Presentation on theme: "Integrated Pest Management: Insect Challenges Southern Maryland Vegetable Conference Presented by Ben Beale with Slides from: Galen Dively, UMD Joanne."— Presentation transcript:
Integrated Pest Management: Insect Challenges Southern Maryland Vegetable Conference Presented by Ben Beale with Slides from: Galen Dively, UMD Joanne Whalen, UDEL
Topics Systemic worm control products Sweet corn BT protein releases Label Changes Resistance Issues
Systemic worm control products Chlorantraniliprole, also known as Rynaxypyr. Sold under the brand name Coragen New chemistry with excellent control of Lepidoptera pest Has activity as both a drench application and foliar application.
Systemic worm control products Potential benefits: –Residual control with easy application –Reduced risk to applicator compared with conventional foliar applied products –Very low mammalian toxicity –Ability to reach Lepidoptera which may not be affected by contact products
Does Chlorantraniliprole have activity in fruit?
Note:.074 kg ai/ha is equivalent to 5ozs per acre.112 kg ai/ha is equivalent to 7.5ozs per acre
Excellent tool for control of tomato tuberworm in foliage. Will not control tuberworm once it has entered the fruit.
Brand nameTank Mix Products Voliam Express ChlorantraniliproleLamba- cyhalothrin Voliam flexi, Durivo Chlorantraniliprolethiamethoxam Now labeled on wide variety of vegetable crops, including most cucurbi crops, fruiting vegetables and cole crops.. NOT labeled on onions, parsnips, asparagus, garlic, turnips, radishes.
Sweet Corn Insect Control What’s New and What Works Galen P. Dively Department of Entomology
European corn borer
Major problem with sprays - Maintaining a toxin residue of insecticide on the silk tissue
Syngenta Seeds Attribute Insect Protected Bt Sweet Corn Expresses Cry1Ab insecticidal protein in all tissues at consistently high levels throughout the crop cycle. Created by traditional breeding using event BT11 field corn. Targets caterpillars attacking foliage and the developing ear. Bt hybrids available for processing and fresh market.
100% protection against whorl, stalk and ear damage. Eliminates all ECB-targeted insecticide applications. nonBtBt Effects on European Corn Borer nonBtBt
Effects on Corn Earworm Reduces kernel area consumed by >90%. Reduces side ear damage. Reduces insecticide applications by 80% or more depending on population pressure. nonBtBt
Effects on Fall Armyworm More tolerant to Cry1Ab protein Eliminates most whorl and tassel treatments. Reduces husk and kernel damage by 50% or more.
Attribute Bt varieties provide excellent protection against caterpillars entering ears during fresh silking. High Bt protein expression in green silk tissue.
After pollination, the Bt protein degrades as the silk tissue wilts and the expressed protein degrades, larvae can by-pass silk tissue and move directly to developing kernels. Larvae have a better chance to survive in the ear, because not all kernels express Bt protein. More damage is likely to occur under high insect pressure and in hybrids lacking good tip cover. Surviving larvae still become sick and do not develop or feed normally; but can be present in 25% or more of the ears. For late plantings, one or two insecticide sprays are needed to prevent ear damage from exceeding fresh market standards.
Attribute GSS0966 (Bt) Prime Plus (non-Bt)
Attribute BC0805 (Bt)Providence(non-Bt) Abnormally High Corn Earworm and Fall Armyworm Pressure in 2010 Example of a late planting of untreated sweet corn in MD
Cry1AbNon-Bt Next Generation of Bt Sweet Corn Technology Advantages: Added herbicide tolerant genes Broader spectrum of insect control Higher efficacy Less prone to resistance development Seminis Seeds - Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab + Cry3Bb1 – Performance Series Syngenta Seeds - VIP3A + Cry1Ab – Attribute II (not available until 2013) Pyramided and stacked genes
Relative efficacy of single and pyramided transgenic corn with Bt events for caterpillar pests EventProtein ECBCEWFAWBCWWBCW MON810Cry1Ab EGGPP BT11Cry1Ab EGGPP TC16-507Cry1F EFVGG MON89034Cry1A.105 Cry2Ab EVGEFF MON89034 TC16-507 Cry1A.105 Cry2Ab Cry1F EVGE MIR162 BT11 Vip3A, Cry1Ab EEEEE ECB= European corn borer; CEW= corn earworm; FAW= fall armyworm; BCW= black cutworm; and WBCW= western bean cutworm. Control rating: E= excellent, VG= very good, G= good, F=fair, and P= poor.
