Presentation on theme: "Emotion and relationships at the heart of learning with ICT - for children and teachers: The Ripple Project Assessing the whole school impact of installing."— Presentation transcript:
Emotion and relationships at the heart of learning with ICT - for children and teachers: The Ripple Project Assessing the whole school impact of installing two high quality ICT integrated classrooms in a primary school Dr Bridget Cooper - Leeds University Becta Research conference 13 th June 2003, TUC Congress Centre, London
Context Leeds University successfully gained funding to design, install and evaluate two classrooms of the future in a primary school in years one and two over a four year period The NIMIS project - EU funded Yr. 1 Oct 1999 - Sept 2001 The ICT and the whole child project - Nuffield funded Yr 2 Sept 2001 -Aug 2003 these had high impact on the teachers and children involved - what impact has it had in school beyond that? - The Ripple Project
Teachers response to classroom (ICT novice) ‘Wonderful!’ ‘a perfect world’ ‘I wouldn’t be without it’ ‘it’s totally integrated..it’s natural, its spontaneous’ reflecting on children’s response ‘they love it and at the end of the day, they love to go there (on to computers), they still have the same amount of enthusiasm’ (as at the start of the year)
Results -video analysis Pre-Nimis classroom 42% of video segments show high levels of engagement little collaboration - minimal interaction Post Nimis classroom using computers 97% of video segments show high levels of engagement frequent collaboration and more interaction
Outcomes ICT used across the curriculum for large parts of day -including literacy and numeracy hours large screen very engaging and sessions very interactive Positive emotions and shared control in interactions result in higher engagement negative emotion and teacher domination reduces engagement levels some increase in literacy levels
It’s really helping me to read. It says the words very clearly, lots of times. I can hear and see the words. (Pupil) Brilliant! Fantastic! - those talking stories are just brilliant (Phobic class teacher about to retire)
Effects after 9 months ICT ordinary class average 37.3% project class average 83% RA ordinary class increase 11.9 months project class increase 15.5 months SE LC self esteem ordinary class - 4% - 2.8% project class -0.1% + 2.8%
Why are these projects special? Consider the whole teaching and learning environment in the classroom -human relationships, emotion, empathy and self- esteem as well as achievement participant design to meet user needs and build on good practice - children and teachers involved from start hardware selected and adapted for small children -intuitive -fingers/pens
Why the Ripple project? Classrooms both very successful other teachers asking for informal ICT training/support when I went to school - even though quite phobic in some ways head and deputy very keen to continue research projects with us -asked me to do whole staff training requested by staff how have these projects impacted on the rest of the school??? is positive emotion and interaction and also the key to teacher learning???
Theory behind projects Heavily influenced by my thesis work- ‘ Teachers as moral models: the role of empathy in relationships between teacher and their pupils’ (Cooper, 2002) High quality learning and personal and moral development most stimulated by profound empathy in relationships - typified by positive emotions, deep understanding and shared interaction in one to one relationships – so we aimed to create positive, highly interactive classrooms
Literature Moral development associated strongly with the development of empathy (Hoffman,’70; Hogan,’73; Noddings,’86, Gilligan, ‘82) empathy crucial to personal and academic development (Aspy,1972; Rogers, 1975) importance of empathy and emotional intelligence supported by neuroscience (Goleman,1996; Damasio,1994) empathy crucial to development of whole person (Winnicott,1984; Docker- Drysdale,1970; Leal,2002)
moral decision making and other complex decision making an affective issue (Damasio, 1994) learning/interaction registered in brain and body as a feeling (Damasio, 1999, 2003) little empirical research into moral values in schools -search for how to encourage the ‘will to do good’ (Taylor, 1997;Crick, 1998) affective and moral issues in education more prominent again (Broadfoot, 2000, Hargreaves, 2001) Much of this reinforced by recent literature on teacher learning (Hoban, 2002).
Effects of empathy Increases interaction and communication builds esteem /self-worth creates emotional links What happens between us?...It's like a bonding almost isn't it. I suppose it's like a bit of a bonding situation goes on where they can entrust you with their innermost feelings and thoughts sometimes (Claire 555/557).
