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Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 1 The Forms Industry in Perspective Presented by: Essociates Group, Inc. Endorsed by: Business Forms Management.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 1 The Forms Industry in Perspective Presented by: Essociates Group, Inc. Endorsed by: Business Forms Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 1 The Forms Industry in Perspective Presented by: Essociates Group, Inc. Endorsed by: Business Forms Management Association Focused Forms Training

2 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 2 Introductions Tell us your name, organization, experience, education, and three personal things about yourself that you would like us to know.

3 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 3 Class Goals What specific goals do you have for this class?

4 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 4 Organization This is a four day class, organized into eighteen sections, with quizzes, team exercises, discussions, and lots on interaction. It delivers a well-rounded understanding of business forms It provides practical information on forms design It presents Essociates Group’s approach to forms It prepares students for certification

5 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 5 The Forms Industry  Structure  Associations  History  Current State  Future Scenarios  New Seminal Events

6 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 6 Structure  Forms Users, Owners & Form Specifiers  Forms Managers, Analysts, & Designers  Paper Forms Manufacturers  Paper Forms Distributors  Electronic Forms Producers  Forms Consultants

7 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 7 Structure  Other Manufacturers Commercial printers Quick printers Envelope Manufacturers In-plant printers  Specialists Direct mailers Stock forms producers Information System Labels (ISL) Security printers Software-compatible forms manufacturers

8 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 8 Structure  Electronic Forms Producers Software developers Integrators Systems developers Open source General purpose software providers In-house Information Technology (IT) Consultants

9 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 9 History  Began with the Industrial Revolution  Historical Seminal Events Carbon tissue Mainframe computer printers All-Points-Addressable (APA) printers Electronic Print Shop Personal computers Electronic Forms Browsers

10 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 10 Significant Inventions One-time carbon Carbonless paper Bar codes Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Scanning (OCR-ICR-OMR-NHR) Security paper Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Relational database technology HTML DHTML XML Scripting languages Desk-top publishing (What You See Is What You Get – “WYSIWYG” drawing software)

11 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 11 Current State  Large, mature industry that is undergoing a transformation (FormTrac 04 Study)  Megatrends fewer plies smaller sizes one part forms sheets versus continuous blank versus preprinted forms electronic format (paper-optional) and distribution Web forms

12 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 12 Current State  End Users – downsizing, outsourcing, transfer to IT, more specialized  Manufacturing – mergers & acquisitions, closings, more specialization, diversification  Distributors – Sales versus forms organizations  eForms – Adobe & Microsoft; 28 + software developers, moving to XML development; X-form standard

13 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 13 Future Scenarios  Extrapolate current state  Year “X”  IT Takeover  Radical technological advancements (New Seminal Events emerge)

14 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 14 Future Scenarios Extrapolation  Loss of industry identity  Merge with commercial printing  Emergence of electronic forms technologies  Diffusion of forms development into general business environment  Loss of forms management as a separate business function

15 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 15 Year “X”  Production of most printed products will be digital  Product production will be a commodity  Inventories of printed products become obsolete  Distribution will be digital  Requisition systems become production ordering systems  Print demand will continue to grow  New digital printing technologies will emerge  Digital asset management becomes essential  Intelligent Electronic Forms (IEF) replace Print-on- Demand and Fill-and-Print forms  Requires continued incremental gains only

16 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 16 IT Takeover  User acceptance of digital forms becomes widespread  Laws and business practices change to accommodate eForms technologies  Forms technologies become more complicated and technical  Business processes change to become fully online  Dynamic forms (XML) replace HTML and PDF forms

17 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 17 New Seminal Events  Nanotechnology – new RAM  Ubiquitous wireless networks  Digital inks  Flexible, portable substrates emerge  Low cost, effective voice-to-computer technology  Others?

18 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 18

19 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 19 Introduction to Forms  The forms profession needs to agree on a common set of definitions.  The Canadian General Standards Board (CGSB) has taken the lead.  To be successful, standards must be developed and adopted by an International standards body.

20 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 20 Relationships Form Document Record Forms Management Document ManagementRecords Management

21 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 21 Definition  Form:  the basic business tool (whether printed or electronic) for collecting and transmitting information  the catalyst for getting things done, and  the record of what was done. Copyright 1986 – Business Forms Management Association

22 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 22 Definition  Document A document is a container of information. The container makes it possible to organize, present, and manage the information related to an event, person, or topic. The way data are organized and presented in the container provides meaning and context to the information. A document could be a form, letter, spreadsheet, memorandum, photograph, video clip, or report. The document can exist in any media. New York State Office for Technology – EDMS Cookbook

23 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 23 Comparative Definitions  Form  A form is a specialized document that contains one or more fields for the capture and / or display of variable data.  Record  A specific instance of a form is a record. A document that is unique to a specific transaction becomes a record.

24 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 24 Form Types  pForms – paper, or other physical substrates  eForms – digital forms used in non-browser environments  iForms – digital forms used within browsers

25 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 25 Forms Management  Forms Management – includes specifications, analysis data, forms creation, approval management, user interactions, forms production and deployment, and inventory management

26 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 26 Document Management  Document Management – focus on issues such as searching, archiving, retrieving, scanning, indexing and process management

27 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 27 Records Management  Records Management – designation of official records retention requirements legal accessibility destruction authorizations storage and archiving methods

28 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 28 Document Hierarchy Document Management DOCUMENT FORM RECORD... etc. Statement Report RECORD Forms Management Records Management

29 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 29 Associations  Business Forms Management Association (BFMA)  Document Management Industries Association (DMIA)  AIIM International - The ECM Association  ARMA International  The Association for Work Process Improvement (TAWPI)  North American Security Products Organization (NASPO) ... and others

30 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 30

31 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 31 Four Elements of Every Form

32 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 32 Four Elements of Every Form  INTENT -justification for the existence of the form  CONTAINER -physical layout of data capture vehicle  DATA -variable information captured on the form  IMAGE - interface among users, data and systems

33 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 33 Intent Business Functions Business Systems Workflow Analysis Workflow Tracking Business Rules Forms Workflow Considerations Cost Analysis and Return on Investment (ROI) Documentation Elements of Intent

34 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 34 Intent: Business Systems  All businesses have the same ten basic functions. Business Forms Handbook – 5 th Edition  These functions exist to some degree in every organization.  It is useful to classify forms as to the primary business function they serve.  These functions are divided into three cycles – Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable and Accounting. Business Functions

35 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 35 Intent: Business Systems  The Accounts Receivable Cycles begin with marketing and sales activities  Once sold, goods and services must be either produced or purchased for resale  Goods and services are then delivered and billed  The final step is collection and deposit of the money Accounts Receivable Cycle

36 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 36 Intent: Business Systems  All organizations purchase goods and services to be resold or consumed.  Purchased goods and services are received.  Physical goods (and electronic goods) are stored.  The money is disbursed via A/P. Accounts Payable Cycle

37 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 37 Intent: Business Systems  The term “accounting” is used to describe all the activities that enable the business to operate.  Accounting includes financial accounting as well as legal, human resources, administrative and shared services, and information technology. Accounting

38 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 38 Accounts Payable Cycle Purchase Requisition Receiving Report Material Requisition Voucher Check Accounts Receivable Cycle Production Order Bill of Lading Invoice Statement Basic Functions of Business PRODUCTION Instructions for Filling Orders are Issued SHIPPING Goods Packed and Shipping Records Prepared BILLING Invoices from Shipping and Production Records ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE From Invoicing Records PURCHASING Purchase Request, Quotations & Purch. Order Issued RECEIVING Goods Received, Inspected and Recorded STORING Goods Stored or Sent to Production Departments ACCOUNTS PAYABLE From Purchasing & Receiving Records SELLING Sales Order / Source Documents ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTINGACCOUNTING

39 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 39 Intent: Business Systems  Although there are standard business systems, most organizations customize them according to their need. Primary  Identifying the Primary system a form serves will facilitate analysis functions at a later date, particularly as mergers, acquisitions, multiple locations, etc. occur and forms begin to proliferate.  Many forms serve multiple business systems and it usually makes a lot of sense to design them accordingly. (For example, a multi-part Purchase Order may also serve as a Sales Order, a Receiving document, as Authorization for Payment. Its primary business system, however, is Purchasing.) Primary Business Systems

40 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 40 Intent: Business Systems Secondary  Identifying one or more Secondary business systems served by the form can also help when doing analysis.  Secondary business systems can identify opportunities for combinations Secondary Business Systems

41 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 41 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Workflow analysis examines multiple processes.  Process Analysis examines each of the processes within a workflow. Example: Purchasing workflow may include several processes -- requisitioning, bidding, contracting, vendor management, and more Workflow and Process Analysis

42 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 42 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Define the Project  Identify Available Resources  Formalize the Analysis Project Plan  Examine Current System Documentation  Conduct Interviews  Observe the Process(es) Steps in Workflow Analysis - 1

43 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 43 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Prepare Work Measurement Records, Flow Diagrams and Decision Tables  Develop and Present Recommendations to Management  Design & Deploy the Appropriate Forms  Implement the System Steps in Workflow Analysis - 2

44 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 44 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Document the Results  Evaluate the Modified System  Get Ready for the Next Project! Steps in Workflow Analysis - 3

45 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 45

46 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 46 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Pre-processing Requirements  Post-processing Requirements  Filing, Retrieval and Retention Requirements  Signature Requirements  Copy Distribution Forms Workflow Considerations - 1

47 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 47 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Status Notification  Security and Privacy  Legal / Regulatory Review  Data Collection Methods Forms Workflow Considerations - 2

48 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 48 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Gantt Charts a horizontal bar chart graphically illustrating a schedule that helps plan, coordinate and track specific project tasks  PERT Charts Program Evaluation and Review Technique – defines, schedules, organizes and coordinates objective project achievement steps  Pareto Focus: Most problems (80%) are caused by few factors (20%) Project Management Tools - 1

49 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 49 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Graham Flowcharts Form-based process charting – provides visual representation of the workflow or process  Microsoft Project and Visio Commercial Software used to create flowcharts Project Management Tools - 2

50 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 50 Intent: Workflow Analysis  List all the steps taken and their sequence in the process  Confirm that actions taken and their sequence is appropriate  Indicate intersections/conflicts with other processes  Specify where decisions are required Flowcharting - 1

51 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 51 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Identify progress delay points and unnecessary steps  Determine where the flow may be improved / streamlined  Measure elapsed time and wait time Flowcharting - 2

52 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 52 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Business rules control and limit processes  They are generally implemented in the form itself  Techniques are available that can enforce the rules to the user Business Rules

53 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 53 Intent: Workflow Analysis Result in form design modifications to implement / support the rule  Form Uses, Deployment and Access  Logical Choices / Logic Branches  Error Detection and Correction  Standards – Fonts, Colors, Captions  Logo / Image Controls  Filing Methods  Print Choices  Completed Form Retention Business Rules

54 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 54 Intent: Workflow Analysis Examine the Improved Workflow  Develop Alternative Solutions  Select the Best Alternative, one that Reflects an Improved, Smooth Workflow Results in Effective Business Results Promises the Highest Efficiency Delivers Success at the Lowest Cost Selecting the Best Alternatives

55 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 55 Intent: Workflow Analysis Accounts Payable:  Multi-national company  Process: 18,000 A/P Checks per month Example - 1

56 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 56 Intent: Workflow Analysis Problem: 9% of all checks cannot be processed without manual intervention to resolve missing or incomplete data (1600/month) Example - 2

57 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 57 Intent: Workflow Analysis Problem: Additional costs include wasted time in divisions to get answers, delays to vendors, lost discounts, inaccurate customer billings Example - 3

58 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 58 Intent: Workflow Analysis Analysis:  All manuals (rejects) average 30 minutes each to resolve (800 hours/month)  Wage rate = $27. per hour = $21,600. per month, or $259,200. per year Example - 4

59 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 59 Intent: Workflow Analysis Analysis:  Most missing data caused by improper or missing contract numbers, pricing, account codes, and freight charges  All data is in Contracts Database, not easily accessible to Divisions  Procedures and account numbers not adequate, available, or cross-referenced Example - 4

60 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 60 Intent: Workflow Analysis Solutions:  Develop updated procedures manual and post on intranet.  Provide an iForm, tied to Contracts database  Add edits, with required fields for user input  Provide training to Division A/P coordinators Example - 5

