Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

EKONOMSKA ANALIZA PRAVA.  odnosi se na primjenjivanje ekonomskih metoda na pravne probleme i institucije.  Istraživanja pokazuju da metode i analitički.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "EKONOMSKA ANALIZA PRAVA.  odnosi se na primjenjivanje ekonomskih metoda na pravne probleme i institucije.  Istraživanja pokazuju da metode i analitički."— Presentation transcript:

1 EKONOMSKA ANALIZA PRAVA

2  odnosi se na primjenjivanje ekonomskih metoda na pravne probleme i institucije.  Istraživanja pokazuju da metode i analitički postupci, Pareto efikasnosti, teorije igara, analiza transakcijskih troškova, društvenih troškova, javnog izbora ekonometrijske i statističke metode i dr. primijenjeni na pravo mogu dati nove i interesantne spoznaje.

3  razvija se u novu modernu znanstvenu i nastavnu disciplinu.  Pravna područja primjene su ne samo oblast ekonomskog i trgovačkog prava već i javnog prava, kaznenog prava, obiteljskog prava i dr.  Ekonomska analiza prava postaje sastavnica prestižnih sveučilišnih programa prava i ekonomije u SAD, a novije i u Europi.

4  interdisciplinarni uspjeh dvaju velikih društvenih znanosti  relativno novo polje istraživanja  Ronald Coase “Problem of social cost” (1960.)  Guido Calabresi „Some thoughts on risk distribution and the law of torts“ (1961.)  Gary Becker, Richard Posner, Guido Calabresi, Trimarchi, Bentham, Williamson, Landes, Cooter, Shavell, Van den Bergh, Schäfer i dr.  Ekonomska analiza prava kao moderna znanost i metoda u primjeni.

5  Početci: uzak ezoteričan interdisciplinaran pravac istraživanja prava i ekonomije, koji je u samo nekoliko dekada prerastao u rašireno područje brojnih publikacija i institucija koje su doprinijele preispitivanju prava i pravnih metoda

6  Ekonomija pruža znanstvenu teoriju za predviđanje utjecaja pravnih sankcija na ponašanje.  Za ekonomiste, sankcije izgledaju kao cijene i, pretpostavlja se, ljudi reagiraju na te sankcije slično kao što reagiraju na cijene. Ljudi reagiraju na više cijene tako da troše manje skupljih dobara, pa se pretpostavlja da ljudi reagiraju na jače pravne sankcije tako da rade manje sankcioniranih aktivnosti.

7  primjenjivanje ekonomskih metoda na pravne probleme i institucije  polazište: kako se može od ograničenih resursa određenog društva ostvariti najveće moguće zadovoljenje društvenih potreba i očekivanja. Ako se taj cilj ostvari bez gubitka resursa u primjeni takvo gospodarstvo se smatra efikasnim.  problem normativne ekonomije je predlaganje propisa i institucija koje vode prema efikasnoj uporabi resursa

8  primjena mjerila i koncepta efikasnosti na propise, pravna pravila  pretpostavka: da i pravna znanost i judikatura moraju ocjenjivati pravna pravila i propise uporabom kriterija o tome da li oni potiču ili sprečavaju efikasnu uporabu resursa  primjena: korist odvjetnicima, sucima, zakonodavstvu, managerima i ostalim ekonomistima prigodom donošenja strateških odluka, investicijskih odluka, odluka o tome da li tužiti ili se nagoditi i dr.

9  Zakonska obveza osiguranja klizišta uz ceste na snazi je u svim europskim zemljama naročito alpskim cestama Austrije, Švicarske, Njemačke. Veliki resursi eksploziva, željeznih mreža i 24 - satnog nadzora - rada službi su angažirani za tu svrhu. Ali smatra se opravdanim jer izbjegavanje klizanja zemljišta i mogućih žrtava i štete važnije su od uštede na resursima kojima se klizanja sprečavaju.

