Presentation on theme: "Free movement of goods in the Internal Market"— Presentation transcript:
1 Free movement of goods in the Internal Market Enterprise and IndustryFree movement of goods in the Internal MarketImage (optional)Seminar on ensuring free movement of goods within the EU and with Turkey – Ankara 20 Sept. 2012
2 Index The free movement of goods The principle of Mutual Recognition Problems with Mutual RecognitionThe Mutual Recognition Regulation 764/2008
3 Companies in the European Union benefit from easy access to the European Internal Market and its nearly 500 million consumers thanks to common procedures, standards and rules between the countries.Some aspects however are still governed by non-harmonised national provisions.The free movement of goods principle helps to prevent that they lead to trade barriers in the internal market.
4 … and for TurkeyWith its large market and the growing industry, Turkey has been a major trading partner of the EU for a long time. This partnership was strengthened with a Customs Union in 1995, and later on, with the perspective of full membership of EU. This status requires Turkey to align itself with technical legislation of the EU and promotes cooperation between the two Parties in the area of standardisation, accreditation, metrology and conformity assessment.
5 … and for TurkeyTurkey has committed itself to approximate its technical legislation with that of the European Union (EU) within the framework of the Turkey – EU Association Council Decision (ACD) No. 1/95 of 6 March 1995 that establishes a Customs Union.
6 … and for TurkeyDespite negative impacts of the economic and financial crisis which is being felt since 2009, Turkey, as the 6th largest European economy, occupied the first place in Europe in terms of growth with a rate of 8.5% in Turkey has the second fastest growing economy in the world after China. Turkey also has intensive commercial and economic relations with the Union: Approximately 45% of Turkish foreign trade takes place with the EU member states.
7 I. The free movement of goods One of the cornerstones of the Internal MarketTo ensure products can move freely across the borders of the Member StatesObjective: elimination of barriers to intra-EU movement of goods
8 The EU-Turkey Customs Union It was established onIt covers industrial and processed agricultural products.Within the framework of the Articles of the ACD No. 1/95 (corresponding to Articles TFEU), the signatories shall eliminate not only classical trade restricting measures i.e. tariffs, quotas, but also the barriers to trade arising from different regulatory practices on goods both in Turkey and the EU.
9 I. The free movement of goods A) The free movement framework:Harmonised area: where the EU has enacted secondary legislation, specifying rules for certain goods (acquis)Non-harmonised area: where the prohibition of obstacles to trade in the Treaty (Arts. 34 – 36 TFEU/Arts. 5 – 7 of the ACD No. 1/95) applies directly
10 I. The free movement of goods Objective: to remove technical barriers to Single Market deriving from:National technical regulationsNational testing and certification proceduresTools:Articles TFEU Non-harmonised areaTechnical harmonisation Harmonised area
11 I. The free movement of goods B) Types of barriers:Private barriers - created by undertakings(dealt with by EU Competition policy)Public barriers - created by national rules:Fiscal barriers (dealt with by EU Fiscal policy)Non-fiscal barriers (dealt with by Arts. 34 – 36 TFEU):- authorisation procedures (licenses, …)- selling arrangements (how goods should be sold)- technical barriers
12 I. The free movement of goods Technical barriersObstacles to free movement of goodsApplied to goods lawfully marketed in other Member States or TurkeyRules that lay down requirements to be met by the products themselves (designation, form, size, weight, composition, labelling, ...)Tools to remove technical barriers in thenon-harmonised area: Arts TFEU
13 The non-harmonised area: background Article 34 of TFEU / Article 5 ACD No. 1/95:Prohibition of quantitative restrictions on imports and measures of equivalent effectArticle 35 of TFEU / Article 6 ACD No. 1/95:Prohibition of quantitative restrictions on exports and measures of equivalent effectArticle 36 TFEU / Article 7 ACD No. 1/95:Measures restricting the free movement of goods can be justified if they are necessary for reasons of public interest and proportionate
14 The non-harmonised area: background Articles 34 to 36 TFEU have direct effect:If there is incompatibility of national law with EU law:Duty to give full effect to EU law by national administrations and courts by withdrawing on their own initiative conflicting provisions of national law
15 Quantitative restrictions: Art. 34 / Art. 5 of the ACD No. 1/95Quantitative restrictions:“measures which amount to a total or partial restraint of import, export (Art.35) or goods in transit”(Geddo v Ente Nazionale Risi, C 2/73)
16 Measures having equivalent effect: Art. 34 / Art. 5 of the ACD No. 1/95Measures having equivalent effect:“All [state] measures which are capable of hindering directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, intra-EU trade are to be regarded as measures having equivalent effect to quantitative restrictions and, on that basis, as prohibited by Article 34 TFEU.”(Dassonville, Case 8/74)