61 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 61 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Reduced errors by almost 50%  Savings totaled $125,000 annually Results

62 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 62 Intent: Workflow Analysis Three Levels of Security  Access to System (logon)  Access to Form  Access to Specific Information on the Form Security

63 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 63 Intent: Workflow Analysis  More an issue with Electronic Forms than with Paper Forms  When are Signatures required?  What level of Security is needed?  Electronic Signature Techniques  Standards Evolving? Signature Requirements

64 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 64 Intent: Workflow Analysis  Routing requirements (Procedures)  Who Needs Actual Copies?  Timeliness or Notification  Relationships to Security  Relations to Signatures  Workflow Tracking and Reporting Status Notification & Copy Distribution

65 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 65 Intent: Workflow Analysis Legal Review, Approval, Regulatory Agency Filing, Various State Versions, Compliance with OSHA (etc.), Section 508  Filing Where, When, By Whom, Filing System, Substrates, Indexing  Retention Period, Costs, Access Rate, Role of Records Manager Miscellaneous Requirements

66 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 66 Intent: Workflow Analysis Selecting the “form” of the Form  Keep Forms Digital as long as possible  Inefficient if “go to paper” is too early  Form / Label Combinations  Bar Codes, MICR, OCR, Keyboard Entry  Electronic Forms: the paper form metaphor Miscellaneous Requirements

67 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 67 Intent Electronic Signatures Miscellaneous Requirements (Canadian public accountability) (Canadian Human Rights Act of 1977) (National Association of Government Archives and Records Administrators) Intent Links

68 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 68

69 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 69 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  Acquisition of Hardware and Software – Calculator  Old Process vs. New Process (Process Analysis) – Calculator  Current State vs. Future State (Project Analysis) – Calculator

70 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 70 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  Determine up front Costs for Purchase or Lease (Year 0)  Estimate annual Maintenance, Upgrade and new Licenses Costs  Estimate Benefits, including Productivity Gains, for future years. Remember, Cost Avoidance can be claimed in each year. Software and Hardware Acquisition

71 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 71 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  Elapsed Time for the process (People Time)  Equipment Cost  Software Cost  Support and Training Cost  Forms Production Cost  Cost of New People Needed  Other Measurable or Obvious Costs Old Process vs. New Process

72 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 72 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  Weigh Costs of New Process against Costs of Old Process  Add in Expected Benefits  Develop a Framework for Capturing Costs  Remember the Hoover Commission Iceberg Analogy Project Return on Investment

73 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 73 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI From 1955 – “The Iceberg” Hoover Commission Report “For every dollar spent to buy a form, it will cost twenty dollars to use that form.” That’s a Ratio of 20:1

74 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 74 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  Measure Cost of Current Form, including fixed costs (printing) and variable costs (productivity)  Estimate the same costs for the new form Current State vs. Future State

75 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 75 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  A national manufacturer uses 2,500 Employment Applications per year  Paper form is distributed to each of eight plants as it is printed  The form changes annually, with unused forms discarded  Applicants complete the form at the plant. It is reviewed and sent to Corporate for data entry.  Data are compiled to report on hiring goals and activities. Example - 1

76 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 76 Intent: Cost Analysis & ROI  Defining activities and outputs of specific activities  Tracing resources to activities  Tracing activities to determine costs of products / services  Identifying cost drivers of non-value-added activities  Eliminating non-value-added activities Activity-based Costing

77 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 77 Intent: Activity-based Costing  Salaries$267,000.  Benefits59,000.  Postage17,000.  Supplies18,500.  Telephone12,000.  Equipment6,500.  Travel3,000.  Miscellaneous4,000.  Total Budget$387,000. Traditional View of Costs

78 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 78 Intent: Activity-based Costing  Receive Orders$161,499.  Resolve Errors119,797.  Generate Confirmations85,006.  Answer Inquiries19,212.  Generate Reports, Mgmt.2,329.  Total Budget$387,000. Process View of Costs

79 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 79 Intent: Activity-based Costing  Resolve Errors  Causes, Results, Actions, Solutions Obvious Focus for Reduction

80 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 80 Intent: Tracking Workflow  Setting up an Analysis Database Provide information as to “how” a form is used Store information for next review Elements of an Analysis Database  Establish a Review Date  Forms Review Methods

81 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 81 Intent: Tracking Workflow  Drivers Macro Scheduled (reorder) Ad Hoc  Workflow Software FileNet (Shana)www.filenet.com Movariswww.movaris.com PureEdge (IBM)www.pureedge.com Verity (Liquid Office)www.verity.com

82 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 82 Intent: Tracking Workflow  Every Major Business System should have Workflow Documentation, including a detailed flowchart, updated every five years or when changes are implemented  Forms Analysis Database should be updated daily as changes are identified  Project Tracking is recommended for all projects – agree on cost savings achieved Documentation

83 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 83 Intent: Information Resources  Adobe Systemswww.adobe.com  AIIMwww.aiim.org  ARMAwww.arma.org  BFMAwww.bfma.org  Canadian General Standards Boardwww.pwgsc.gc.ca/cqsb  Cap Ventures, Inc.www.infotrends-rgi.com  DMIAwww.dmia.org  Enformation Centralwww.essociatesgroup.com  TAWPIwww.tawpi.org  The Ben Graham Corporationwww.worksimp.com  Robert Barnett and Associateswww.rbainformationdesign.com.au  Xplor Internationalwww.xplor.org

84 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 84 Test of Knowledge Quiz Time Sample Workflow Exercise

85 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 85

86 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 86 Container Definitions Usability Elements Drawing Techniques Design Analysis Container Structure Design Elements Design Process Design Software Restrictions and Qualifiers Outline

87 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 87 Container Forms Analysis the systematic execution of those steps necessary to assure that productivity is increased in preparation, use, filing and retrieval; the total number of forms within the system is minimized; data element relationships are apparent through consistency and adherence to standards; the effectiveness of the entire system, as well as the individual form, is enhanced; and the resulting business tool communicates. Copyright 1986 – Business Forms Management Association, Inc. Definitions

88 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 88 Container Design Analysis in addition to resulting in the design layout, increases productivity by creating a basic business tool which is self-instructive, encourages cooperative response, provides for easy entry of data, reduces the potential for error, facilitates use of the information, and enhances the organization’s image. Copyright 1986 – Business Forms Management Association, Inc. Definitions

89 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 89 Container Design Analysis  the process of developing design and layout elements based on the workflow requirements  This process examines tools and techniques available to the designer that solve the problems identified in the workflow. Definitions

90 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 90 Container: Design Process Steps Analysis (intent)Beta Testing Design AnalysisModifications – re-proof Develop Draft – ProofUser Testing Alpha TestingModifications – re-proof Modifications – re-proofDeployment

91 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 91 Container: Life Cycle of a Form Using (usability)Reading Writing Filing Transmitting Archiving and Retrieving Let’s look at each of these elements. Steps (Life Cycle of a Form)

92 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 92 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Who will use the form? Education levels, vocabularies and life experiences  How will the form be used? Data entry, pre- and post-processing, archiving, more  Where will the form be used? Location and Environment Usability Elements - 1

93 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 93 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Most forms are digital at some point in their life cycle.  Keep forms digital for as long as possible. Remember the Goal

94 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 94 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Terminology – Clearly understood by users  Typeface (Font) – Larger & bolder, smaller & lighter  Spacing – White space  Graphics – Well placed and uncluttered  Colors – Used judiciously; some colors can have adverse effects on users  Information sequencing and grouping Usability Elements - 2

95 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 95 Container: Life Cycle of a Form Data Capture  Clarity of captions encourages clarity and accuracy of data entered.  Appropriate sequencing of data aids in communicating information, not just data.  Completed information facilitates action.  Human-readable and machine-readable Reading Elements

96 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 96 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Plain Language helps ensure that users understand what information is required that forms are to be filled in completely, and that the information captured on the form is appropriate and useful.  Well-designed forms encourage fast, error-free entry of variable data. Writing

97 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 97 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Handwritten  Keyboard  Machine-Written (Marking Engines)  On-Screen Display  Voice Recognition Writing Methods

98 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 98 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Captions – Clear and simple; not complex  Fields – Sufficient room for data entry  Grouping - Data sections are organized logically so that related information is found together  Sequencing– Fields are placed in sequential order  Marking Engines – Understand machine requirements Writing Elements - 1

99 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 99 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Multi-part – Designed to stay together to avoid mis-registration; Paper and Carbon or Carbonless are selected so that minimum effort is need to produce legible copies; Enough parts included to avoid need for photocopying  When are multi-part forms appropriate? (Restaurant Example)  Books, tags, registers, pegboard, self-mailers Writing Elements - 2

100 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 100 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Paper By hand, mail, fax, interoffice routing envelopes, print-on-demand  Electronic By modem, networks, browsers, diskettes, CDs, DVDs, memory sticks  There may need to be a combination of both.  Note: Transmitting method(s) should be known BEFORE the form is designed Transmitting Elements

101 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 101 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Paper: File hole punching for prong or ring binders Frequent retrieval requires paper stock designed for multiple handlings Field location can facilitate filing Design orientation (portrait vs. landscape) Computer Output to Laser Disc (COLD) Filing and Retrieving Elements

102 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 102 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Paper – Archiving Considerations Good:  Acid-free paper  Archival quality paper  Permanent ink Bad:  Thermal paper  Groundwood paper Archiving - 1

103 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 103 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Electronic: Removable media Database Microfilm Computer Output to Laser Disc (COLD) Juke Box systems Magnetic Tape Tab Card systems Archiving - 2

104 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 104 Container: Life Cycle of a Form  Long-term Storage (archiving) requires paper AND ink to withstand storage.  Electronic Storage medium must migrate as technology advances.  Data and Container must reference each other – stored together or stored separately. Archiving - 3

105 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 105

106 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 106 Container  Open Design Provides flexibility for machine data entry  Box Design Improves appearance; facilitates ease of use; improves readability  Floating Box Design Used as data capture screen  Columnar Design Modified box design for column headings instead of captions  Zoning, Grouping and Sequencing Organizing data for user understanding  Other Structure Considerations Graphics placement, specialty elements (OCR, MICR, bar codes, etc.) Structure

107 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 107 Container  High-end Design Specialized forms systems requiring dedicated operators; full capabilities such as secure features  Desktop Design General purpose and specialized forms design  Document Design Used for general printing, labels, envelopes, tags  Code-based Design Not WYSIWYG – programming-based  Web Authoring Tools Build web pages and web forms Design Software

108 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 108 Container  Operator training can be lengthy  Productivity can be a problem if heavy use  Capabilities for forms can be limited  Costs can be heavy (high-end)  Proprietary nature can limit portability Design Software Issues

109 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 109 Container  Techniques may differ depending on the design software you use Using Templates Using a grid and ruler (grid and component snap)  Set margins, draw lines, draw boxes, input captions, draw text, insert graphics, draw fields and set field properties add calculations, set tab order, add custom code  Other considerations: help screens, tool tips, accessibility Drawing Techniques

110 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 110 Container  Captions Field questions; one per field; clear, concise and self-instructing  Instructions If needed, they should be clear, concise and placed where needed (exception that proves the rule: income tax forms)  Help Messages (eForms) Context-sensitive help systems  Spacing Critically important element; Must be compatible with method of data entry; Two types: Vertical and Horizontal Forms Design Elements - 1

111 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 111 Container  Check boxes and radio buttons Reduce time required for data entry, number of errors, writing space, data extraction time Provide a uniform structure Minimize possible misinterpretation of questions Form Design Elements - 2

112 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 112 Container  Preprinted Data Can replace frequently input information Reduces writing time and the cost of using the form  Grouping Information Place related data together on the form Improves efficiency by facilitating the entering, reading and comprehension of related data Form Design Elements - 3

113 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 113 Container  Sequencing Information Places data in a logical order within the group Reduces writing, reading time Facilitates understanding Most frequently used information should be entered first, second most frequently used information next, and so on Within a system, sequence should be the same Cursor control on electronic forms guides the user, along with color highlights. Form Design Elements - 4

114 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 114 Container  Identification Desired corporate image, name, address & phones, logo  Title – Brief, clear description of form’s purpose  Form Number – A discrete number for use within the user’s system as an identification and control method  Edition Date – Month/Year of each edition (Note that it’s NOT called a “Revision Date.” Even the first edition needs an Edition Date.) Forms Design Elements - 5