Builds trust and security and provokes emulation of empathy Optimises Learning !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! you can learn so much from children -I've learned so much - to begin to understand how children think and the way they think and how they progress (David 343/347).
Are theories of empathy in relationships and learning applicable to teacher learning? Projects had offered positive models in close emotionally supportive context - had this produced some conversion to ICT of even relatively sceptical teachers?? What were their attitudes towards ICT and the projects in particular?
Data collection and analysis Semi-structured interviews of managers and non-project staff, classroom assistants, student teachers in on practice - grounded theory methodology -analyse using Win-max pro video-recordings and field notes of computer use in classrooms - analyse using interaction analysis developed on NIMIS project
18 Interviewees (not previous project teachers) Nursery teacher 2 reception teachers 1 year one teacher 1 year two teacher 2 year 3 teachers 2 year 4 teachers 1 yr 5 teacher 1 yr 6 teacher Head teacher Deputy head ICT co-ordinator 2 teaching assistants 3 student teachers videos of each classroom except year 5 and students
1:8 bs Yr6 out 1:8 Yr5/6 “ 1:15 Yr5 out 1:15 Yr4 out 1: 15 Yr 3/4 1:14 Yr 3 1:5 bs Yr2proj 1:12 Yr 2 1:4 bs Yr1proj 1:11 Yr 1 1:17 Rec 2 1:16 Rec 1 1:12 Nursery Out = PCs outside room bs = big screen
ICT passionate- core project staff Converts and converters Fantastic!! Brilliant!! yes it’s the touch- screen that’s the – I would still say it’s really, really, very, very valuable. I wouldn’t have said so last year at this time
Having very positive experiences high quality equipment/software converted them. Frequent use - see pupil benefits ease of use -use and integrate more good pupil/computer ratio 1:4 or1:5 large screen supports interaction/self- esteem/ learning teacher model quickly and easily practised by pupils cross-curricular use ongoing support
Outer core -converting managers I think it’s a wonderful resource (Head) one class got that wonderful system …. I think that gave us a real impetus (Deputy) I would just love to have something like that in my classroom (ICT co-ordinator)
Thoughtfully aware and enthusiastic about the benefits of ICT for teaching and learning enjoyed their own learning associated with the project and the connection with the university Had chances to observe ICT and how it worked in different classrooms understood the individual needs/attitudes of staff and supported their learning through appropriate informal and formal learning school at forefront in local area rejected idea of suites in favour of in class cross-curricular approach
Converts with caveats they are great, it’s lovely to start off young like that -that inspired me to go and train myself (TA) In a class room two is enough …this software is fantastic! (ICT enthusiastic teacher) Well I’ve flirted with whiteboards!
Jealous resistors - anxious and confused there isn't time, there isn't a space, a time (for ICT in infants) it’s like the Infant area is the last area to get everything If she can I can! Come and look at this PowerPoint, come and look at this! And it was wonderful!
Teacher, mechanics and skills dominant just learning the basics before they can go on - they are not that interested to be honest. In all honesty they are not that interested in the ICT work that we do. it needs to match your objectives or there would be no point doing it.
ICT learning is particularly emotive for more novice staff I find that you either elated, well I am because I’ve done it, or I’m frustrated and think – oh switch the blooming thing off. Oh yes, yes. I mean when I first sent an e-mail, I think I sent one to Irene and it came back again and I thought, ‘Good I am brilliant, I’ve done it!’ I lost a load of planning and within 10 minutes I’d written it down with a pencil and a ruler and it’s that that drives me potty!
