand Distribute, then print Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

403 Physical Container Design
Deployment Issues Purchasing Requisition Warehousing and distribution Obsolescence Digital asset management Printer support Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

404 Physical Container Design
Test of Knowledge Quiz . . . Container Design Exercise . . . Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

405 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

406 Electronic Container Design
Product Types pForms paper, or other physical substrates eForms digital forms used in non-browser environments iForms digital forms used in browsers Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

407 Electronic Container Design
Levels Print-on-demand Fill and print Fill and submit Intelligent electronic forms Enterprise-enabled Applications Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

408 Electronic Containers
Introduction Quick History Lesson What is the Internet? What is the World Wide Web? What is the W3C? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

409 Electronic Containers
Browser - 1 What is it and how does it work? It’s a program used to visit web pages It works by using a protocol called HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) to request a specially encoded text document from a web server. This text document contains special markup code written in HyperText Markup Language (HTML). This markup is interpreted by the web browser, the job of which is to render the document’s content in an appropriate manner for the user’s convenience. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

410 Electronic Containers
Browser - 2 What is it and how does it work? The HTML may include such things as references to other web documents using hyperlinks, suggestions for text color and position, and other content such as images and audio and visual (“multimedia”) content Types PC and Mac – Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera, Firefox Unix / VMS – Lynx (http://lynx.browser.org), w3m Amiga – VoyagerNG, Mosaic and others Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

411 Electronic Containers
Networks - 1 Definition: A network consists of two or more computers connected together to share information. All networking builds off this simple system. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

412 Electronic Containers
Networks - 2 Components Computers Protocol Network Interface Cards (NICs) Cable Hub (Note: Wireless networks obviously don’t use cables and NICs aren’t necessary for small networks that use parallel / serial ports.) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

413 Electronic Containers
Networks - 3 How does it work? Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

414 Electronic Containers
Networks - 4 Classification Size – Local Area Networks and Wide Area Networks LANs – Peer-to-Peer; Client Server Client LANs – Windows 2000 Security and Access Protocol Hardware Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

415 Electronic Containers
Networks - 5 Servers A server is a computer running software that enables it to serve specific requests from clients. Types Client Server - Most common Peer-to-Peer - Most popular application today is Internet music swapping; KaZaA, Morpheus (Note: By definition, Napster was ultimately deemed not to be P2P because the pass-thru server logged and tracked files.) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

416 Electronic Containers
Networks - 6 Servers Client Server Benefits: Optimization Centralization Security Redundancy and Back-up Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

417 Electronic Containers
Networks - 7 Servers Client Server (continued) Hardware: Dedicated CPU Multiple processor support Large amounts of RAM supported Fast input / output and network cards Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

418 Electronic Containers
Networks - 8 Servers Client Server (continued) Software: Network Operating System (NOS) – Windows NT / 2000, Novell Netware, Linux Features: File and Print serving, backup and some method to secure those resources; Some NOSs will include a web server or mail server. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

419 Electronic Containers
Networks - 9 Servers Client Server (continued) Software Applications: Mail Servers – Microsoft Exchange, Eudora Mail Server List Servers – LISTSERV, Lyris, Arrow Mailing List Server Fax Servers – ReplayRax, FaxMaker, eFax Messenger Web Servers – Apache, IIS Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

420 Electronic Containers
Networks - 10 Servers Client Server (continued) Software Applications: (continued) Database Servers or DBMS – MySQL Server, Oracle, IBM DB2 Web Application Servers – Cold Fusion Terminal Server or Communication Server – Dumb terminals; MS Windows GUI thin client Proxy Servers – MS Proxy Server, Wingate Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

421 Electronic Containers
Fillers Types Client-based software that interacts with Web servers. They manage the specific client to various OS and browsers. Proprietary fillers include FormFlow Filler, Cerenade Filler, FileNet Filler. Free, widely-distributed fillers include Windows 32 bit client (Visual Basic), Acrobat Reader. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

422 Electronic Containers
Multiple Pages Paper Forms Each page is usually a separate sheet with separate form number Electronic Forms May contain an unlimited number of pages. Usually accompanied by a navigation method such as “Next,” “Previous,” “First Page,” “Last Page” (or arrows indicating such. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