115 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 115 Container  Margins Blank space on all four sides of a form Improves appearance, neatness and readability When printing, provides lockup When filing, increased binding edge margin facilitates data retrieval Forms Design Elements - 6

116 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 116 Container  Routing Information Paper :  Marginal words, parts paper color  Facilitates accurate copy routing  If marginal words or preprinted instructions are used, typically placed in bottom margin of form (hence the term): “marginal words” Electronic  , conditional fields, custom scripts, view and lock levels, integrated workflow Forms Design Elements - 7

117 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 117 Container  Selective Data Transfer – Paper Blockout (or “Chinese” lettering) Carbonless – Desensitizing, pattern coating Carbons – Short, narrow, stripe, pattern, spot Paper – Short part, narrow part Perforation – Drop-stub perforation Forms Design Elements - 8

118 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 118 Container  Selective Data Transfer – eForms and iForms Locked Fields Hidden Fields Read Only Fields Print Only Fields View Only Fields Conditional Fields Forms Design Elements - 9

119 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 119 Container  Transmitting Elements – Paper “Snail Mail” – postcards, self-mailers, envelope required Fax – Adequate substrate size; high contrast; minimal use of screens (make them low percentages), avoid reverse printing, avoid colors Forms Design Elements - 10

120 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 120 Container  Transmitting Elements – Electronic – as attachment; software enabled Intranet – Intranet server; application integration (Lotus Notes, spreadsheets) Internet – Web server, browsers, server scripts; Completed data returned to user for printing in format suitable for eFiling Forms Design Elements - 11

121 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 121 Container  Filing Elements – Paper Two Purposes – 1) Retrieval; 2) Archival Three Systems – 1) Alpha; 2) Numeric; 3) Subject Types – Binders (prong fastener, ring and post); Vertical visible; Cabinet & drawer systems; Microfilm or microfiche, Scan systems Forms Design Elements - 12

122 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 122 Container  Filing Elements – Electronic Same purposes as paper Removable media Database storage Computer Output to Laser Disc (COLD) Container and data may be filed together or separately Forms Design Elements - 13

123 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 123 Container  Restrictions & Qualifiers - techniques to help insure data entry accuracy Paper Forms  “Do Not Write Here” areas  “Grayed-out” fields  Combs, defined boxes Electronic Forms  Required fields  Hidden Fields  Conditional Fields  Pre-populated fields  Locked Fields Forms Design Elements - 14

124 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 124 Container Exercise Time... Analyze Workflow Design Analysis Test of Knowledge

125 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 125

126 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 126 Container: Form Types  Accounts Receivable (A/R) Cycle  Accounts Payable (A/P) Cycle  Accounting

127 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 127 Container: Form Types  Selling – Sales Order  Production – Production, Work or Job Order  Shipping – Delivery Receipt, Bill of Lading, Air Bill, Shipping Label, Packing List  Billing – Invoice, Credit Memo  Collecting – Statement, Past Due Notice, Deposit Slip, Credit Application A/R Cycle - 1

128 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 128 Container: Form Types Combined Forms Sales Order / Shipping Record Sales Order / Invoice Sales Order / Invoice / Shipping Record Production Order / Invoice Production Order / Shipping Order Packing List / Delivery Receipt Packing List / Bill of Lading Shipping Order / Bill of Lading Invoice / Bill of Lading Invoice / Receipt of Goods Invoice / Shipping Record Bill of Lading / Delivery Receipt Invoice / Picking List / Packing List / Shipping Order A/R Cycle - 2

129 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 129 Container: Form Types  Purchasing Requisition, RFQ / RFP, Purchase Order  Receiving Receiving Report, Inspection Report, Debit Memo  Storing Material Requisition, Inventory Record or Storage Record, Picking Tickets, Material Receipts, Material Returns, Material Transfers, Bin Tags, Labels and Inventory Forms  Paying Check (Voucher), Remittance Advice, Check Register, A/P Ledger, Request for Check A/P Cycle - 1

130 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 130 Container: Form Types  Combined Forms Purchase Order / Receiving Report Purchase Requisition / Purchase Order RFQ / RFP Purchase Order / Accounts Payable Check Receiving Record / Inspection Report Receiving Record / Incoming Stock Record A/P Cycle - 2

131 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 131 Container: Form Types  Supports, controls and unites the A/R and A/P Cycles  Types Sales Manufacturing Disbursement Personnel General Accounting - 1

132 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 132 Container: Form Types  Sales Information comes mainly from selling, shipping, billing and collecting functions; Generates reports about customers, sales reps, commissions, revenue and aging A/R  Manufacturing Information comes mainly from production processes and the storage function Generates reports on production levels and efficiency, employee efficiency, equipment & facility utilization, personnel needs, personnel & production schedules, direct / indirect costs of labor & material, inventory reports, raw material, work-in-process, finished goods, other production- related items Accounting - 2

133 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 133 Container: Form Types  Disbursement Generation of reports about distribution of expenses, cash requirements, departmental budgets Analysis of specific purchases, vendors, freight and quality control Accounting - 3

134 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 134 Container: Form Types  Personnel Information comes from any function that has employees and includes time cards, job tickets, employee change of status notices, employment applications, tax forms, transfer notices, termination notices, deduction authorizations, etc. Generates payroll checks, vouchers, receipts, statements of earnings, individual earnings records, payroll registers, deduction records, payroll distribution reports, employee insurance records, employee retirement records. Accounting - 4

135 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 135 Container: Form Types  General Utilizes data from other four areas to produce its analyses and reports Financial Segment  Trial balances, operating statements, balance sheets, operating budget reports, account journals, distribution journals, account ledgers and tax reports Accounting - 5

136 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 136 Container: Form Types  General (continued) Plant and Equipment Segment  Depreciation and amortization records and reports  insurance value reports  replacement value reports  appraisal reports  equipment registers  equipment transfers  equipment distribution reports  equipment maintenance reports. Accounting - 6

137 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 137 Container: Form Types  General (continued) Corporate Segment  Stock transfers  stock certificates  dividend checks  proxy notices Accounting - 7

138 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 138 Containers  Design Analysis enterprise.state.wi.us/static/forms/white_paper.html  Paper  Client Server Software Contacts

139 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 139 Test of Knowledge Quiz Time

140 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 140

141 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 141 Data  Variable information captured by, or displayed on, the form Purpose: Enables forms users to read and enter data on a form utilizing a variety of data capture techniques that minimize errors, increase productivity and encourage participation in the process Definition

142 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 142 Data  Data: facts, text, graphics, sound, and video segments that have meaning in the User’s environment  Information: Data that have been processed in such a way as to increase the knowledge of the person who uses the data Modern Database Management, 5 th Edition, McFadden, et al “Data” vs. “Information”

143 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 143 Data  Data vs. Information Data is plural; datum is singular (Latin) Data, by itself, is not particularly useful Information results from organizing data into understandable presentation Creating Information from Data

144 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 144 Data  A customer’s first name, middle initial, and last name  A record of a purchase order  A picture of the CEO  An index of company offices  A description on a new insurance policy that will be sold  A company logo. Examples

145 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 145 Data  Paper-based Systems: Portable Cost-effective Easy to understand Preferred by many users Easy to teach Large support infrastructure Many standards in place Paper, Electronic & Internet - 1

146 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 146 Data  Electronic forms: digital forms used in non-browser systems Can use general purpose software Don’t require much IT support Can use specialized design software to develop code Flexible deployment, both on-line and off-line Paper, Electronic & Internet - 2

147 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 147 Data  Internet forms – work within browsers Can actually be Internet or intranet Employ a variety of technologies, but all use HTML Require server scripts or client scripts to function effectively Can be connected easily to databases Paper, Electronic & Internet - 3

148 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 148 Data  Data Sources  Managing Data  Collection and Display  Data Storage  Data Integrity  Programming and Scripting  Extensible Markup Language (XML)

149 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 149 Data HandwrittenOptical Scan TypewriterOptical Mark Scan KeyboardMagnetic Ink Read Bar Code ScanDatabase Tables Radio TransmissionTouch Screen Sources of Data - 1

150 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 150 Data  Handwritten – optimal vertical space is 1/3”, horizontal space must be sufficient for length of expected data  Typewriter spacing is generally 1/3” vertical, depending on carriage return standard  Keyboard spacing can be variable, depending upon font selected Sources of Data - 2

151 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 151 Data  Continuous form printers use 1/6” or 1/8” vertical spacing  Horizontal spacing must be exact for the printer selected – usually 1/10”  Sheet printers can allow any spacing, but generally require ¼” clear band Sources of Data - 3

152 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 152 Data  Paper-based scan forms  Inks  Alignment  Creating image files (bit maps) Scanning and Imaging - 1

153 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 153 Data  Paper-based Scan Forms Generally, it is not recommended that existing paper forms be scanned to create an electronic form file that will need to be edited or deployed Some exceptions: ScanSoft’s Omniform, Adobe’s Capture Generally, scans create large bit maps Scanning and Imaging - 2

154 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 154 Data  Alignment Most recognition engines require some alignment marks or edge identification Most sophisticated engines provide anti-skew algorithms Data recognition is improved when proper alignment is achieved Scanning and Imaging - 3

155 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 155 Data  This is a very tricky endeavor, with mixed results  Successful importation depends on how the creator designed the form  Importing from one application to another is usually done via EPS or PDF file transfer  Products such as FormBridge can be effective Importing Files

156 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 156 Data  Optical Character Recognition (OCR) requires a specific font, drop out inks and specific spacing.  Optical Mark Reader (OMR) requires a specific density range for the mark (Use #2 pencil only)  Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) uses E13B font, magnetic ink or toner and has very tight tolerances. Scanning for Data Capture - 1

157 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 157 Data  Optical Character Recognition (OCR) – (continued) Optical Character Recognition is the process of converting an image of text, such as a scanned paper document or electronic fax file, into computer-editable text. It is used to convert machine print to ASCII. The text in an image is not editable; the letters are made of tiny dots (pixels) that together form a picture of text. OCR recognized the image and makes it editable. Scanning for Data Capture - 2

158 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 158 Data  Optical Character Recognition – (continued) During OCR, the software analyzes an image and converts the pictures of the characters to editable text based on the patterns of the pixels in the image. After OCR, you can export the converted text and use it with a variety of word-processing, page layout and spreadsheet applications OCR also enables screen readers and refreshable Braille displays to read the text contained in images. Scanning for Data Capture - 3

159 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 159 Data  Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) Generally used to convert hand print to ASCII (Rejects cursive script)  Natural Handwriting Recognition (NHR) Used to convert all forms of handwritten information to ASCII Accepts all forms of constrained and unconstrained handwriting, hand print, and cursive script ICR and NHR

160 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 160 Data  OMR uses specially-prepared forms, printed in light blue ink.  OMR readers look for dark marks (typically circles or rectangles) in specific locations on a form.  Each position on the form can be assigned a different meaning, depending on the need.  OMR is typically read by specialized page readers (that may also read a bar code or other mark that uniquely identified each iteration of a form) or by conventional flatbed scanners, with appropriate software, on a PC Optical Mark Readers

161 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 161 Data  IMR is the next generation of OMR.  More sophisticated software can accept “checkmarks, “X marks,” or “tics” provided that they are sufficiently bold.  Incompletely filled spaces can typically be differentiated from erasures. Intelligent Mark Recognition

162 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 162 Data  E13B is a special font for MICR printing Contains ten (10) specially designed numeric characters and four (4) special symbols (transit, amount, on-us, and dash) CMC-7 is a special font used in most Spanish-speaking countries Magnetic Ink Character Recognition - 1

163 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 163 Data  MICR E13B was created according to ISO specifications.  ABA and ANSI standards also apply.  Specifications also define location of the MICR on checks. MICR clear band 5/8” from bottom MICR Encoding band – center of clear band Magnetic Ink Character Recognition - 2

164 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 164 Data  Definition: an automatic identification technology allows data to be collected accurately and rapidly Bar Codes - 1

165 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 165 Data  Bar Code Symbol A Bar Code Symbol consists of a series of parallel, adjacent bars and spaces. Predetermined width patterns are used to code actual data into the symbol. To read information contained in a Bar Code symbol, a scanning device, such as a light pen (or wand) is moved across the symbol from one side to the other. As a scanning device is moved across the symbol, the Bar Code width pattern of bars and spaces is analyzed by the Bar Code decoder and the original data is recovered. The most visible application of this technology is the supermarket industry, where it has been in use since Bar Code is now the de facto automatic identification technology for virtually any application. Bar Codes - 2

166 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 166 Data  Bits of information are encoded within bar codes.  The data are read by bar code scanners and are often used in conjunction with databases.  Bar codes don’t require human-input, can be read by automated machines, and are virtually error-free. Bar Codes - 3

167 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 167 Data  Uses : Bar codes are used in many retail operations. They’re also used on many form products: Shipping forms Labels ID Cards Direct mail pieces Invoices Bar Codes - 4

168 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 168 Data  Bar Code Scanners Scanners look at the pattern of light and dark bars and decode a bar code, returning the string contained in them. Bar codes usually return a reference to a database. Bar Codes - 5

169 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 169 Data  Common Bar Codes UPC – numeric only, fixed length and check digit Code 39 – Alphanumeric, variable length Postnet – US Post Office for ZIP codes Code 128 – Used in shipping industry, has 3 versions Interleaved 2 of 5 – numeric only Codabar – Numeric – FedEx PDF417 (two dimensional) - portable data file Bar Codes - 6

170 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 170 Data  Other Bar Code Capabilities Two-dimensional bar codes can be created during a form fill session The bar code containing the fill data is printed on the form The bar code can be scanned to capture the fill data Useful when “wet signatures” are required Radio Frequency Codes (RFID) Bar Codes - 7

171 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 171 Data  Issues with Bar Codes Laser Printers Toner can flake off after multiple contact reads Read Rates Poorly applied bar codes can generate high reject rates Bar Codes - 8

172 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 172 Data  Definition: “An organized collection of logically related data” Metadata: “data that describe the properties or characteristics of other data” - including data definitions, data structures and rules or constraints Database

173 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 173 Data  File processing systems Each application contains its own data  Hierarchical Data are organized in sequential order  Relational Data stored in tables with keys defining relationships Database Types

174 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 174 Data  Data Structure Data are organized in the form of tables with rows and columns.  Data Manipulation Powerful operations (SQL) are used to manipulate the data.  Data Integrity Business rules are applied to maintain integrity during manipulation. Relational Databases

175 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 175 Data  Primary Key an attribute that uniquely identifies each row in a table  Foreign Key an attribute that also serves as the primary key in another relation in the same database  Composite Key a primary key that consists of more than one attribute Relational Databases - Important Terms

176 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 176 Data  A standard method of sharing data between databases and other programs  ODBC drivers use the standard Structured Query Language (SQL) to gain access to data from outside sources  Each database program requires a different driver Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

177 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 177 Data for Electronic Forms Any form that provides the ability to save and recall the variable fill data requires the use of a database It may be a simple table or a multiple table database, or even multiple databases Database Use

178 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 178 Data for Electronic Forms – (continued) Databases can be “Read,” where data are extracted from a table and placed in the form, or “Write,” where data are extracted from the form and placed in the data table, or both. Database Use

179 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 179 Data for Internet Forms Database must reside on the Internet server of be connected to the server. Database interaction is managed by CGI scripts or related technology. Important to remember that HTML does not interact with databases. Database Use

180 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 180 Data  All database programs are managed with DBMS (Database Management System).  Data Administrator – the person who takes overall responsibility for data, metadata, and policies about data use Database Management - 1

181 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 181 Data  Database Administrator the person who is responsible for physical database design and for dealing with technical issues, such as security enforcement, database performance, and backup and recovery, associated with managing a database. Database Management - 2

182 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 182 Data What every Forms Manager should know Make friends with the DBA or Data Administrator; they can make your life easy or difficult Take the time to learn the issues related to security, access, and data integrity. This will help you understand what you can and cannot do with forms. Database Management - 3

183 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 183

184 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 184 Data  One of the primary purposes of a form is to collect data.  With paper forms, the data become a permanent part of the form.  The container and the data are frequently filed, archived, retrieved and used together forever.  In most cases, the data are extracted from the container in a process of data entry. Data Collection - 1

185 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 185 Data  Data collection in electronic forms generally comes from the keyboard and mouse.  Data can originate into the electronic form from bar code scan, OCR scan, from a PDA, or from a database.  Requirements for collection can be both more rigid and more flexible. Data Collection - 2

186 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 186 Data  Data collection for Internet forms is very similar to that for electronic forms.  Difference is in how the data are handled. The browser displays a static page (HTML) and the data cannot be recognized or validated until sent to the server and validation returned. Data Collection - 3

187 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 187 Data  Once input into the form, data can be placed in a file printed saved to a database, or converted to XML for integration into other applications. Data Collection - 4

188 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 188 Data  Formats  Types  Restrictions and Qualifiers  Fonts  Screen Resolution and Scaling  Masks Data Collection and Display- 1

189 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 189 Data  Data Formats Data formats can increase or decrease the utility of the data collected. Most software programs use proprietary formats, but support standard formats. Many, many forms are in use (see links at end of “DATA” section). Data Collection and Display- 2

190 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 190 Data  Data Formats – (continued) Standard  ASCII  HTML, XML Proprietary .doc,.xls,.ppt (Microsoft) .g,.elf (Amgraf) Generally Accepted  PDF, EPS, PostScript, DBF (dBase) Data Collection and Display- 3

191 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 191 Data  Data Type A detailed coding scheme recognized by system software for representing organizational data  Four Objectives: Minimize storage space Represent all possible values Improve data integrity Support all data manipulations Data Collection and Display- 4

192 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 192 Data  Data Types – Oracle CHAR (size), where size is the maximum length DATELONGNUMBER DECIMALLONG RAWSMALLINT FLOATLONG VARCHARVARCHAR INTEGERMLSLABELVARCHAR2 INTEGER (size)RAW Data Collection and Display- 5

193 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 193 Data  Data Types – MS Access TEXTDATE/TIMEYES/NO MEMOCURRENCYOLD OBJECT NUMBERAUTONUMBERHYPERLINK Data Collection and Display- 6

194 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 194 Data  Data Masks Pre-defined display schemes that take user input and force the display into the selected format Can be used in a variety of situations, including paper forms, electronic forms, Internet forms, and database design Data Collection and Display- 7

195 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 195 Data  Data Masks – (continued) Paper forms use combs, small boxes for individual character input, pre-printed dashes and parentheses. Electronic forms use pre-defined masks that force a particular input, such as telephone, ZIP code, Social Security Number, dates, and more. Data Collection and Display- 8

196 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 196 Data  Data Restrictions and Qualifiers Designed to restrict user input to a specified range, series of choices or data types Can be effective for paper forms, but have increased utility with electronic and Internet forms. Data Collection and Display- 9

197 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 197 Data  Data Restrictions and Qualifiers – (continued) Paper forms use radio buttons, checkboxes and pre-printed instructions. eForms use: Hidden FieldsAll Upper CaseList Boxes Conditional FieldsNumeric OnlyGrouped Check Boxes No-printed FieldsCombo BoxesUnrestricted Check Boxes Data Collection and Display- 10

198 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 198 Data  Fonts A consistent design for the display of the full set of English or other language characters, including special characters such as punctuation and numbers For a look at the number and complexity of available fonts: Data Collection and Display- 11

199 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 199 Data  Fonts – Common font families TrueType PostScript Web Embedding Fonts Tool (WEFT) Data Collection and Display- 12

200 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 200 Data  Fonts Uses Selection of a particular font gives the designer control over what the user will see. Most fonts have specifications that enable fast rendering Proper selection and use of fonts is one of the most important design contributions. Data Collection and Display- 13

201 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 201 Data  Misuse of Fonts Mixing fonts on a page Improper use of bold, italics and underlining Improper use of color Hard-to-read fonts Fonts incompatible with web Using uncommon fonts for distribution (licensing issue) Data Collection and Display- 14

202 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 202 Data  Display Successful viewing on a user’s screen requires a design that supports standard monitor settings. Standard design resolution for most browsers is 800 X 600 or 1024 X 768. Data Collection and Display- 15

203 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 203

204 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 204 Managing Data ScriptsScanning FieldsImporting CalculationsProgramming Spell CheckingError Detection and Correction

205 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 205 Managing Data  Common Gateway Interface (CGI) a programming interface between a web server and the system’s backend functions – such as processing systems and databases allows web servers to perform data functions and interact with users CGI - 1

206 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 206 Managing Data  Common Gateway Interface (CGI) - continued Server-side programs or scripts – all processing occurs on the server Client-side solutions include Java applets, Java scripts, and ActiveX controls CGI - 2

207 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 207 Managing Data  Understanding Fields Each database has its own field definitions. Make sure your form design is compatible. Proper field design, with associated masks and properties, can help users interact better with your form. Fields - 1

208 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 208 Managing Data  Common Field Types TextNumericMulti-line DateTimeRadio buttons Text boxesCheck boxesCombo boxes ButtonsSignaturesOLE BlobGraphics Fields - 2

209 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 209 Managing Data  Database Field Types Specific to each database Must be the same on the form as in the database Three general categories:  Numeric types  Date and Time types  String (character) types Fields - 3

210 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 210 Managing Data  Using Excel  Using VB Script  Using JavaScript  Calculation Wizards Example: Adobe Acrobat Calculations - 1

211 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 211 Managing Data  Using Excel Uses cell descriptions instead of field names Math performed in logical sequence Formulas must be exact syntax Can use “point and click” Formulas can be dynamically copied Most of us have learned how to use Calculations - 2

212 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 212 Managing Data  Using VB Script Must provide “Dimension” (DIM) statements for variables Uses field names – must be precise Uses exact syntax Can use “do” loops to simplify code Must set initial values Calculations performed continuously Calculations - 3

213 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 213 Managing Data  Using JavaScript Not related to Java, the programming language Works within HTML code Has functions similar to VB Script Works within Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) but not with Netscape Has its own syntax and rules Calculations - 4

214 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 214 Managing Data  Using Calculation Wizards Provide “point and click” capability for simple calculations Convert the click results to JavaScript or some other language Not yet readily available in some forms programs  Example: Adobe Acrobat Calculations - 5

215 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 215 Managing Data  Imbedded in most design programs  Available in Client software  Not generally available within browsers  Plug-ins are available Spell Checking

216 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 216 Managing Data  Requires custom VB or JavaScript  Tests for conditions and defines a path to action depending on condition Example: Test for a null (blank) value for a required field. If answer is “Yes,” display a message box with statement “You must enter a value.” Error Detection and Correction

217 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 217 Managing Data  Paper Forms Filing systems Archives Records Management systems Issues include: speed of accessaccuracycost of storage retention requirementssecuritydestruction costs Data Storage - 1

218 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 218 Managing Data  Electronic Forms Database Tables Flat Files Electronic Data Management System (EDMS) Application software (WORD, Excel, Acrobat, , others) Issues: controlaccesssecuritycostslegal liability Data Storage - 2

219 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 219 Managing Data  Paper Forms “Chinese” lettering Printing boxes for use input Pre-printing forms for ZIP, telephone, SSN Carbonless desensitizing and spot carbons Preprinted helpers such as MM/DD/YY Spot Carbons Checkboxes and radio buttons Data Integrity - 1

220 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 220 Managing Data  Electronic Forms Drop down selections Check boxes (grouped & ungrouped) Pre-fill from database Error checking routines (programming) Assigning qualifiers to fields Masks (forced formatting) Data Integrity - 2

221 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 221 Managing Data  Languages Visual Basic Java JavaScript HTML, DHTML, XML PERL, PHP, ASP C++ Many others Programming - 1

222 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 222 Managing Data  Scripts Server scripts  CGI  Servlets Client scripts  Applets Programming - 2

223 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 223 Managing Data  Scripts What are they?  CGI is a standard for interfacing external applications, such as a web page, with information servers, such as HTTP or web servers. What do they do?  They tell the server how to interact with the browsers and return HTML pages to the browser. Programming - 3

224 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 224 Managing Data  Scripts – continued They are small executable programs and can be written in any language. Usually, they are written in a scripting language, such as PERL or PHP, so they do not need to be compiled Programming - 4