Kernel Segregation Ratios BVBvbVBv BVBBVVBBVvBbVVBbVv BvBBVvBBvvBbVvBbvv bVBbVVBbVvbbVVbbVv bvBbVvBbvvbbVvbbvv Bb BBBBb b bb hemizygous for the Bt trait
Kernel Segregation Ratios BVBvbVBv BV BBV V BBVvBbVVBbVv BvBBVvBBvvBbVvBbvv bVBbVVBbVvbbVVbbVv bvBbVvBbvvbbVvbbvv Bb BBBBb b bb Attribute single gene expression (Cry1Ab) Performance Series (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab vectored)
Kernel Segregation Ratios BVBvbVBv BVBBVVBBVvBbVVBbVv BvBBVvBBvvBbVvBbvv bVBbVVBbVvbbVVbbVv bvBbVvBbvvbbVvbbvv Bb BBBBb b bb Attribute single gene expression (Cry1Ab) Performance Series (Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab vectored) Attribute II (Vip3A + Cry1Ab separate events)
Sweet corn hybrid Control program Percent marketabl e ears Percent CEW damag e CEW per ear Kernel area consumed (cm 2 ) BC 0805 Bt 2 sprays54460.50.7 unspraye d10871.21.9 Obsession Bt 2 sprays9111>0.10.1 unspraye d74370.40.3 Obsession nonBt 6 sprays7230>0.10.8 unspraye d4960.97.1 Providenc e nonBt unspraye d01001.210.3 2011 Experiment at Beltsville MD; sprays applied every 3 days starting at early fresh silk.
Efficacy of of ‘Performance Series’ Sweet Corn to prevent whorl and tassel injury Obsession Bt Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab Obsession Non-Bt Isoline
Efficacy of Attribute II Sweet Corn MD and MN 2007-2010
Providence Non-Bt Isoline Attribute II - Vip3A + Cry1Ab
Bt Sweet Corn is an Environmentally Safe Control Option Ideally fits the IPM philosophy by combining: - Host plant resistance - Different modes of action to prevent resistance. - Use of a reduced risk bioinsecticide. - Conserves beneficial insects Significantly reduces insecticide use and control costs. Efficacy may vary under adverse growing conditions or very high insect pressure. Does not replace IPM.
Other sweet corn pests Expressed Bt proteins do not affect soil and seedling insects or sap beetles and rootworm beetles later in the season.
Scout fields Trap monitoring Destroy crop after harvest Attribute and Performance varieties require a stewardship agreement to purchase
CURRENT ISSUE: Pyrethroid Resistance in Corn Earworm Increased resistance in southern and north central United States. Resistant moths from the south disperse into northern areas. Monitoring work in the Mid- Atlantic area has detected increased tolerance. Increasing reports of reduced efficacy. Weight of evidence indicates resistance is developing Average % Control of Pyrethroid Insecticides based on Sweet Corn Field Tests from the Mid-Atlantic Region Year Mean Range 199984.7 75-99 200076.5 67-95 200180.3 65-91 200278.3 53-94 2006-0952.527-82
Fresh Market Sweet Corn Ear Quality
Status of Insecticide Efficacy and Control Pyrethroids have lost 1/3 of their efficacy since 2002. No consistent differences among pyrethroid products. Efficacy of pyrethroids varies from year to year. Mixtures of Lannate and pyrethroids - best strategy. Recommend rotations with newer products (Coragen, Belt, Radiant). Silk zone spray coverage is essential. Tighter schedules may compensate for reduced efficacy.
TreatmentApplication Timing% Clean + Tip Damaged Voliam Xpress Warrior II 1,3,5 2,4,6 88.75ab Voliam Xpress Warrior II 1,2,3 4,5,6 91.25a Lannate + Warrior1,2,3,4,5,680.63abc Belt + Baythroid Lannate + Baythroid 1,2,4,5 3,6 87.50ab Untreated-----1.25f Untreated Control – CEW Damaged Ears – 99%
Poorest Results: -- Larvin ( no longer available in 2012 unless another company picks it up) -- Gemstar ( Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus) alternated with Radiant Best Results: -- Voliam Xpress – rotated or alternated with Warrior – note high CEW pressure will need to use combo of Lannate + Warrior when rotating/alternating with Voliam Xpress -- Combination of Belt + Baythroid alternated with Lannate + Baythroid -- Coragen alternated with Lannate + Asana – mid season -- Lannate + Warrior – still hanging in there for now
Label Changes Endosulfan (Thiodan): Label has been cancelled. Users must use any remaining product by the end use date set by EPA For many crops, endosulfan cannot be used after July 12, 2012, even if the product has a label that lists that crop. Be sure to adhere to the phase out guidelines. See label and EPA website for more info.
July 31 2012- Partial Listing Almond Apricot Broccoli Brussels sprouts Carrots Cauliflower Celery (non-AZ) Collard greens Dry beans Dry peas Eggplant Kale Kohlrabi Mustard greens Nectarine (CA only) Strawberry (Annual) Sweet potato Turnip Ornamental trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants
July 31 2012- Partial Listing Cabbage Cotton Cucumbers Lettuce Stone fruits not listed in Group A, including Nectarine (non-CA), Peaches, and Sweet cherry Summer melons (cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelon) Summer squash Tobacco
New Reduced-Risk Pesticides and Biotechnology Products Less toxic to humans and wildlife Less persistent Less likely to affect the environment adversely More diverse chemically in their modes of action More active chemically, applied at lower rates
New Classes of Insecticides NICOTINOIDS imidacloprid - Admire, Gaucho, Merit, Provado, Marathon; acetamiprid - Assail, Pristine, Chipco; thiamethoxam - Actara, Platinum, Adage; others pursuing U.S. registration. Replaces many older products for sucking insect control. SPINOSYNS spinosad – SpinTor, Success, Tracer, Naturalyte. Entrust - new organic certified product, available in 2003. Excellent caterpillar product.
OXADIAZINES indoxacarb - Steward and Avaunt. Very effective product to control lepidopteran insects, especially hard to kill insects such as BAW. IGRs - Insect Growth Regulators buprofezin – Applaud Registered on certain nut and fruit crops for whitefly, scale insect, and leafhopper control tebufenozide – Confirm; methoxyfenozide – Intrepid. Used on vegetables, pome fruits, several small fruits, and canola to control lepidopteran insects. IGRs can be used against many pests; expect to see an increase in IGR registrations.
AVERMECTINS abamectin - Agri-Mek. emamectin benzoate - Proclaim, Denim. milbemectin – Ultiflora, Koromite. Used to control mites and caterpillars at the very low rates.
Cucumber Beetle Bacterial Wilt
Cucumber Beetle Management Scout field, especially field edges and under plastic Watermelon – resistant to bacterial wilt, but can damage seedlings and rind Cantaloupe – very susceptible to wilt Treatment Thresholds –Watermelon – 2 beetles per plant –Cantaloupe - presence
Cucumber Beetle Management: Effect of Chemigation Treatments Trial Results from Joanne Whalen and Marty Spellman, UDel
ab a a a cd b,c e c ed Cucumber Beetle Management: Gallia Melons Trial Results from Tom Kuhar and Jack Speese, Virginia Tech