Training Strong preference for in school, informal support (one to one -less threatening, more appropriate in time and nature, more matched to needs - but aware they took colleagues precious time) much home support from spouses, children and ‘man next door’ - though not always right software and fight for access at home formal training often weak, inappropriate -no back up or further practice, on different machines with different software -no frequency of learning
Informal school and home support preferred-feel understood and safe Like, I asked the caretaker the other night – he’s the only one about. I thought, ‘Oh I’ll ask him.’ I am conscious of taking other people’s time up I think it’s (best sort of training) having colleagues around and the time at home to mess about with it You know I do feel as though I can go and ask him (supportive colleague) and he’ll come I think in school everyone’s time is so very, very limited
Computer/pupil ratio and positive experiences of ICT crucial to positive feelings about ICT- typically experience was not positive I mean you’ve seen the size of our classrooms they were built for 25 children and they’ve all got over thirty in them And really by not being fixed (mobile big screens) they are not effective because you only have to have a kid either knock the screen or knock the projector and then you have to recalibrate it and it’s not as successful
and you can spend a lot of time looking –and there’s nothing there (resources on the internet) It would be nice -to have so many computers – eight - it makes a lot of difference, you can get – if they go on in twos you can get half your class in there and then you know I’ll swap round. And in a morning you can get it all done instead of it taking two weeks to get through something when you’ve only got four computers.
Nearly all staff felt ICT had many benefits for pupils – esp SEN Created positive emotions & motivation If there’s something you know they can’t do they’ll try it on the computer or the software programmes and they love to experiment A lot of the year one numeracy software is very entertaining and they really love that It’s the confidence, the enjoyment, the fun part of it They just love being out there on them full stop
Leads to positive view of self and work Presentation - more readable –looks better Writing – redrafting less painful – less mistakes Information finding –autonomy –empowerment Multimedia very engaging Improved self-esteem - confidence All lead to more positive interaction with teacher
ICT supported social skills and positive interaction –between pupils and teachers He loves helping folks (SEN child). That happens doesn’t it, which is lovely! So they would help one another, if someone can’t get in,’Oh I’ll show you what to do’ so I think there’s more of a bonding with them If it’s one to one it’s intimate and yes I think it is, because knowing where I’ve come from I can empathise with them so I know how difficult it is and I feel if I have got a child next to me we are learning together But when there’s a computer, you might have been ticking him off for something ten minutes earlier but because he’s on the computer - you don’t usually need to do that
Children escape teacher domination and passive learning I suppose they enjoy it really (working on computers). I think it’s because they are active, they are doing something rather than just sitting listening, they are actually getting on and doing something and having a go at something rather than having to listen to me! - Links to observations
have actually been looking at people who came across in 1948 and they found that their comments have been recorded on a BBC – this is on a BBC website and they’ve got into these you see and so we’ve used this information and for example I have had some children doing, you know the hot seating thing … to see how they – we’ve had them doing this and they’ve been taking the role of somebody who came across with the first boat from Jamaica and some of them have been really good. You know they have really got into the feeling of what it was – what it actually felt like for them to up-root and come across here. So this idea, this empathy.. ICT embedded as part of interesting curriculum very motivating
What supports ICT in school? The children who have got computers at home are good on the computers - (they) get out there, get on with it and do a fantastic piece of work: there are others who need more support More computers! Access- because there’s only two. There’s only two computers – so it’s a maximum really of six children – three per computer. You can’t –it’s just not feasible doing a session on ICT because the children can’t experience it for themselves Decent quality – yes, software!