225 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 225 Managing Data  Servlets – What are they? Servlets are programs written in Java that run in conjunction with a web server. They are Sun Microsystems’ version of CGI. Programming - 5

226 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 226 Managing Data  Applets – What are they? Java applets are small, fast programs that can run on any kind of computer. This makes them perfect for use on the Web because the program can be downloaded and run on a Mac or a PC or a Unix workstation. Today, they are used mainly in graphics and animation. Programming - 6

227 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 227 Managing Data  Java Beans and ASP Java Beans are components based on JavaSoft’s Java Beans component architecture. A component is a piece of code that functions independently and has the ability to interact with other components. Active Server Pages is Microsoft’s version of component architecture. Programming - 7

228 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 228 Managing Data  Extensible Markup Language HTML has limits. It is simple, easy to use, and generally tolerant of syntax. This makes it popular, but limits its ability to handle information. XML is the answer to the lenient, but limited, HTML. XML is a language for creating other languages. XML - 1

229 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 229 Managing Data  XML is: A preferred data exchange method Wildly popular with developers The technology behind most pages on the Internet Complicated and abstract Without bounds Expensive to implement XML - 2

230 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 230 Managing Data  eXtensible refers to the capability for an author to define custom tags and a custom document structure  Markup refers to the tagging method used to specify the name and attributes of data.  Language refers to the syntax, rules, and structure approved by the W3C for creating custom metadata definitions XML - 3

231 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 231 Managing Data  Terminology SchemaA Schema defines the custom markup language that you create with XML.  It specified the tags you can use in your documents, and which tags and attributes those tags can contain.  Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT) lets you extract and transform the information into any shape you need. XML - 4

232 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 232 Managing Data  Terminology – continued Document Type Definitions (DTD) specify a particular set of definitions for a schema. XML Schema – Developed by the W3C and is more flexible that the older DTDs. XML - 5

233 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 233 Managing Data  Why XML? It is emerging as the web standard for sharing data between applications Self-describing data Complete integration of all traditional databases and formats Modifications to data presentation – no reprogramming required XML - 6

234 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 234 Managing Data  XML forms are not yet prevalent. Several XForms solutions are under development. The predominant use of XML is for data exchange to and from HTML forms. Day 4 link back XML - 7

235 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 235 Data  Bar Codes  MICR (for good overall description of the technology) Data Links - 1

236 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 236 Data  MICR  Security Features  CGI Data Links - 2

237 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 237 Data  Common Field Types 2/biz4.html  Calculations (for VB Script tutorial)  VB Script Data Links - 3

238 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 238 Data  JavaScript  XML  Spell Checker Data Links - 4

239 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 239 Data  Business Intelligence  OMR  Data Formats Data Links - 5

240 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 240 Data  Scripts  Servlets  Applets Data Links - 6

241 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 241 Data  JavaBeans  Active Server Page (ASP) Data Links - 7

242 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 242 Test of Knowledge Quiz Time... Exercise...

243 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 243

244 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 244 Image  Image: interface among users, data and systems  Purpose: Considers how users interact with the form, ease of use, the overt and covert message the form conveys, and how people access the form Definition and Purpose

245 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 245 Image  User Interaction  Language Conventions  Marketing Message  Corporate Image  Avoiding Errors  Preventing Abandonment  Style Guides  Accessibility Components of Image

246 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 246 Image  Symmetrical Centered on page Conservative, formal, and restful Used for announcements and promotional materials Alignment Methods - 1

247 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 247 Image  Asymmetrical Creates more interest and can be dramatic and exciting Can be left aligned, right aligned, or justified left and right Most common for forms is left aligned Alignment Methods - 2

248 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 248 Image  Define how users interact with printed page English and French:  Top to bottom  Left to right  Capitalization rules  Punctuation rules  Grammatical rules Language Conventions

249 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 249 Image  Form Zones Identification Instruction Introduction Body Closing Source: Graphics Design for 21 st Century Desktop Publishers, Marvin Jacobs, CFSP and Linda Studer User Interaction - 1

250 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 250 Image  Logical Order (Sequencing) Readers expect logical order  FirstName, M.I., LastName  Address1, Address2, City, State / Province, ZIP / Postal Code Request data in the order users like to think User Interaction - 2

251 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 251 Image  User Interface Paper Forms  Design for the anticipated audience  Understand how the audience will use the form  Use appropriate white space - helps form user read and retain information  Use plain language – reduces misunderstanding  Avoid jargon – doesn’t insult user  Keep it as simple as possible User Interaction - 3

252 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 252 Image  User Interface Electronic Forms  Same principles apply  Need to understand the rules of the medium  Graphical User Interface (GUI) refers to the software design that presents the computer language in human-understandable format User Interaction - 4

253 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 253 Image  People read differently on the web First, they look at the center of the page Next, they will look to the left Then, they will look to the right Finally, they will scroll vertically (but not horizontally) They generally lose patience quickly (in an average of 11 seconds) User Interaction - 4

254 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 254 Image  Three web design styles: Home page-centric  Most navigation revolves around the home page, with links to others, but with a “home” link common Link from anywhere  Navigation bars on left and bottom of each page, with return to home page not necessary Transactional  Pages are in sequence, with “next” and “back” buttons common User Interaction - 5

255 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 255 Image  Electronic forms are displayed as “dots of light”  Flickering lights can generate eye fatigue  When reading, users blink less often, increasing strain  Older eyes require larger print and more white space User Interaction - 6

256 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 256 Image  Forms are not “literature.” Avoid overusing adjectives and adverbs.  Avoid “bureaucratic” language.  Avoid acronyms unless the form is targeted to a specific audience that will understand them.  Don’t mix font styles, point sizes, bold, or italics unnecessarily. User Interaction - 7

257 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 257 Image  User Considerations Users generally want a copy. Users generally want to print. Users generally want to save locally. Depending upon complexity, users may want draft mode (interim saves before submitting). Link to slide 425 User Interaction - 8

258 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 258 Image  Externally used forms are marketing tools.  Forms may be customer’s primary contact with the organization.  Logos are legal representations and must be protected.  Forms must support the corporate image. Marketing Message - 1

259 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 259 Image  Customers notice color, substrates, clarity.  Badly designed forms lead to high abandonment rates, which can result in lost orders and lost customers.  Inefficient forms create data capture errors, which add to cost and affect customer satisfaction. Marketing Message - 2

260 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 260 Image  Customer retention is everyone’s job.  With high cost of customer acquisition, it is more cost-effective to keep the ones you already have. Marketing Message - 3

261 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 261 Image  Color is important - color “sells”  Color has a cost with offset and flexographic printed forms  Color is “free” with electronic forms, but remember that users will print and that has a cost Marketing Message - 4

262 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 262 Image  Forms Management must be strategically aligned with the organization strategy. is a service department. is as much about supporting revenues as about controlling costs. Corporate Message - 1

263 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 263 Image Example:  Controlling Bootleg Forms Given today’s desktop environment, bootleg forms are a reality. Choices: Be seen as a forms cop or be seen as a service source. Message should be the latter. Corporate Message - 2

264 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 264 Image  Style Guides Should contain:  Company Mission Statement  Vision Statement  Values Statement  Marketing Objectives Style Guide is a marketing tool Corporate Message - 3

265 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 265 Image  Style Guides – continued We recommend that all organizations create and actively use a Style Guide. Style Guide contents include:  Logos and colors  Fonts  Substrates  Formats  Approvals Corporate Message - 4

266 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 266 Image  Focus is on Marketing message and maintaining a positive Corporate image.  Cost considerations include costs of: Color Hard to reproduce logos Substrates Non-compliance Corporate Message - 5

267 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 267 Image  Why do users leave fields blank? Common, but perplexing problem with forms Usability studies lend some insight Rob Barnett and Caroline Jarrett offer interesting commentary. Avoiding Errors

268 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 268 Image  Laws in Canada have even stronger provisions against discrimination than do US laws.  Human rights laws attempt to balance individual and collective rights.  Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the overarching legislation.  Many codes have provisions for goods, facilities and services. This includes virtual facilities.  Most companies have not considered how human rights codes affect their web sites. Accessibility - 1

269 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 269 Image  Laws in the US provide some of the “How To” Section 508 requires that Federal agencies’ electronic and information technology be accessible to people with disabilities. Is a major consideration for forms designers within government and will probably trickle down to the private sector. Accessibility - 2

270 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 270 Image  Section continued There are 16 rules for Accessible Web Sites. Rule 14 applies to forms:  “Make electronic forms accessible via assistive technology.”  When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues. Accessibility - 3

271 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 271 Image  What is “Accessibility”? Electronic forms must provide users with options they can select. Options may include large type, keyboard access to all commands, sound (read captions and instructions), Braille output, color choices, and more. Accessibility - 4

272 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 272 Image  Quick Tips Images and Animations Use the alt attribute to describe the function of each visual. Image Maps Use the client-side map and text for hotspots. Multimedia Provide captioning and transcripts of audio: and provide descriptions of video. Accessibility - 5

273 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 273 Image  Quick Tips - continued Hypertext Links Use text that makes sense when read out of context, e.g., avoid “click here.” Page Organization Use headings, lists, and consistent structure. Use CSS for layout and style where possible. Graphs and Charts Summarize or use the longdesc attribute Accessibility - 6

274 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 274 Image  Quick Tips – continued Scripts, applets, and plug-ins Provide alternative content in case active features are inaccessible or unsupported. Frames Use the noframes element and meaningful titles Tables Make line-by-line reading sensible and summarize Check your work Validate. Use tools, checklists, and guidelines at org.TR/WCAG Accessibility - 7

275 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 275 Image  Special equipment needed for accessibility is the responsibility of the user. Functionality includes: Special keyboards for access to commands Large Type Fonts Braille printers Video devices Audio devices Color choices (color blind) Accessibility - 8

276 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 276 Image  Products Available JAWS ® for Windows  Information from screen is read aloud  Outputs to refreshable Braille displays Cerenade – 508 component  Microsoft products  Adobe products  Accessibility - 9

277 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 277 Image Links  Tools, Checklists, and Guidelines  Canadian Links Article on Canadian Accessibility Public Accountability

278 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 278 Image Quiz Time... Test of Knowledge

279 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 279

280 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 280 Forms Management  Forms Management The systematic process of increasing productivity and minimizing errors in information capture, transmission, and recovery through the use of workflow analysis and graphic design techniques; providing administrative control; reducing procurement, storage and use costs through standardization; and ensuring the adequacy, business as well as legal, of all historical records. Copyright, Business Forms Management Association, 1986 Definition

281 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 281 Forms Management  Develop a Forms Strategy – Strategic Alignment  Program Establishment – Mission, Vision, Values, Objectives and Goals  Program Manual and Style Guide  Forms Control Techniques  Form File Structure  Database Contents and Functions  Formats, Software and Media Types  Procurement  Warehousing and Distribution  Roles An Overview of the Elements

282 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 282 Forms Management  Silos – no central strategy  Lack of management support - Transfer of responsibility  Downsizing/Outsourcing of Forms Management functions  Conflicting definitions – no standards  Issues with software / understanding of forms  Forms Cop vs. Forms Support  Complexity Why do Forms Programs Fail?

283 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 283 Forms Management  Strategy the process of positioning an organization for competitive advantage; planning for the direction of the enterprise prior to engagement. It is perspective and direction.  Tactics Managing of resources while engaged; the current plan; a set of actions Strategy versus Tactics

284 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 284 Forms Management  People cannot implement what they do not know.  People don’t implement properly what they don’t understand.  People don’t implement what they are not committed to.  People give up on strategy whose implications have not been anticipated. Why Develop a Strategy?

285 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 285 Forms Management  Enterprise agreement on goals, solutions supported, tools to be used, and implementation policy  Consistent application of a set of practices to be used for the development and deployment of forms throughout the organization What is a Forms Strategy?

286 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 286 Forms Management  There is always a “strategy.”  If you don’t have a formal strategy, one will evolve for you.  Forms are compelling – users need them and will develop them if you don’t.  Islands of non-compatible eForms will materialize. No Strategy?

287 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 287 Forms Management  Forms Management – coordination  Information Technology – databases  Web Administrator – deployment  Warehouse, Printing, Purchasing  User Departments – need  Sales and Marketing – define how we communicate to the public  Finance – require positive ROI  Legal – Signatures, records requirements Who Needs to be Involved?