423 Electronic Containers
Drawing Techniques Code-based Systems Lotus Notes, Xerox, IBM, HTML, Elixir WYSIWYG Systems Most modern forms design software use drawing tools for lines, boxes, text, circles, etc. Import Functions enable vector conversion for edits Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

424 Electronic Containers
New Technologies Compatibility Issues New Standards (XML, JavaScript, Java Applets, Mac OS, Windows XP) Competing, often incompatible systems Emerging Standards (Print Talk, JDL, Microsoft.net, Xforms) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

425 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.
Test of Knowledge Exercise Time . . . Define the differences between electronic and Internet forms. Give examples of when to use each. Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

426 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

427 Electronic Container Design
Electronic Forms Issues - 1 Inside the firewall IT structure and standards controls what can be done Standardization of software used, desktop interface, networks and database interaction Users are known through a user ID and password Access and security rules, as well as business rules, can be enforced Signatures can be managed through logins and locking methods Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

428 Electronic Container Design
Electronic Forms Issues - 2 Outside the firewall Registered users – can be managed similar to inside-the firewall Anonymous users – holds most potential for eCommerce but many issues unresolved Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

429 Electronic Container Design
Electronic Forms Issues - 3 Electronic Commerce (eCommerce) Includes customization, one-to-one marketing, ordering, status checking, credit card processing, and customer service opportunities Link to slide 249 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

430 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 1 Development Who develops forms? Process for new forms, revisions Obsolescence policy Forms control (numbers, applying standards) Retention policy Approvals Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

431 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 2 Distribution Local save support Local save and print Servers Forms portals User access controls User submission of filled forms Security policy Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

432 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 3 Support User training On-line help Help desk support Instruction manuals User guides Designer training Level of support (24 X 7 ?) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

433 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 4 Software Selection Design software Client software (fillers) Edition management Workflow design software Compatibility with existing systems Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

434 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 5 Output Strategy Save and print Database access Multiple versions support Offline and online Multiple device support (PDAs, notebooks) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

435 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 6 Management Reporting Metrics and statistics tracking Enhancement requests User satisfaction levels Strategic support (mission, goals) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

436 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 7 Mapping / Programming Level of complexity supported Out-of-the-box functionality Tools to be used IT support required Outside resources required File and field naming conventions Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

437 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 8 Routing Attach to Rules-based routing Status tracking Multiple, simultaneous routing Approvals capture and security (un-sign) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

438 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 9 Database Connections Read Write Permissions and connections Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) Roles Data Administrator Database Administrator (DBA) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

439 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 10 Storage and Retrieval Data and container separate? Associate data to edition of container Records Management requirements Archiving, allowing for technology changes Backup Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

440 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 11 Security and Privacy Issues Secure servers (https protocol) Intrusion detection Data encryption Secure access Secure features on a form Compare to security of a paper form Associate cost to business risks Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

441 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 12 Other considerations Workflow analysis Need to support paper forms in same system Source file management Dealing with bootleg forms creation Interfaces to other systems Search capabilities Forms portals Managing obsolescence IT Department support Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

442 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 13 Signatures eSign and UETA Signature verification is all about the process Can you document it? Can you prove it? Can you reproduce it? Is it secure? Security versus usability are competing factors Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

443 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 14 Signatures - continued Three things to remember: Once introduced, requirements will grow rapidly Compliance is a significant component of the solution Committing resources to a non-strategic function is always more expensive Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

444 Electronic Container Design
Designing for the Web - 15 Front-end Process Authenticate user (passwords, smart cards) Consent to transact electronically Maintain document format (no fillers!) Present without download Record of delivery and acceptance (workflow and business rules embedded into the process) Establish intent to sign Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

445 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

446 Electronic Container Design
Review Standards and Conventions Lets review the standards and conventions we discussed yesterday and compare and contrast them between paper and electronic forms Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

447 Electronic Container Design
Design Techniques - 1 Zoning – can be replaced by sub-forms, hidden fields, hidden pages Setting preferences – object properties Box and columnar design using tables Grouping – same as pForms Sequencing – tab order Spacing – designing to fit the data field Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

448 Electronic Container Design
Design Techniques - 2 Field Types Drawing fields – stepping Masks Restrictions and qualifiers Use the Style Guide Data formats and types Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

449 Electronic Container Design
Data Formats Data Formats Standard ASCII HTML, XML Proprietary .doc, .xls, .ppt .g, .elf Generally accepted .PDF, EPS, PostScript, DBF Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