10  Iste opasnosti postoje i na drugim planinskim putovima ponekad vrlo prometnim kao na primjer Khyber, prijelaz između Pakistana i Afganistana. Kada bi na tom putu zahtijevali isti stupanj sigurnosti i uporabe odgovarajućih resursa, ekonomska analiza daje potpuno drugačije rezultate. Ta investicija sa istom svrhom, ali na drugom mjestu potrošila bi možda ukupan proračun ili druga raspoloživa sredstva (zajmovi) tih ekonomski slabih zemalja. Resursi bi bili bolje (efikasnije) uporabljeni za druge hitnije namjene. Sanacija klizišta u Afganistanu i shodno tome zakonska obveza uprave o takvim zaštitama ne bi bila efikasna uporaba ograničenih resursa, a takvi propisi ne doprinose efikasnoj uporabi resursa.

11  Zaključak: Propisi i pravna pravila nisu apsolutna: oni su blisko povezani sa dostupnim resursima i ekonomskim razvojem. Niti ekonomija nije neovisna od prava jer konačni učinci i posljedice ekonomskih mjera ovise od ponašanja ljudi i djelovanja institucija koje uređuju pravo.

12  Ako živite u državi gdje je najteža kazna za kriminalce doživotni zatvor, netko predloži da pošto je oružana pljačka vrlo težak zločin, da bi oružani pljačkaši trebali dobiti doživotnu kaznu.  Odvjetnik se pita da li je to u skladu sa zabranama na okrutne i neuobičajene kazne.  Neki pravni filozof pita se je li to pravedno.  Dok ekonomist ističe da ako bi kazne za oružanu pljačku i za oružanu pljačku sa ubojstvom bile iste, dodatna kazna za ubojstvo bila bi jednaka nuli i pita se da li stvarno želite da bude u interesu pljačkaša da počini ubojstvo.  To je ono što ekonomiste povezuje sa pravom.

13  Ekonomija, čiji osnovni predmet interesa nije novac ili gospodarstvo, već umiješanost racionalnog izbora /Rational choice theory/, koristi se kao osnovni alat za otkrivanje utjecaja zakona.  Osnovna pretpostavka ekonomskog pristupa, i u pravu i u svemu drugome, jest da je čovjek racionalan.  Koji zakoni će se donijeti, kako se oni tumače i provode, ovisi o tome kakvo je ponašanje u racionalnom interesu zakonodavnog tijela, sudaca i policije.  Proučavanje prava uči ekonomiste da razmišljaju opreznije, točnije i preciznije u konceptima koje razvijaju i namjenjuju određenom prostoru i vremenu.

14  Ekonomija pomaže razumjeti pravo na nov način, u realnom okruženju troškova, neracionalnosti ponašanja, osobnih interesa.  Pravnici provode mnogo vremena rješavajući praktične probleme, te su tehnike pravne analize koje koriste tome i posvećene.  Rezultat ili odluka nekog sudskog slučaja često mijenja definicije, odnosno način na koji se opisuju činjenice, prema njima se studenti prava mogu naučiti razlikovati osjetljive verbalne razlike. Te verbalne razlike, koje se ponekad nepravnicima čine istinitima, a zapravo nisu, temelje se na maloj, ali važnoj činjenici koju ekonomisti ignoriraju.

15  Ekonomisti često upotrebljavaju izraz dobrovoljna razmjena, ali nemaju dovoljno znanja o tome što zapravo znači to dobrovoljno za razmjenu. Ugovor o prodaji, na primjer, ima kompleksnu i dobro objašnjenu teoriju volje. Kada bi ekonomisti vodili brigu o tome što bi ih pravo moglo naučiti, njihovi modeli bili bi realniji.

16  bavi se područjima kao što su: ◦ predviđanje kakve će učinke pojedini zakoni prouzročiti na društvo / na gospodarstvo / na državu, ◦ daje pojašnjenje zašto se pojedini propisi donose sa stanovišta stvarnih motiva i realnih okolnosti (prevladavanje lobija, nepotpuna informacije, drugi interesi), daju se upute o tome kako bi se trebali primjenjivati i provoditi, ◦ pomaže u sudstvu kod donošenja presuda temeljem raznih ekonomskim analiza i drugo  Glavni efekt ekonomske analize prava trebao bi biti mijenjanje argumenata, a zaključke prepustiti sudu.