288 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 288 Forms Management  Inside the firewall Knowledge workers All personnel within the organization  Outside the firewall Customers Suppliers Prospects Stakeholders Public Who are the Audiences?

289 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 289 Forms Management  Is there a Corporate Style Guide?  What policies and procedures will be affected?  Executive Support  Training, Support  Staffing  Skills Required Internal Considerations

290 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 290 Forms Management  Outside the firewall Signature technology and support Non-repudiation Require registration? Access control Filler software requirements Routing, printing, and local save Shipping and distribution External Considerations

291 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 291 Forms Management 1.Establish measurable goals. 2.Align your business and your IT operations. 3.Get executive support up-front. 4.Let business goals drive functionality. 5.Minimize customization by leveraging out- of-the-box functionality; avoid scope creep. Ten Critical Success Factors - 1

292 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 292 Forms Management 6.Use trained, experienced suppliers. 7.Actively involve end users in the solution design. 8.Invest in training and empower end users. 9.Use a phased rollout schedule. 10.Measure, monitor and track. Ten Critical Success Factors - 2

293 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 293 Forms Management  Establish workflow analysis process.  Develop Return-on-Investment requirements  Develop goals for data capture and management – database connectivity.  Develop standards for edition control and archiving – creating legal records. Critical Elements of a Program - 1

294 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 294 Forms Management  Develop a deployment strategy – catalogs, portals, distributed POD.  Define eCommerce requirements – credit cards, personalization, security, privacy.  Establish a policy for non-repudiation – validation of user identity.  Establish a policy for electronic signatures – technology, vendors, costs, “take to paper”.  Define a workflow integration policy – routing, storage, retrieval, tracking. Critical Elements of a Program - 2

295 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 295 Forms Management  Integrate eForms with paper forms management – catalogs, design, management.  Software selection – workflow, design, mapping, database connectivity, server scripts, technologies supported: (paper forms, browsers, XML, ODBC, JavaScript, CGI, scripting, open source, extendable, more) Critical Elements of a Program - 3

296 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 296 Forms Management  Interfaces to Records Management and Document Management systems  Search functionality  Managing obsolescence  Training and help desk support  Programming support Critical Elements of a Program - 4

297 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 297 Forms Management  Bringing the organization together with a single strategy is difficult.  It will require developing a business case and selling it to management.  It can return significant benefits in important areas such as new customer acquisition, customer retention, customer service, process improvements and cost control.  Developing any forms strategy is the responsibility of the forms department. Summary

298 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 298

299 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 299 Strategic Alignment  Mission What is the corporate Mission Statement?  Vision Has the CEO established a Vision Statement?  Values Sets the tone  Objectives What Corporate Objectives are published?  Goals List the 3 or 4 major Corporate goals – include your line management Corporate Strategy

300 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 300 Strategic Alignment  Mission  Vision  Objectives  Goals  Budget Department Strategy

301 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 301 Strategic Alignment  Support the Corporate Mission  Focus on revenue generation and customer retention  Don’t forget cost reduction  Define the Value Proposition Department Mission

302 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 302 Strategic Alignment  Establish your view of what the department will look like in the future Trends, technologies  Develop scenarios based on technological change – be a Visionary  Define expected benefits to the company Cost avoidance, enhanced reputation, industry leader  Be the resource person for your area of expertise Department Vision

303 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 303 Strategic Alignment  Provide definitions and gain agreement  Align with Document Management  Align with Records Management  Align with Information Technology  Define limitations and risks  Learn the technology Department Objectives

304 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 304 Strategic Alignment  Must be specific, realistic, measurable and with a time frame  Must be relevant and important  Generally shorter term  Calculate ROI on everything Projects Equipment and software Personnel costs Department Goals - 1

305 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 305 Strategic Alignment  Report on progress every month  Include a continuing education plan for yourself and your people  Have a succession plan (so you can be promoted) Department Goals - 2

306 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 306 Strategic Alignment  Develop a line item budget  Develop an activity-based budget  Make sure they balance  Keep them current Budget

307 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 307 Strategic Alignment  Determine management requirements  Measure progress daily  Acquire proper tools  Build a Style Guide and Program Manual Establishing Metrics

308 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 308 Strategic Alignment  Track what is important This means what is important to management and customers (internal and external) Gain agreement every step of the way  You cannot manage that which you do not measure Develop a Reporting System

309 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 309 Strategic Alignment  Establish entities and relationships  Logical Design  Physical Design Develop a Database

310 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 310 Strategic Alignment  Form Identification (name, number, edition date, referenced systems)  Form Ownership, Authority, Review, Contact Information  Legal Requirements  System Relationships and Requirements  Stocking and Distribution Information Database Contents and Functions

311 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 311 Strategic Alignment  Regular Reviews  Use the database to identify opportunities  Provide visibility up the Management Ladder  Get as high up the management chain as you can as often as you can with your results  Modify all the above after each review to stay in alignment Putting it Together

312 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 312

313 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 313 Forms Management  Obtain Senior Management Support  Send out a Call for Forms  Evaluate the samples collected  Enhance data collected with samples  Build Forms Analysis Database Program Establishment

314 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 314 Forms Management  Define the processes of the workflow  Study the steps in each process  Identify impediments to the workflow  Define process improvement options Set Up Process Analysis

315 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 315 Forms Management  Form Identification – numbering  Form Identification – titles  Indexing and Filing  Form Testing  Obsolescence studies  Management reporting  Special Projects Forms Control - 1

316 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 316 Forms Management  Indexing and Filing Paper and other physical media Electronic (server-based) Internet (browser-based) Forms Control - 2

317 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 317 Forms Management  Establish form number standard  Include edition date with form number  Establish standard criteria for adding new forms to the system  Install form ownership controls  Set up review cycle procedures  Define forms deletion criteria Forms Control Techniques

318 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 318 Forms Management Specialized software is usually more productive Design Mapping Filling Process analysis and flowcharting Order management Warehousing and distribution Forms Software

319 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 319 Forms Management  Form file types: Form Catalog – usually electronic  List: alphabetically by title, by form number, by sponsoring department Form History  Include: design instructions, proof approvals, copy of each edition, production notes, artwork Functional File  Sample of form filed by function, helps spot duplications, improve productivity by reducing clerical effort, spot consolidations Form Files - 1

320 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 320 Forms Management  Form File Structure Identify data elements for form file Establish security procedures for controlled access to form files Define form samples standards Build individual form specifications Cross-reference to related forms Identify forms function for each file Form Files - 2

321 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 321 Forms Management  Alpha Testing Test with form owner  Beta Testing Test in real work environment  Rollout Test with all users (within company and with general public)  Feedback and Revisions Forms Testing

322 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 322 Forms Management  Macro Analysis Review database for lack of usage; automatic obsolete, wait for feedback  Reorder Analysis Challenge on reorder; look for combinations  Ad Hoc Analysis Project-oriented, e.g., study all envelopes Obsolescence Studies

323 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 323 Forms Management  Why are they important? Information at fingertips,show value to company, justify your existence  Management wants statistics Total forms, number of reprints, eliminations, revisions, new forms, more  Management wants cost savings Project results – hard dollar and productivity  Managements wants results Tell them what you do Management Reports

324 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 324 Forms Management ProcurementWarehousing CatalogsPick ‘n’ Pack eCommerceDistribution Forms Control Sphere of Influence

325 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 325 Strategic Alignment Form OwnerForms Analyst Form SpecifierForms Designer Form BuyerForms Administrator Form UserForms Clerk Forms Filler /Forms Manager Records Manager (Department) Roles

326 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 326 Forms Management Quiz Time... Test of Knowledge

327 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 327

328 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 328 Physical Container Design Tell us your name, organization, experience, education, and three personal things about yourself that you would like us to know. Introduction

329 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 329 Physical Container Design What specific goals do you have for this class? Class Goals

330 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 330 Physical Container Design  Questions: What is tensile strength? What is basis weight? What is calendaring? What is opacity? What is brightness? What is caliper? Paper - 1

331 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 331 Physical Container Design  Characteristics – grain direction; wire / felt sides; acidity; permanency; durability; opacity; brightness; whiteness; color; impression quality; moisture content; basis weight; caliper; equivalent weight Paper - 2

332 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 332 Physical Container Design  Types – form bond (20/24#), OCR, MICR, safety, rag / cotton content, translucent, lightweight, carbonizing; Offset (50/60/70#), ledger, index; Tag; laser / inkjet; text; cover (80/100#); coated Paper - 3

333 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 333 Physical Container Design  Form Bond lb. Register bond CW bond (chemical wood) Laser bond Dual purpose bond Rag-content bond  Offset - 50 – 70 lb lb. is most common Paper - 4

334 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 334 Physical Container Design  Pressure Sensitive Labels Face stock Adhesive Silicon release coating Carrier (backer) Paper - 5

335 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 335 Physical Container Design  Other Forms Papers Ledger Tag Cover Coated OCR / MICR / MOCR Paper - 6

336 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 336 Physical Container Design  Specialty Papers Foil Vinyl Mylar Tyvek Microencapsulated (scented) Transfer Tape Paper - 7

337 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 337 Physical Container Design  Coated Papers Carbonless Paper  CB, CFB, CF – Coated Back, Coated Face and Back, Coated Face; self-contained; standard colors; backprinting not recommended (cannot write on back until sensitized set is disassembled)  Sensitizing – addition of chemical coating to all or parts of a forms bond sheet; eliminates need for spot or pattern carbons or desensitizing  Desensitizing – addition of chemical coating to all or parts of a forms bond sheet to facilitate selective data transfer prevention Paper - 8

338 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 338 Physical Container Design  Carbon Paper Ink finishes – medium, hard, extra hard, intense and extra intense Reuse – individual sheets can be reused as with a sales book Specialty – stripe, pattern, spot, color carbon Other – double-sided, OCR, Carbonless-compatible Write Test – should always be conducted Paper - 9

339 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 339 Physical Container Design  Thermal Heat sensitive  Thermal Transfer Melted ribbon  Top Coating Toner adherence Paper - 10

340 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 340 Physical Container Design  Security Papers Level 1  Contain pantographs Level 2  Add brown stain and black stain Level 3  Add features such as hidden fibers, visible fibers, florescent fibers, standard watermarks, top coatings Level 4  Add polyester strips, custom watermarks, planchettes  Paper - 11

341 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 341 Physical Container Design  Ingredients pigments, vehicles, driers, antioxidants, waxes, starches, lubricants, plasticizers  Drying absorption, evaporation, oxidation / polymerization Inks - 1

342 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 342 Physical Container Design  Colors (remember Roy G Biv) White is all colors reflected; Black is all colors absorbed  Pantone Matching System (PMS)  Process – CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) Printing  Process – RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Screen Display  Laser Heat resistant; Pressure drying Inks - 2

343 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 343 Physical Container Design  Security Inks Drop out Double strike Bleed through Thermo chromatic White opaque Inks - 3

344 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 344 Physical Container Design  Other Types of Inks Types – letterpress, litho, flexo, gravure Specialty Types – MICR, OCR, heat resistant, inkjet, high gloss, fluorescent, metallic; Thermo-chromatic, UV Potential Problems – bleeding, powering, feathering, fill-in, fuzzy, ghosting, hickeys, mottle, picking, piling, rubbing, scuffing, screening, scumming, setoff, flaking, spreading, strike-through, tinting Inks - 4

345 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 345 Physical Container Design  Types Non-Impact –  laser, ink jet; thermal, thermal transfer; magnetography; dielectric and ion deposition Impact –  dot matrix; daisywheel; band; chain Print Technologies - 1

346 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 346 Physical Container Design  Types Character  prints one character at a time; one printhead; typically desktop-type Line  Up to 132 printheads; extremely fast; large data processing Page  prints a full page at a time Dot matrix  characters formed from an array of dots Print Technologies - 2

347 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 347 Physical Container Design  Printing Types  Offset Litho – image applied to flexible metal (or paper) printing plate via bright light, chemical processing; image applied to substrate via rubber blanket and “oil and water don’t mix” reaction  Uses: Forms, high-end labels, commercial printing  Flexography – direct image process via flexible, relief-image plates; no water used  Uses: Paperboard, corrugated cardboard, film, foil, laminates Manufacturing - 1

348 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 348 Physical Container Design  Printing Types – continued  Gravure (intaglio) - direct imaging process; image etched directly onto the surface of printing cylinder; very fluid inks Uses: high fidelity reproductions, e.g., National Geographic magazine  Thermography – addition of special powder to wet ink to create the appearance of embossing when dry; high shine; less expensive than engraving; head used to set the ink powder Manufacturing - 2

349 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 349 Physical Container Design  Composition High End – Mecca 2000, Digicomp Desktop - OneForm Plus, F3, Informed, Adobe Designer Page Layout – QuarkXpress, PageMaker, Freehand, many others  Proofing Types – photocopy, contact print, blueline, velox, PMT, film positive, chromalin, matchprint, press proof, digital image Manufacturing - 3

350 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 350 Physical Container Design  Platemaking Offset Litho – metal or paper plates; film negative to plate, film positive to plate, computer-to-plate; all use bright, xenon light to expose image onto plate; chemical processing to expose right- reading image Flexo – rubber or photopolymer plates; reverse image to plate; chemical processing to expose reverse-reading image Manufacturing - 4

351 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 351 Physical Container Design  Presses Web – unwind / infeed, printing, numbering / imprinting, processing, rewind / delivery Sheet-fed – sheet bed, printing, numbering / imprinting, delivery Perfecting – prints both sides of the web simultaneously Pack-to-Pack – unfolds, prints and refolds a pack of preprocessed paper Manufacturing - 5

352 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 352 Physical Container Design  Presses – continued Multi-web – prints, collates and folds a multi-part form in one pass Dry Offset – no dampening system; indefinite life of plates; typically used for long-run printing of stock forms and stock tab Letterpress – platen (offline processing and numbering); flat- bed cylinder and rotary (small commercial printers) Manufacturing - 6

353 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 353 Physical Container Design  Presses – continued Digital  Xerox Docutech  HP Indigo  Xiekon  Heidelberg (Kodak engine)  Canon Manufacturing - 7

354 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 354 Physical Container Design  Collators continuous and unit set carbon interleaving capability fastenings - gluing and crimping cross perforation to paper and carbon, if used additional processing – punching; perfs parallel to the web; bar coding; slitting and crash numbering Other – pack-to-pack; cut sheet Manufacturing - 8

355 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 355 Physical Container Design  Encoders Inline with press or collator Offline as stand-alone Numbers that are typically scanned Utilizes a ribbon instead of inkpad Typical numbering systems – Arabic, MICR, OCR, barcodes Manufacturing - 9

356 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 356 Physical Container Design  Bindery Spot stitching Stapling Line sewing Bundlers Shrink wrappers Manufacturing - 10

357 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 357 Physical Container Design  Bindery – continued Cutters Drills Folders Film wrapping Inserters Stitchers Edge binding Manufacturing - 11

358 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 358 Physical Container Design  Affixers Offline stand alone: integrated with a collator; inline Affixes envelopes, cards, coins, packets, labels and other products to forms Tippers Manufacturing - 12

359 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 359

360 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 360 Physical Container Design  Understanding requirements (Intent of the form)  Convert to design elements  Look for areas of improvement (meet with users)  Select the “form of the form”  Calculate expected ROI Design Analysis - 1

361 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 361 Physical Container Design  Macro Analysis  Regular (scheduled) Reviews  Ad hoc Analysis  Process Diagrams  Return-on-Investment Analysis  End Result: Solve the Business Problem Design Analysis - 2

362 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 362 Physical Container Design  Pertinent Issues Sources of Data: HandwrittenOptical scan TypewriterOptical mark scan KeyboardMagnetic Ink read Bar Code scanDatabase tables  RFID Video Read Audio TapeTouch screen Design Analysis - 3

363 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 363 Physical Container Design  Questions – Who will use this form? What do people do with the form? What is the fill environment? Where do the data come from? Where will the users use the form? When is the form completed? Why is the form necessary? How do people use the form? Design Analysis - 4

364 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 364 Physical Container Design  Form Users (from an analyst’s perspective) Form Owners Technical Users (specifiers) Process Users Counselors (coaches) Design Analysis - 5

365 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 365 Physical Container Design  Cardinal Principles: Forms must be easy to WRITE Forms must be easy to READ Forms must appear easy to USE Design Analysis - 6

366 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 366 Physical Container Design  Cut Sheets Typically single-ply; more and more multi-part carbonless being used; hand-filled or used in non-impact printers  Continuous Single or multi-part; carbons or carbonless; for non-impact and impact printers  Unit Sets Multi-part; carbons (stub) or carbonless (glued edge); hand or typewriter filled Product Types - 1

367 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 367 Physical Container Design  Mailers Single-ply; postcards; folded sheets, heat seal, pressure seal, Info-Seal  Secured Documents Negotiable documents (checks, bonds); transcripts, currency, prescriptions, gift certificates, many more  Sales Books and Registers Book-bound unit sets  Pegboard A specific form system typically used in medical / dental offices. “One-write” systems Product Types - 2

368 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 368 Physical Container Design  Envelopes stock and custom; window and standard; usually contain an adhesive for sealing (lick ‘n’ stick; peel ‘n’ seal; latex); business; specialty  Labels ISL; Product ID (prime): Specialty; Cheshire; pressure sensitive and re-moistenable  Tags Products; tag paper stock; wired; fabric; unit sets; continuous; single or multi-part  Other: (Books, stencil labels, joined web) Product Types - 3

369 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 369

370 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 370 Physical Container Design  Design Features Micro Printing Intricate borders Void pantographs Guioches LogoDot Distortion Secured Documents - 1

371 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 371 Physical Container Design  Paper Features Brown Stain Black Stain Watermarks Florescent Fibers Planchettes Security Threads Secure Documents - 2

372 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 372 Physical Container Design  Inks ThermoChromatic UV Sensor Erasure-resistant special bleeds Florescent White ink Scratch off Secure Documents - 3

373 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 373 Physical Container Design  Printing Features Drop out inks Double strike numbers Holograms Artificial watermarks Split fountain printing Foils, laminates Secure Documents - 4

374 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 374 Physical Container Design  Issues Secure access to checks Secure features on checks Secure distribution Accountability of numbers, waste Special printer software to detect presence of features Positive pay systems Secure Documents - 5

375 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 375 Physical Container Design Essociates Group, Inc. wishes to acknowledge and thank WARD KRAFT and others for their time and generosity in providing the form samples we used in this class. Acknowledgment

376 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 376

377 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 377 Standards & Conventions size / orientationfonts & rule weights positioninglogo usage / proximity groupingdensity / white space colorinstructions / help formatspecifications Definitions - 1

378 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 378 Standards & Conventions form titlebold type form numberreverse type edition datecolor text page numberingscreening captionscheck boxes Definitions - 2

379 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 379 Standards & Conventions  Size – ref: Page 16 of Model Style Guide Usually 8 ½” x 11” – paper forms “Standard” size envelopes  Positioning Logo and company name at top left Title at top right Form Number / Edition Date at bottom left; page number at bottom right Standards - 1

380 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 380 Standards & Conventions  Group / Sequencing By Zones Identification Zone – Company and form identification (logo, form title, company name and address) Instruction Zone – Provide any instructions for the overall form Introduction Zone - Name, address, phone, fax, fields displayed together Body Zone – One or more sections regarding form purpose Closing Zone – Totals, signatures, routing Standards - 2

381 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 381 Standards & Conventions  Color – ref: Page 17 of Model Style Guide Paper / screened background – white Logo often displayed in color on external forms and (sometimes) in black and white on internal forms Ink for container usually black Emphasis / spot color – usually red or a color pulled from the company logo if it is printed in color on the form Standards - 3

382 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 382 Standards & Conventions  Format – ref: Page 14 of Model Style Guide Left to right / top to bottom Data sectioning / logical sequence fields White space Upper-left corner captions Check boxes always to the left of captions Signatures usually at the bottom of form Distribution at bottom (multi-part form sets) Standards – 4

383 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 383 Standards & Conventions  Fonts and Rule Weights – Use serif fonts for Instructions / Help Use sans serif fonts for captions point form title / 7 – 9 point captions ½ point to 1 point full value rules Hairline rules – less than ¼ point Screened rules where appropriate Screened areas in lieu of rules Standards - 5

384 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 384 Standards & Conventions  Logo Usage / Proximity – ref: Page 18 of Model Style Guide Adhere to Style Guide rules Use only approved design(s), size(s) and color(s); avoid any distortion Use only where authorized Honor standard isolation area rules Remember that its business forms can be good marketing tools for the organization Standards - 6

385 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 385 Standards & Conventions  Density and White space – ref: Page 14 of Model Style Guide Design for BOTH form users:  the one who completes the blank form  the one who reads the completed form lookMake the form look easy to complete Don’t pack a gallon into a pint container Use white space to separate discrete sections of the form and to guide the eyes of the users. Standards - 7

386 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 386 Standards & Conventions  Instructions and Help – ref: Page 13 of Model Style Guide Write for a third-grade reader  Language on form may be a second language for the user  Flesch test Paper forms:  locate instructions near to where they’re needed  use plain language; stay away from jargon Electronic forms:  Use tool tips where appropriate  Supply a “search” capability when possible Standards - 8

387 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 387 Standards & Conventions  Specifications Paper forms:  Adhere to industry manufacturing standards whenever possible to control costs  Clarify manufacturing requirements  discuss all the specifications with your vendor Electronic forms:  Identify related databases; system(s)  Integrate electronic workflow(s) Standards - 9

388 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 388 Standards & Conventions  Form Number / Edition Date – ref: Page 12 of Model Style Guide Form Number: 4 or 5 digits  No “significant” characters  Prefix or suffix ONLY to specify version: language or ‘state/legal’ variations Edition Date: (mm/dd/yyyy)  Even the first edition gets a date!  Changes ONLY when layout changes Record Number: (AutoIncrement) Conventions - 1

389 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 389 Standards & Conventions  Uses of Form Number Search / Find Reference in procedures Identity on form Legitimizes the form  Form Number Does Not: Define responsible department or cost center Provide account codes Provide system ID Conventions - 2

390 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 390 Standards & Conventions  Page Numbering No need to number one-page forms Indicate “Page __ of __ pages” on all pages Include form number and edition date with page number on subsequent pages Position page numbers in footer area Conventions - 3

391 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 391 Standards & Conventions  Captions – ref: Page 13 of Model Style Guide Captions in upper / lower case type Upper-left corner captions preferred Caption followed by rule: acceptable Caption below rule: NOT acceptable (except for some signature lines) Length of variable data entry, not the caption, controls size of the entry space Conventions - 4

392 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 392  Bold Type Use for section headings only  Reverse Printing Use sparingly and be sure they are BOLD type – no exceptions; avoid, if possible, on faxed forms  Color Text Use limited to special emphasis only Standards & Conventions Conventions - 5

393 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 393  Screening – ref: Page 14 of Model Style Guide Use to de-emphasize structural rules use to differentiate special data areas Avoid on faxed forms  Check boxes Position to the left of choice option position the box and the caption snugly together as a visible unit Leave sufficient space between selections to avoid “which goes where?” confusion  Other graphic devices Use as needed and appropriate Day 4 return link Standards & Conventions Conventions - 6

394 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 394 Standards & Conventions  “Proper prior planning prevents pitifully poor performance.”  “If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will take you there.” Quotable Quotes

395 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 395

396 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 396 Physical Container Design  Zoning  Special Areas  Design Styles  Grouping  Sequencing  Spacing  Drawing Objects Design Techniques - 1

397 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 397 Physical Container Design  Restrictions and Qualifiers Paper forms  Style Guides  Design Standards  Design Conventions  Using Life Cycle  Pre- and Post Processing Design Techniques - 2

398 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 398 Physical Container Design  Drawing Objects  Adding Fields Paper forms  Proofing  Testing Design Technique - 3

399 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 399 Physical Container Design  Automated Processing Roll-feed Systems Roll Rewinders Folding, inserting and mailing  For Manual Forms Decollating Bursting Trimming Design Issues

400 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 400 Physical Container Design  Traditional Methods Opinion surveys Pilot studies Readability scores  Flesch Test  Fog Index Focus groups  Problem: doesn’t focus on real user problems, only opinions Testing - 1

401 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 401 Physical Container Design  Observational Methods What they show us  Why people go wrong  Real needs of users  Highlight specific problems  Form filler behavior Form is studied in real environment We see what really happens Enables progressive improvements Testing - 2

