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10 - 1 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Chapter 16 Management Control In.

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Presentation on theme: "10 - 1 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Chapter 16 Management Control In."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Chapter 16 Management Control In Decentralized Organizations

3 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 1 Define decentralization and identify its expected benefits and costs.

4 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Decentralization The delegation of freedom to make decisions is called decentralization. The lower in the organization that this freedom exists, the greater the decentralization.

5 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Centralization versus Decentralization Maximum Constraints Minimum Freedom CentralizationDecentralization Minimum Constraints Maximum Freedom

6 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Costs and Benefits Benefits of decentralization: Lower-level managers have the best information concerning local conditions. It promotes management skills which, in turn, helps ensure leadership continuity. Managers enjoy higher status from being independent and thus are better motivated.

7 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Costs and Benefits Costs of decentralization: Managers may make decisions that are not in the organization’s best interests. Managers also tend to duplicate services that might be less expensive if centralized. Costs of accumulating and processing information frequently rise.

8 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Costs and Benefits Managers in decentralized units may waste time negotiating with other units about goods or services one unit provides to the other.

9 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Middle Ground l Cost-benefit considerations usually require that some management decisions be highly decentralized and others centralized. l Decentralization is most successful when an organization’s segments are relatively independent of one another.

10 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Segment Autonomy If management has decided in favor of heavy decentralization, segment autonomy, the delegation of decision-making power to managers of segments of an organization, is also crucial.

11 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 2 Distinguish between profit centers and decentralization.

12 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Profit Centers and Decentralization Profit centers Accountability for revenue and expenses Decentralization Freedom to make decisions These are entirely separate concepts and one can exist without the other.

13 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Profit Centers and Decentralization All control systems are imperfect. Judgments about their merits should concentrate on which alternative system will bring more of the actions top management seeks.

14 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 3 Define transfer prices and identify their purpose.

15 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Transfer Prices l Transfer prices are the amounts charged by one segment of an organization for a product or service that it supplies to another segment of the same organization.

16 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Purpose of Transfer Pricing Why do transfer-pricing systems exist? – to communicate data that will lead to goal-congruent decisions – to evaluate segment performance and thus motivate managers toward goal-congruent decisions

17 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Purpose of Transfer Pricing Multinational companies use transfer pricing to minimize their worldwide taxes, duties, and tariffs.

18 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 4 Identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of basing transfer prices on total costs, variable costs, and market prices.

19 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Transfers at Cost l About half of the major companies in the world transfer items at cost.

20 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Transfers at Cost Variable costs Full cost Full cost plus a profit markup Standard costs Actual costs What are some examples?

21 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Market-Based Transfer Prices If there is a competitive market for the product or service being transferred internally, using the market price as a transfer price will generally lead to the desired goal congruence and managerial effort.

22 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Market-Based Transfer Prices l The major drawback to market-based prices is that market prices are not always available for items transferred internally.

23 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Variable-Cost Pricing l When market prices cannot be used, versions of “cost-plus-a-profit” are often used as a fair substitute.

24 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Variable-Cost Pricing In situations where idle capacity exists, variable cost would generally be the better basis for transfer pricing and would lead to the optimum decision for the firm as a whole.

25 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Negotiated Transfer Prices l Companies heavily committed to segment autonomy often allow managers to negotiate transfer prices.

26 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Dysfunctional Behavior Virtually any type of transfer pricing policy can lead to dysfunctional behavior – actions taken in conflict with organizational goals.

27 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton The Need for Many Transfer Prices l The “correct” transfer price depends on the economic and legal circumstances and the decision at hand. l Organizations may have to make trade-offs between pricing for congruence and pricing to spur managerial effort.

28 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 5 Identify the factors affecting multinational transfer prices.

29 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Multinational Transfer Pricing Example l An item is produced by Division A in a country with a 25% income tax rate. l It is transferred to Division B in a country with a 50% income tax rate. l An import duty equal to 20% of the price of the item is assessed. l Full unit cost is $100, and variable cost is $60 (either transfer price could be chosen).