17  Ekonomija koristi matematički precizne teorije (Teorija cijena /Price theory/ i Teorija igara /Game theory/) i empirijski čvrste metode (statistika i ekonometrija) analiziranja utjecaja cijena na ponašanje  ekonomija pruža teoriju ponašanja da bi predvidjela kako ljudi reagiraju na promjene u pravu  ova teorija nadmašuje intuiciju, isto kao što znanost nadmašuje zdrav razum

18 ◦ mikroekonomski koncepti kao što su maksimizacija, ravnoteža i efikasnost /maximization, equilibrium, efficiency/, ◦ krivulje ponude i potražnje, krivulje proizvodnje, krivulje korisnosti, krivulje troškova, krivulja indiferencije i dr., ◦ teorija izbora i korisnosti (granična korisnost i zakon opadajuće granične korisnosti), ravnoteža potrošača, ◦ cjenovna elastičnost ponude i potražnje, ◦ teorija proizvodnje i graničnih proizvoda, kratki i dugi rok, ◦ tržišna ravnoteža, teorija igara, teorija cijena, ◦ Pareto efikasnost ili Kaldor-Hicks efikasnost, ◦ analiza troškova i koristi /cost – benefit analysis/ i dr.

19  nov pristup izučavanju prava  uključuje primjenu neoklasične ekonomije (ekonomska sredstva reagiraju na cijene i druge poticaje maksimizirajući svoje ciljeve)  dva pristupa: pozitivna i normativna ekonomska analiza prava.  Prvo je pozitivno pitanje: koji su utjecaju na društvo uvođenjem novog zakona?  Drugo je normativno pitanje: koji bi zakoni bili najbolji za društvo?  pozitivna ekonomija analizira pravo, predviđa njegove utjecaje, te ukazuje na one zakone koji bi bili uspješni. Rezultati pozitivne analize mogu se koristiti za normativnu analizu, kao recept kako doći do djelotvornog zakona  pozitivna ekonomska analiza prava koristi ekonomske analize i metode da bi predvidjela utjecaje raznih zakona, pravila, propisa i sl.  normativna ekonomska analiza prava donosi prijedloge zakona, pravila, propisa i sl. temeljem ekonomskih posljedica na već donesene zakone.  Glavni koncept normativne ekonomske analize prava jest efikasnost /efficency/, jer se najčešće ono što se smatra pravednim izjednačava sa efikasnošću.

20  SAD: duga i ponosna tradicija, čvrsto ukorjenjena u njezin pravni sustav, zahvaljujući pionirskim znanstvenicima Američki pokret za pravo i ekonomiju djeluje gotovo u svakoj pravnoj grani u SAD-u  Europa: interes raste, no ta disciplina još nije u toj mjeri inkorporirana u europski pravni i ekonomski sustav; utjecaj na europsko zakonodavstvo i sudske odluke još uvijek je zanemariv, te iako izgleda kao da je pokret prava i ekonomije u Europi podcijenjen očekuje se procvat u budućnosti

21  Relativno manji uspjeh u Europi: ◦ karakteristike europske kulture i pravnog sustava koji su više tradicionalni, te se oslanjaju na povijest ◦ odnos sudaca, odvjetnika i znanstvenika kako pravnika tako i ekonomista u Europi pokazuje nedostatak suradnje

22  godine, u članku „Economic analysis of law and market legislation“.  godine je organizirana prva konferencija na tu temu. Međunarodna konferencija Europske udruge za pravo i ekonomiju (European Association of Law and Economics - EALE), održala se u Zagrebu.  Ekonomski fakultet u Zagrebu odabran je kao organizator 21. konferencije EALE. Time se ta konferencija po prvi put održala u jednoj od tranzicijskih zemalja, a Zagreb je bio domaćin znanstvenicima s područja prava i ekonomije najuglednijih europskih i američkih fakulteta.