Reactions to project classrooms –very positive –big screens I think they are brilliant and whenever I go through the classroom now they are all there, they are all using it But on the big screen it’s so much bigger and better isn’t it! Its certainly made class teaching much different and better and the interaction between the children because they can all come up and have a go (And you can say) I have just saved a piece of work – can you come and open it up again I think particularly the first one, I was immensely impressed with what I saw So again we have noticed it increases concentration span (big screen) I think it’s going to give them confidence
Cluster of machines around a table I think they have discussed their work more and how to do things and help each other out And the communication round the groups is much more communicative between the children while they are working there than the children who are sat at a machine facing the wall because there’s no-one to talk to but the wall so they don’t talk to anyone
Interviews - conclusions Emotional Ripple effect visible in results - closeness to project /either physical or mental creates enthusiasm and understanding - stimulate one another School motivated towards ICT learning - demand for training coming from teachers themselves-especially closer to projects positive emotions regarding ICT crucial to conversion and adoption - i.e. poor experiences, poor access, equipment, software and lack of time on equipment create negative view - lack of understanding
ICT co-ordinator shows greatest excitement/use of ICT outside of project classrooms teaching assistants understand benefits of ICT clearly through working closely with children Most teachers (whatever their anxieties about ICT) would like to use the type of equipment in the project classrooms in their own classrooms
informal classrooms promote similar relationships to those around computers - e.g. nursery/reception - teachers work alongside children on tasks - teachers felt such relationships were closer, more cosy, pleasant -less dominant achievements in ICT produced ecstasy for older staff and improved their self- esteem --- failures produced opposite feeling -- lack of positive outcome after intense interactions very frustrating – same for children
Teachers with least equipment/software for longest time most negative about value of ICT but also keen to get better equipment Closer to project (infants) preferred in class machines - good for flexible cross- curricular work - outer ripples wanted suite might be good for skills-class teaching large interactive board or smaller version thought to be very desirable by most but only if a fixed entity - no set up time a very precious commodity- if it took a lot of time they weren’t interested, did not have the time to do it.
Very powerful contrast between relationships around computers and formal classrooms - children escape teacher /curriculum domination on computers!! People on outer edge of ripple effect using ICT as a subject not a tool - focus on skills base/open applications rather than meaningful learning - less aware of benefits -less aware of what children are actually doing - less interested in effects of ICT. ICT not actually in class so further away from their focus - kids escape too much! Video analysis
Computers equals engagement! 44 out of 45 children scored at the two highest levels of engagement on computers in classrooms whether they were working alone or in pairs. (only 1 totally seduced by video camera) Relationships between pairs generally showed high quality interaction and shared control apart from with the youngest children in nursery and reception or where the interaction was very short. Pairs also seemed mainly to enjoy what they were doing, more especially where they shared well and were using multi-media software. A pair of three year olds in nursery danced rhythmically together in a state of total enjoyment with one computer program
Emotional Ripples Theory New requirements and the unknown (e.g. ICT) breed anxiety - which spreads inadequate resources breed frustration and anger and jealousy which spreads successful learning breeds enthusiasm and pleasure for teacher and children - infectious successful teaching breeds enthusiasm and pleasure for teacher and children - infectious close, supportive positive interaction between people (children or teachers) supports learning (Cooper, 2002)
Spreading good practice Positive experiences support learning for children and teachers and come through: ICT integrated into curriculum and classroom in meaningful activities high quality equipment/software/ease of use teacher familiarity with equipment/software greater pupil access to equipment teacher time with pupils using ICT to understand benefits/problems range of attainment requires a range of quality software
Unreliable/insufficient equipment and no large interactive board and heavy emphasis on skills - ICT can be come a negative experience teachers like children need individual support at the right time hard to integrate into curriculum with only one or two machines or with machines outside classroom teachers alienated from task and children children escape teacher domination but have little expert support and appropriate and timely intervention
Recommendations - make ICT experience positive!!! Have large interactive board and cluster in each room (preferably wireless so can be packed away to save space) - supports engagement and sharing (teacher and kids) Have a range of quality software installed Make one of the cluster at least a laptop with same software on it for teacher to try at home - list of WWW resources reduce class size - more human intervention allow creativity, freedom with ICT
training followed by frequent practice time and further support to consolidate skills more time allocated to ICT support and maintenance encourage local, in-school training and support to meet needs more precisely let teachers and children become highly competent and enjoy using ICT -when they break through the competence/familiarity barriers it becomes much more useful and motivating
Impact of projects on other staff in school I think when they first came (the project equipment), the inimitable, I think there was a lot of fear for people thinking – ‘Oh are we going to be asked to use this?’ ….and they came to realise that – ‘Oh this ICT is useful it will make things easier for me’ and they have gradually, very slowly, crept towards it and I think now they accept it you know, as a superb resource. I think a lot of them would like it in their class room. Head teacher