30 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Multinational Transfer Pricing Example Which transfer price should be chosen? $100Why?

31 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Multinational Transfer Pricing Example Income of A is $40 higher: 25% × $40 = ($10) higher taxes Income of B is $40 lower: 50% × $40 = $20 lower taxes Import duty paid by B: 20% × $40 = ($8)  Net savings = $2

32 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 6 Explain how the linking of rewards to responsibility center results affects incentives and risk.

33 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Link Rewards to Results Choices of Responsibility Motivational CriteriaCenters and Incentives Choices of Responsibility Motivational CriteriaCenters and Incentives Goal Congruence Goal Congruence Managerial Effort Managerial Effort Performance Measures Performance Measures Rewards Feedback

34 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Link Rewards to Results l Research shows that the more objective the measures of performance, the more likely the manager will provide effort. l Thus accounting measures, which provide relatively objective evaluations of performance, are important.

35 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Agency Theory Economists describe the formal choices of performance measures and rewards as agency theory. Employment contracts will trade off three factors: 2 – Incentive 3 – Risk 1 – Cost of measuring performance

36 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 7 Compute ROI, residual income, and economic value added (EVA) and contrast them as criteria for judging the performance of organization segments.

37 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Measures of Profitability l Segment managers in decentralized organizations are often evaluated based on their segment’s profitability. l Is it net income? l Income before taxes? l Net income percentage based on revenue? l Is it an absolute amount? l A percentage?

38 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Return on Investment ROI = Income ÷ Investment ROI = Income Revenue Investment ×

39 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Return on Investment Project A: Operating income ÷ Investment required $200,000 ÷ $500,000 = 40% Project B: Operating income ÷ Investment required $150,000 ÷ $250,000 = 60%

40 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Residual Income RI = Net operating income – Imputed interest Imputed interest refers to the cost of capital. RI tells you how much your company’s operating income exceeds what it is paying for capital.

41 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Economic Value Added Economic value added = Income – After-tax cost of capital × (Long-term liabilities + Stockholders’ equity)

42 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 8 Compare the advantages and disadvantages of various bases for measuring the invested capital used by organization segments.

43 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton ROI or Residual Income? Why do some companies prefer residual income (or EVA) to ROI? Under ROI, the message is go forth and maximize your rate of return, a percentage. Under RI, the message is go forth and maximize residual income, an absolute amount.

44 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Invested Capital To apply either ROI or residual income, both income and invested capital must be measured and defined. Total assetsTotal assets employed Total assets less current liabilities Stockholders’ equity

45 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Asset Allocation to Divisions l Commonly used bases for allocation, when assets are not directly identifiable with a specific division, include: Asset Class Corporate cash Receivables Inventories Plant and equipment Possible Allocation Base Budgeted cash needs Sales weighted by terms Budgeted sales or usage Usage of services

46 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Valuation of Assets Should values be based on historical cost or some version of current value? Practice is overwhelmingly in favor of using net book value based on historical cost. Most companies use net book value in calculating their investment base.

47 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Learning Objective 9 Understand the role of management control systems in decentralized organizations.

48 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Keys to Successful Management Control Systems Successful management control systems have several key factors in addition to appropriate measures of profitability. ControllabilityManagement by objectives Tailoring budgets for managers

49 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Focus on Controllability l A distinction should be made between the performance of the division manager and the performance of the division as an investment by the corporation. l Managers should be evaluated on the basis of their controllable performance.

50 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Management by Objectives MBO describes the joint formulation by a manager and his or her superior of a set of goals and plans for achieving the goals for a forthcoming period. The manager’s performance is then evaluated in relation to these agreed-upon budgeted objectives.

51 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton Tailoring Budgets for Managers l Many of the troublesome motivational effects of performance evaluation systems can be minimized by the astute use of budgets. l The desirability of tailoring a budget to particular managers cannot be overemphasized.

52 ©2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Introduction to Management Accounting 12/e, Horngren/Sundem/Stratton End of Chapter 10


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