23  imovinsko pravo  ugovorno pravo  tržišno natjecanje  pravo društava  kazneno pravo  obiteljsko pravo  pravo intelektualnog vlasništva  Rezultati se najviše koriste u SAD-u, najčešće u sudskoj praksi, a manje u Europi, osim u EU gdje se eksperti Ekonomske analize prava očituju o svakom novom projektu legislative.

24  American Law and Economics Review  Erasmus Law and Economics Review  European Journal of Law and Economics  International Review of Law and Economics  Journal of Law and Economics  Review of Law and Economics  Supreme Court Economic Review i drugi.

25  najvažniji intelektualni izazov u pravnom učenju unazad par desetljeća  ekonomski koncepti primjenjuju se kako bi se pojasnila i objasnila neka pravna pitanja, ne samo u tržišnom natjecanju i ekonomskom pravu, već i u raznim netržišnim aktivnostima, od odgovornosti do obiteljskih pitanja i kriminala, ratnih zločina ulazeći u sferu javnog prava, harmonizacije europskog prava, ustavnog prava i dr.

26  utjecaj je na zakonodavstvo i sudsku praksu  mnogi znanstveni časopisi objavljuju članke iz ovog polja  iako pravo i ekonomija postaju integralni dio pravnog i ekonomskog obrazovanja na najprestižnijim fakultetima predstoji još dug put do ostvarivanja svrhe i ciljeva ove discipline

27  What is the defendant’s share of the market?  Will price controls on automobile insurance reduce its availability?  Who really bears the burden of the capital tax gain?  How much future income did the children lose because of their mother’s death?

28  Will private ownership of the electromagnetic spectrum encourage its efficient use?  What remedy for breach of contract will cause efficient formation of and reliance on promises?  Do businesses take too much or too little precaution then the law holds them strictly liable for injuries to consumers?  Will harsher punishments deter violent crime?  Does dividing the legislature into two houses increase or decrease the discretionary power of courts?

29  Market economies maximize welfare (under certain institutional assumptions).  Free exchange underlies the welfare gains of market economies.  But exchange will be stifled without secure property rights and contract enforcement.  So, a functioning market economy is unattainable without solid legal institutions to support it.

30  Laws make arms-length transactions possible.  For example, would a buyer advance money to a seller on eBay without the implicit backing of the courts?  Likewise, would a seller send the item before receiving payment?

31  Laws lubricate financial markets.  For example, would a saver entrust money to a mutual fund company if there were not strict laws governing disclosure of the fund’s investment activities and its past performance?  Without professional investors, would companies find it as easy to acquire capital?

32  Laws make information more perfect.  For example, how willing would homebuyers be to use realtors if there were no laws enforcing disclosure of dual agency?

33  Laws facilitate market entry.  For example, incumbent firms cannot price below cost to drive new entrants out of business. And incumbents cannot collude to raise price.

34  Laws encourage innovation.  For example, intellectual property rights (patents, copyrights, trademarks).

35  Laws reduce transaction costs.  For example, federal regulations require disclosure of nutrition facts on food labels; require certification of organic products; reduce inefficiencies of disputes by encouraging private bargaining; discourage overinvestment by compensating for only prudent reliance.

36  rules of the game – i.e. the law  given the costs and benefits of different opportunities – which are in part shaped by the legal system – here’s how individuals will maximize welfare

37  Implicitly, economics gives us a criterion for picking between one set of laws and another.  The criterion is efficiency.  Can think of it this way: ◦ laws incentives optimization, given incentives outcome (efficient?)

38  Using economics to predict how individuals will react, we can rank laws based on the efficiency of the outcomes they engender.  For example, does banning odd-numbered licensed plates on even numbered days reduce traffic, or cause individuals to purchase two cars instead of one? The latter is inefficient. There’s probably a better way to reduce smog.

39  For example, does empowering a bureaucrat to allocate logging rights put the rights into the hands of his friends?  What guarantees that the bureaucrat’s friends value these rights more than other loggers?  An open auction would be more efficient. Rights would go to the party that values them the most. The law determines how property rights are allocated.

40  For example, does instituting a rent ceiling actually allocate more apartments to lower income tenants?  Or, does it discourage landlords from maintaining properties?  Do landlords and tenants subvert the intent of the law with “finder’s fees”?

41  economics is concerned with efficiency, i.e., rational allocation of resources with least cost and maximum satisfaction  law is concerned with justice only and not about its cost  in case there is a conflict between efficiency and justice, economic analysis can be used to provide information on the costs of justice. There is another angle to justice here, i.e., the resources if not utilized properly or are being misused or wasted, it is considered as immoral and good law can prevent this to achieve efficiency and justice  economics, in itself, may not be able to give precise answers, but it can draw attention to some important questions  in many countries, the cost-benefit analysis is been used by law reform bodies and Governments to help in the development of more cost.-effective laws

42  When a productive activity is undertaken, the total cost involved in it is constituted of both private and social cost.  Private cost is that part of total cost which is borne by the individuals.  Social cost is the cost which the society bears on account of the productive activity being undertaken.  For example, the basic costs like cost of inputs, i.e. raw materials; wages, rent etc. are met by the manufacturer and are a part of private cost. But when productive activity is undertaken, the society will also bear its cost in the form of pollution to the environment and this cost is called social cost. All this creates an inefficient production pattern.

43  legal economists are concerned with social costs and transaction costs as these divert the resources to unproductive purposes  the unnecessary costs resulting thereof also imply denial of justice to certain sections of the society  we can say that “justice is not independent of its cost”  for instance, if civil law remedies are to be effective, it has to be cheap, otherwise transaction costs, i.e., the costs of retaining legal advisors, cost of bargaining etc. maybe very high

44  A commission has been appointed to consider some reforms of the criminal law. The commission has identified certain white- collar crimes (such as embezzling money form one’s employer) that are typically committed after rational computation of the potential gain and the risk of getting caught and punished. Currently, those convicted of committing these crimes are sentenced to a term in prison.

45  After taking extensive testimony, much of it from economists, the commission decides that a monetary fine, rather than incarceration, is the appropriate punishment for these offenses.  The commission ranks each offense by seriousness and determines that the fine should increase with the seriousness of the offense, but by how much?

46  The economists who testified before the commission persuaded the members that certain white-collar crimes occur only if the expected gain to the criminal exceeds the expected cost.  The expected cost depends upon two factors: the probability of being caught and convicted and the magnitude of the punishment.  We can define the expected cost of crime to the criminal as the product of the probability and the magnitude of the punishment.

47  When a decrease in the probability of punishment offsets an increase in the magnitude of punishment, then the expected cost of crime remains roughly the same for criminals. But the cost of crime to criminal justice system may change.  The probability of being caught and convicted depends in large part on the resources devoted to apprehending and prosecuting white-collar criminals, for example-on the number and quality of auditors, tax and bank examiners, police, prosecuting attorneys, and the like. These resources are costly, by contrast administering fines is relatively cheap.

48  These facts imply a prescription for holding white-collar crime down to any specified level at least cost to the state: invest little in apprehending and prosecuting offenders, and fine severely those who are apprehended.  Most serious offense should be punished by the maximum monetary fine that the offender can bear.  Incarcerating any criminal – not just white- collar criminals – is inefficient unless the ability to pay fines has been completely exhausted.

49  Eddie’s Electric Company emits smoke, which dirties the was h hanging at nearby Lucille’s Laundry. Eddie’s can abate the pollution by installing scrubbers on its stack, and Lucille’s can reduce the damage by installing filters on its ventilation system. The installation of scrubbers by Eddie’s or filters by Lucille’s would completely eliminate pollution or the damage from it. Installing filters is cheaper than installing scrubbers. No one else is affected by this pollution because Eddie’s and Lucille’s are near to each other and far from anyone else. Lucille’s initiates court proceedings to have Eddie’s declared to be a “nuisance”. If the action succeeds, the court will order Eddie’s to abate its pollution. Otherwise, the court will not intervene in the dispute. What is the appropriate resolution of this dispute?