450 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 1 HTML Editor XML and XSLT Compiled languages Scripting languages Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Database technology Web Authoring tools Applets and Servlets Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

451 Electronic Container Design
HTML - 1 Basic Page Structure <html> <head> <title>Title goes here</title> </head> <body> Body goes here </body> </html> Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

452 Electronic Container Design
HTML - 2 Common HTML Tags Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

453 Electronic Container Design
HTML - 3 Creating HTML Forms Common form tags <form> defines a form <input> defines an input field <select> defines a selectable list Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

454 Electronic Container Design
XML - 1 Review of XML Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

455 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 2 Compiled languages are converted to machine language using a “compiler.” Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

456 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 3 Scripting languages execute one line at a time and do not need to be compiled JavaScript PHP Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) Active Server Pages (ASP) Java Server Pages (JSP) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

457 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 4 Common Gateway Interface (CGI) a programming interface between a web server and the systems’ backend functions – such as processing systems and databases allows web servers to perform data functions and interact with users Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

458 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 5 Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Server-side programs or scripts – all processing occurs on server Client-side solutions include Java applets, Java scripts, and ActiveX controls Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

459 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 6 Relational Databases Data Structure Data are organized in the form of tables with rows and columns Data Manipulation Powerful operations (SQL) are used to manipulate the data Data Integrity Business rules are applied to maintain integrity during manipulation Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

460 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 7 Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) a standard method of sharing data between databases and other programs ODBC drivers are the standard Structured Query Language (SQL) to gain access to data from outside sources Each database program requires a different driver Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

461 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 8 Database Use for Electronic Forms Any form that can provide the ability to save and recall the variable fill data requires the use of a database It may be a simple table or a multiple table database, or even multiple databases Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

462 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 9 Web Authoring Tools Microsoft FrontPage Macromedia Dreamweaver Adobe GoLive NetObjects Fusion Many HTML editors available Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

463 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 10 Access: Three levels Access to the system Access to the form Access to the information on the form Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

464 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 11 Compatibility Competing, proprietary software List of software providers Proprietary technologies Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, Adobe Systems Form standards? Xform standard (recommended by W3C) PDF (widely adopted- recommended by Adobe) XML (W3C) developed – widely supported) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

465 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 12 “Xforms” is W3C’s name for a specification of Web forms that can be used with a wide variety of platforms including desktop computers, hand-helds, information appliances, and even paper. Decoupled data, logic and presentation Has yet to gain traction Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

466 Electronic Container Design
Web Technologies - 13 Server-side Considerations Scripts Web services Database access Login, password management Encryption Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

467 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

468 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 1 Adobe Acrobat products Microsoft InfoPath CGI (Open Source) Proprietary Form Router Catalogs Portals Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

469 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 2 Microsoft InfoPath is available only with Office Enterprise Edition (full functionality) InfoPath is available as a standalone product (limited functionality) Users must have InfoPath to open a form Does not seem viable outside the firewall Does not support HTML forms, nor PDF Expensive Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

470 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 3 Adobe Most users have the free Reader, which limits what they can do with a PDF file Adobe requires a server product to extend Reader functionality Server products have minimum licensing requirements, such as 20 forms or 20 users. Starts at $75,000 + US (my estimate) Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

471 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 4 Open Source There is no open source designer Apache server MySQL database PERL or PHP scripts HTML / XML JavaScript Must put it all together Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

472 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 5 Proprietary In addition to the design software, deployment requires use of a proprietary filler software usually licensed on a per form or per user basis. Filler software must be installed on client PC, with concomitant upgrades May require proprietary scripting language Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

473 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 6 Outsourced Build simple forms (or send FormRouter your form) Set alerts – each time a form is submitted Host your form 9on their server) Collect your data Download responses View results Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

474 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 7 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

475 Electronic Container Design
Deployment Strategies - 8 Portal example – State of Missouri Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

476 Electronic Container Design
Test of Knowledge Quiz . . . Exercise . . . Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

477 Electronic Container Design
Demonstration Create and deploy an electronic and Internet form Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

478 Thank You for Attending
Contact Information Ray H. Killam, CFC, CFSP President, Essociates Group, Inc. 13305 W. 126th Street Overland Park, KS phone fax Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.

479 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc.


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