402 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 402 Physical Container Design  Produce for inventory  Produce on demand & ship to user  Pick ‘n’ pack  Print-on-demand  Distribute, then print Deployment Strategies

403 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 403 Physical Container Design  Purchasing  Requisition  Warehousing and distribution  Obsolescence  Digital asset management  Printer support Deployment Issues

404 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 404 Physical Container Design Quiz... Container Design Exercise... Test of Knowledge

405 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 405

406 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 406 Electronic Container Design  pForms paper, or other physical substrates  eForms digital forms used in non-browser environments  iForms digital forms used in browsers Product Types

407 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 407 Electronic Container Design  Print-on-demand  Fill and print  Fill and submit  Intelligent electronic forms  Enterprise-enabled  Applications Levels

408 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 408 Electronic Containers  Quick History Lesson What is the Internet? What is the World Wide Web? What is the W3C? Introduction

409 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 409 Electronic Containers  What is it and how does it work? It’s a program used to visit web pages It works by using a protocol called HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) to request a specially encoded text document from a web server. This text document contains special markup code written in HyperText Markup Language (HTML). This markup is interpreted by the web browser, the job of which is to render the document’s content in an appropriate manner for the user’s convenience. Browser - 1

410 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 410 Electronic Containers  What is it and how does it work? The HTML may include such things as references to other web documents using hyperlinks, suggestions for text color and position, and other content such as images and audio and visual (“multimedia”) content  Types PC and Mac – Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera, Firefox Unix / VMS – Lynx (http://lynx.browser.org), w3m Amiga – VoyagerNG, Mosaic and others Browser - 2

411 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 411 Electronic Containers  Definition: A network consists of two or more computers connected together to share information. All networking builds off this simple system. Networks - 1

412 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 412 Electronic Containers  Components Computers Protocol Network Interface Cards (NICs) Cable Hub (Note: Wireless networks obviously don’t use cables and NICs aren’t necessary for small networks that use parallel / serial ports.) Networks - 2

413 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 413 Electronic Containers  How does it work? Networks - 3

414 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 414 Electronic Containers  Classification Size – Local Area Networks and Wide Area Networks LANs – Peer-to-Peer; Client Server Client LANs – Windows 2000 Security and Access Protocol Hardware Networks - 4

415 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 415 Electronic Containers  Servers A server is a computer running software that enables it to serve specific requests from clients. Types  Client Server - Most common  Peer-to-Peer - Most popular application today is Internet music swapping; KaZaA, Morpheus (Note: By definition, Napster was ultimately deemed not to be P2P because the pass-thru server logged and tracked files.) Networks - 5

416 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 416 Electronic Containers  Servers Client Server  Benefits:  Optimization  Centralization  Security  Redundancy and Back-up Networks - 6

417 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 417 Electronic Containers  Servers Client Server (continued)  Hardware:  Dedicated CPU  Multiple processor support  Large amounts of RAM supported  Fast input / output and network cards Networks - 7

418 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 418 Electronic Containers  Servers Client Server (continued)  Software:  Network Operating System (NOS) – Windows NT / 2000, Novell Netware, Linux  Features: File and Print serving, backup and some method to secure those resources; Some NOSs will include a web server or mail server. Networks - 8

419 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 419 Electronic Containers  Servers Client Server (continued)  Software Applications:  Mail Servers – Microsoft Exchange, Eudora Mail Server  List Servers – LISTSERV, Lyris, Arrow Mailing List Server  Fax Servers – ReplayRax, FaxMaker, eFax Messenger  Web Servers – Apache, IIS Networks - 9

420 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 420 Electronic Containers  Servers Client Server (continued)  Software Applications: (continued)  Database Servers or DBMS – MySQL Server, Oracle, IBM DB2  Web Application Servers – Cold Fusion  Terminal Server or Communication Server – Dumb terminals; MS Windows GUI thin client  Proxy Servers – MS Proxy Server, Wingate Networks - 10

421 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 421 Electronic Containers  Types Client-based software that interacts with Web servers. They manage the specific client to various OS and browsers. Proprietary fillers include FormFlow Filler, Cerenade Filler, FileNet Filler. Free, widely-distributed fillers include Windows 32 bit client (Visual Basic), Acrobat Reader. Fillers

422 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 422 Electronic Containers  Paper Forms Each page is usually a separate sheet with separate form number  Electronic Forms May contain an unlimited number of pages. Usually accompanied by a navigation method such as “Next,” “Previous,” “First Page,” “Last Page” (or arrows indicating such. Multiple Pages

423 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 423 Electronic Containers  Code-based Systems Lotus Notes, Xerox, IBM, HTML, Elixir  WYSIWYG Systems Most modern forms design software use drawing tools for lines, boxes, text, circles, etc.  Import Functions enable vector conversion for edits Drawing Techniques

424 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 424 Electronic Containers  Compatibility Issues  New Standards (XML, JavaScript, Java Applets, Mac OS, Windows XP)  Competing, often incompatible systems  Emerging Standards (Print Talk, JDL, Microsoft.net, Xforms) New Technologies

425 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 425 Test of Knowledge  Define the differences between electronic and Internet forms.  Give examples of when to use each. Exercise Time...

426 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 426

427 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 427 Electronic Container Design  Inside the firewall IT structure and standards controls what can be done Standardization of software used, desktop interface, networks and database interaction Users are known through a user ID and password Access and security rules, as well as business rules, can be enforced Signatures can be managed through logins and locking methods Electronic Forms Issues - 1

428 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 428 Electronic Container Design  Outside the firewall Registered users – can be managed similar to inside-the firewall Anonymous users – holds most potential for eCommerce but many issues unresolved Electronic Forms Issues - 2

429 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 429 Electronic Container Design  Electronic Commerce (eCommerce) Includes customization, one-to-one marketing, ordering, status checking, credit card processing, and customer service opportunities Link to slide 249 Electronic Forms Issues - 3

430 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 430 Electronic Container Design  Development Who develops forms? Process for new forms, revisions Obsolescence policy Forms control (numbers, applying standards) Retention policy Approvals Designing for the Web - 1

431 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 431 Electronic Container Design  Distribution Local save  support  Local save and print Servers  Forms portals  User access controls  User submission of filled forms Security policy Designing for the Web - 2

432 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 432 Electronic Container Design  Support User training On-line help Help desk support Instruction manuals User guides Designer training Level of support (24 X 7 ?) Designing for the Web - 3

433 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 433 Electronic Container Design  Software Selection Design software Client software (fillers) Edition management Workflow design software Compatibility with existing systems Designing for the Web - 4

434 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 434 Electronic Container Design  Output Strategy Save and print Database access Multiple versions support Offline and online Multiple device support (PDAs, notebooks) Designing for the Web - 5

435 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 435 Electronic Container Design  Management Reporting Metrics and statistics tracking Enhancement requests User satisfaction levels Strategic support (mission, goals) Designing for the Web - 6

436 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 436 Electronic Container Design  Mapping / Programming Level of complexity supported Out-of-the-box functionality Tools to be used IT support required Outside resources required File and field naming conventions Designing for the Web - 7

437 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 437 Electronic Container Design  Routing Attach to Rules-based routing Status tracking Multiple, simultaneous routing Approvals capture and security (un-sign) Designing for the Web - 8

438 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 438 Electronic Container Design  Database Connections Read Write Permissions and connections Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) Roles  Data Administrator  Database Administrator (DBA) Designing for the Web - 9

439 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 439 Electronic Container Design  Storage and Retrieval Data and container separate? Associate data to edition of container Records Management requirements Archiving, allowing for technology changes Backup Designing for the Web - 10

440 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 440 Electronic Container Design  Security and Privacy Issues Secure servers (https protocol) Intrusion detection Data encryption Secure access Secure features on a form Compare to security of a paper form Associate cost to business risks Designing for the Web - 11

441 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 441 Electronic Container Design  Other considerations Workflow analysis Need to support paper forms in same system Source file management Dealing with bootleg forms creation Interfaces to other systems Search capabilities Forms portals Managing obsolescence IT Department support Designing for the Web - 12

442 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 442 Electronic Container Design  Signatures eSign and UETA Signature verification is all about the process  Can you document it?  Can you prove it?  Can you reproduce it?  Is it secure? Security versus usability are competing factors Designing for the Web - 13

443 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 443 Electronic Container Design  Signatures - continued Three things to remember: 1. Once introduced, requirements will grow rapidly 2. Compliance is a significant component of the solution 3. Committing resources to a non-strategic function is always more expensive Designing for the Web - 14

444 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 444 Electronic Container Design  Front-end Process Authenticate user (passwords, smart cards) Consent to transact electronically Maintain document format (no fillers!) Present without download Record of delivery and acceptance (workflow and business rules embedded into the process) Establish intent to sign Designing for the Web - 15

445 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 445

446 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 446 Electronic Container Design  Lets review the standards and conventions we discussed yesterday and compare and contrast them between paper and electronic forms Review Standards and Conventions

447 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 447 Electronic Container Design  Zoning – can be replaced by sub-forms, hidden fields, hidden pages  Setting preferences – object properties  Box and columnar design using tables  Grouping – same as pForms  Sequencing – tab order  Spacing – designing to fit the data field Design Techniques - 1

448 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 448 Electronic Container Design  Field Types  Drawing fields – stepping  Masks  Restrictions and qualifiers  Use the Style Guide  Data formats and types Design Techniques - 2

449 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 449 Electronic Container Design  Data Formats Standard  ASCII  HTML, XML Proprietary .doc,.xls,.ppt .g,.elf Generally accepted .PDF, EPS, PostScript, DBF Data Formats

450 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 450 Electronic Container Design  HTML Editor  XML and XSLT  Compiled languages  Scripting languages  Common Gateway Interface (CGI)  Database technology  Web Authoring tools  Applets and Servlets Web Technologies - 1

451 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 451 Electronic Container Design  Basic Page Structure Title goes here Body goes here HTML - 1

452 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 452 Electronic Container Design  Common HTML Tags HTML - 2

453 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 453 Electronic Container Design Creating HTML Forms  Common form tags defines a form defines an input field defines a selectable list HTML - 3

454 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 454 Electronic Container Design  Review of XML XML - 1

455 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 455 Electronic Container Design  Compiled languages are converted to machine language using a “compiler.” Web Technologies - 2

456 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 456 Electronic Container Design  Scripting languages execute one line at a time and do not need to be compiled JavaScript PHP Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) Active Server Pages (ASP) Java Server Pages (JSP) Web Technologies - 3

457 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 457 Electronic Container Design  Common Gateway Interface (CGI) a programming interface between a web server and the systems’ backend functions – such as processing systems and databases allows web servers to perform data functions and interact with users Web Technologies - 4

458 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 458 Electronic Container Design  Common Gateway Interface (CGI) Server-side programs or scripts – all processing occurs on server Client-side solutions include Java applets, Java scripts, and ActiveX controls Web Technologies - 5

459 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 459 Electronic Container Design  Relational Databases Data Structure Data are organized in the form of tables with rows and columns Data Manipulation Powerful operations (SQL) are used to manipulate the data Data Integrity Business rules are applied to maintain integrity during manipulation Web Technologies - 6

460 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 460 Electronic Container Design  Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) a standard method of sharing data between databases and other programs ODBC drivers are the standard Structured Query Language (SQL) to gain access to data from outside sources Each database program requires a different driver Web Technologies - 7

461 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 461 Electronic Container Design  Database Use for Electronic Forms Any form that can provide the ability to save and recall the variable fill data requires the use of a database It may be a simple table or a multiple table database, or even multiple databases Web Technologies - 8

462 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 462 Electronic Container Design  Web Authoring Tools Microsoft FrontPage Macromedia Dreamweaver Adobe GoLive NetObjects Fusion Many HTML editors available Web Technologies - 9

463 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 463 Electronic Container Design  Access: Three levels 1.Access to the system 2.Access to the form 3.Access to the information on the form Web Technologies - 10

464 Copyright 2005 – Essociates Group, Inc. 464 Electronic Container Design  Compatibility Competing, proprietary software  List of software providers Proprietary technologies  Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, Adobe Systems Form standards?  Xform standard (recommended by W3C)  PDF (widely adopted- recommended by Adobe)  XML (W3C) developed – widely supported) Web Technologies - 11