50  Assume that Eddie’s and Lucille’s cannot bargain or cooperate.  Since installing filters is the cheaper of the two ways to eliminate the damage from pollution, it is efficient for Lucille’s to lose the action.

51  If Eddie’s and Lucille’s can bargain together and cooperate, their joint profits will be higher if they choose the cheaper means of eliminating the harm from pollution.  When their joint profits are higher, they can divide the gain between them in order to make both of them better off.  The cheaper means is also the efficient means.  As a result, efficiency is achieved in this example then Lucille’s and Eddie’s bargain together and cooperate, regardless of the rule of law.

52  An oil company signs a contract to deliver oil by a certain date from the Middle East to a European manufacturer. Before the oil is delivered, war breaks out in the exporting country, so that the oil company cannot perform the contract as promised. The lack of oil causes the European manufacturer to reduce production and lose profits. The manufacturer brings an action (that is, files a lawsuit) against the oil company for breach of contract and asks the court to award it a sum of money, called “damages”, that is equal to the amount of profits the manufacturer would have realized if the oil had been delivered as promised.

53  The oil company contend that it should be excused from performance or granted more lenient terms for performing because the war that has frustrated its desire to perform the contract was not anticipated by either of the contracting parties. Unfortunately, the contract is silent about the risk of non-performance in the event of war, so that the court cannot simply read the contract and resolve the dispute on the contract’s own terms. In resolving the suit, the court must decide whether to excuse the oil company from performance on the ground that the war made the performance “impossible” or to find the oil company in breach of contract and to require the oil company to compensate the manufacturer for lost profits.

54  For an economist analyzing this case, the crucial point is that the parties failed to allocatete between themselves the risk of a contingency – in this instance, war – that has arisen to frustrate performance of the contract.  It is important to recognize that how the court apportions the loss between the two parties simultaneously accomplishes two things – first, it resolves the dispute between those litigants, and second, it guides future parties who are in similar circumstances about how courts might resolve their dispute.

55  From the standpoint of economic efficiency, the court should assign the loss from non – delivery so as to make future contractual behavior more efficient. A rule for doing this assigns the losses to the party that could have borne the risk at less cost. One way to make risk more bearable is to take precaution against it.

56  Assuming that the oil company is better to able to bear risk of war (in a better position to assess the risk of war in that region), economic efficiency requires the court to hold the oil company liable for breach of contract and, therefore, make it responsible for paying for the European manufacturer’s lost profits due to non-performance.

57  In an economy where agents always lived up to contracts, revealed all private information, never attempted to infringe on others’ property rights, could costlessly bargain with one another, and had limitless cognitive capabilities, markets would function perfectly without laws.

58  But this is not the world we live in.  Laws do affect economic efficiency.  And economics can inform lawmaking.  Studying the intersection of these disciplines can help shape better public policy.

59  a law is an obligation backed by a state sanction  economics provide a scientific theory to predict the effects of legal sanctions on behavior  to economists, sanctions look like prices, and presumably, people respond to these sanctions much as they respond to prices  people respond to higher prices by consuming less of the more expensive goods, so presumably, people respond to heavier legal sanctions by doing less of the sanctioned activity

60  evaluate laws’ effects on important social values  economics predicts the effects on policies on efficiency  better to achieve any given policy at lower cost than at higher cost  besides efficiency, economics predicts the effects of policies on another important value: distribution  laws – incentives for changing behavior (implicit prices) and as instruments for policy objectives (efficiency and distribution)

61  TRANSACTION COSTS  RISKS  INCENTIVES  EFFICIENCY  EFFECTIVNES


Download ppt "EKONOMSKA ANALIZA PRAVA.  odnosi se na primjenjivanje ekonomskih metoda na pravne probleme i institucije.  Istraživanja pokazuju da metode i analitički."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google