17 Types of measures of equivalent effect: Art. 34 / Art. 5 of the ACD No. 1/95Types of measures of equivalent effect:Overtly discriminatory measures: those which apply to imported products only and make importation more costly or more difficult from that required for domestic productIndistinctly applicable measures: those which are equally applicable to domestic and imported products alike
18 Indistinctly applicable measures: Art. 34 / Art. 5 of the ACD No. 1/95Indistinctly applicable measures:National technical rules governing the marketing of products and which deal with their characteristics (shape, size, weight, composition, presentation... )Equally applicable to domestic and imported products,Restrictive effect of such measures are out of proportion to their purpose
19 Barriers to trade – examples: Art. 34 / Art. 5 of the ACD No. 1/95Barriers to trade – examples:German purity law for beer: rules banning additives in beerCheese must have a prescribed minimum fat contentMargarine must be sold in cubic packaging so as to distinguish it from butter
20 Interpretation problems: Art. 34 / Art. 5 of the ACD No. 1/95Interpretation problems:Until 1979 (Cassis de Dijon), it was not clear if Article 34 applied to measures of equivalent effect indistinctly applicable to domestic and imported products
21 Art. 36 (exceptions) / Art. 7 of the ACD No. 1/95 The importation and marketing of products lawfully produced and marketed in another Member State may only be restricted, in the absence of harmonisation by such national measures where they:are necessary in order to satisfy mandatory requirements or derogations provided for by Article 36 TFEU,are proportionate to the desired objective: the means of achieving that objective which least hinders trade
23 I. The free movement of goods Mutual Recognition:A method for ensuring free movement of goods in the non-harmonised area within the EU...... against technical barriers (national rules that lay down requirements to be met by the products themselves – designation, form, size, weight, composition, labelling, ...)A specific interpretation of Article 34 TFEU
24 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition A product lawfully marketed in one Member State and not subject to EU harmonisation should be allowed to be marketed in any other Member State, even when the product does not fully comply with the technical rules of the Member State of destination.Exception: the Member State of destination may refuse the marketing of a product only where this is strictly necessary for the protection of, for example, public safety, health or environment.
25 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition The principle of mutual recognition emerged out of the Court of Justice's famous "Cassis de Dijon" and subsequent judgements, and was discussed in a Commission interpretative communication of 3 October 1980 There was a Council resolution of 28 October 1999 on mutual recognition, incorporated into the Agreement on the European Economic Area of 1 March 2002
26 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition The principle consists of:A general rule(Article 34 / Article 5 – free movement of goods)The possibility of exceptions(Article 36 / Article 7 – Justified and proportionate restrictions)
27 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition The general rule:A MS cannot forbid a product lawfully marketed in another MS even if there are technical differences between the various national rulesIt does not entail a comparison between technical rules of MS
28 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition Exceptions justified:On the ground of Article 36 / Article 7On the basis of overriding requirements of general public importance (mandatory requirements – Art. 34) recognised by the case law of the CJ:Prevention of tax evasionConsumer protectionProtection of the environmentIf proportionate to the aim pursued
29 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition List of grounds for derogations:public moralitypublic policypublic securityprotection of the health and life of humans, animals and plantsprotection of national treasures possessing artistic, historic or archaeological value,protection of industrial and commercial property
30 II. The principle of Mutual Recognition Advantages of Mutual Recognition:Free movement of products without harmonisationProducts can be marketed throughout the EUVariety of products for the consumerRespecting diversity and subsidiarityCan be invoked by citizens and enterprises before national courts
31 Commission interpretative communication … on facilitating the access of products to the markets of other Member States: the practical application of mutual recognition (2003/C 265/02).
32 Commission interpretative communication “Articles 5 to 7 of Decision No 1/95 of the EC-Turkey Association Council of 22 December 1995 on implementing the final phase of the Customs Union (OJ L 35, 13 February 1996, p. 1) provide for the elimination of measures having an effect equivalent to customs duties between the European Union and Turkey.
33 Commission interpretative communication Pursuant to Article 66 of Decision 1/95, Articles 5 to 7 must, for the purposes of their implementation and application to products covered by the Customs Union, be interpreted in conformity with the relevant Judgments of the Court of Justice. Consequently, principles resulting from the Court of Justice's case law on issues which are related to Articles 28 and 30 of the EC Treaty, particularly the ‘Cassis de Dijon’ case, apply to the Member States and to Turkey.”(Page 13, Footnote 18)
34 Commission interpretative communication “This communication (2003/C 265/02) makes it clear that the Member State of destination of a product must allow the placing on its market of a product lawfully manufactured and/or marketed in another Member State or in Turkey (…) provided that this product provides an equivalent level of protection of the various legitimate interests involved.”(Page 2, paragraph 4)
35 Commission interpretative communication “A negative decision by the Member State of destination regarding the access of an EEA/Turkish product to its market is, in principle, likely to constitute a measure having an equivalent effect to a quantitative import restriction, prohibited by Article [34 TFEU]. Thus, the economic operator may always contest under national law a negative decision taken against him.”(Page 10, Section 5.2., paragraph 1)
36 III. Problems with Mutual Recognition Lack of awareness of the principleLegal uncertainty about its scope and the burden of proofRisk of not getting access to market in another Member StateAbsence of dialogue between authorities and with the economic operators
37 III. Problems with Mutual Recognition 1. Lack of awarenessNational rules give the impression that they always prevail(Businesses and administrations take the national rule for granted)Mutual recognition is a concept developed in the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice on Articles 34 and 36 TFEU (ex 28 and 30 EC Treaty)(Few people are familiar with mutual recognition)
38 III. Problems with Mutual Recognition 2. Legal uncertainty about its scope and burden of proofScope: which products are covered?Widespread legal uncertainty about the burden of proof: specialized legal knowledge required(National administrations and businesses take a very cautious attitude)
39 III. Problems with Mutual Recognition 3. The risk for businesses in another Member StateDifficult for businesses to know whether, how and when mutual recognition will be applied(Risk avoidance through dialogue (negotiations?) with administration of Member State of destination)
40 III. Problems with Mutual Recognition 4. Absence of dialogue between competent authoritiesLack of common address book for authorities that wish to contact their colleagues in another Member State where the product is lawfully marketed(Difficult for competent authorities to identify and contact their colleagues in other Member States)
41 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Summary of the RegulationDenial of mutual recognition becomes the exception.Definition of rights and obligations:Burden of proof on receiving Member StateTight deadlines for receiving Member State (20 w. days)Product Contact Points in Member StatesRepeals Decision 3052/95/ECIndicative list of products
42 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Administrative decisions:Addressed to economic operatorDirectly or indirectly denying access to the marketBased on a technical ruleDenial of market access - effect of the decision:ProhibitionModification (1 or + characteristics)Additional testingWithdrawal
43 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Regulation does not apply to:Most railway equipmentWithdrawal of dangerous products under GPSDWithdrawal of food and feed in order to protect human health and requiring rapid actionEmergency measures for food and feedMeasures regarding non-compliance with EU food and feed law
44 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Mutual recognition = basic rule (EU Treaty)Both actual and possible denial of mutual recognition governed by RegulationPossible denial of mutual recognition?Obligation for national authorities to start dialogue with the economic operator and to follow the procedural requirements established by the Regulation
45 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Possible denial of mutual recognitionIntended decision:Step 1:Written notice to economic operatorSpecifying the technical ruleSetting out technical or scientific evidence:that the intended decision is justified by overriding reason of public interest;that no less trade-restrictive measure can be takenIntended decision must be based on the characteristics or type of product
46 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Possible denial of mutual recognitionIntended decision:Step 2: economic operator can submit comments within time limit set out in written noticeStep 3: assessment of comments (if any)Step 4: decision by public authorities
47 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Possible denial of mutual recognitionFinal decision - Competent authorities must:Immediately inform economic operator and the CommissionProvide technical or scientific justification for their decisionSpecify the remedies available under the law
48 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Product Contact Points (PCP)Member States must designate at least one PCP and inform Commission and Member StatesMember States are free to entrust the role of PCP to new or existing private or public bodiesTasks: to be performed upon request and free of charge within 15 working days
49 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Product Contact Points (PCP) – Tasks:Provide technical rules applicable to a specific type of product in that Member StateAdvise whether the product is subject to prior authorisationGive contact details of the competent authoritiesDescribe remedies generally available in the national territory in the event of a dispute between competent authorities and economic operators
50 IV. The Mutual Recognition Regulation (EC) N° 764/2008 Database on Art. 12(4):Articles 9(2) and 12(4) of the Regulation specify that the Commission must draw up and regularly update "a list of Product Contact Points" as well as "a non-exhaustive list of products which are not subject to Community harmonisation legislation".
51 More information:Guide to the application of Treaty provisions governing the Free Movement of Goods (Arts. 34 – 36 TFEU):
52 More information: Web page on mutual recognition: Contact: Contact:European CommissionDirectorate-General Enterprise and Industry, Unit C/2B-1049 Brussels, BelgiumFax: