2The Roots and RulesColonists still had a distrust for a strong chief executive.Most state constitutions reduced the office of governor to symbolic post elected by the legislature. Although some other states did entrust power to the chief executive.During the Constitutional Convention there was talk as to how the structure of the executive authority should be created.
3Presidential Qualifications and Terms of Office Constitution requires the president and vice-president to be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least thirty-five years old, and a resident of the United States for at least fourteen years.Twenty-Second Amendment- President terms and limits: a total of 10 years is allowed, but limited to two terms.
4ContinuedEven though the president is elected by the people Congress still has the power to impeach the president.The impeachment provisions could be found in the Constitution. (treason, bribery,and high-misdemeanors)Two presidents were recommended for impeachment by the House of Rep.Who avoided the possibility of being impeached?
5Rules of SuccessionEight presidents have died from illness or assassination.In 1947, Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act which lists in order those in line to succeed the president.Vice-PresidentSpeaker of the HouseSecretaries of defense, treasury, and defense, and other Cabinet heads in order of the creation of their department.Twenty-fifth amendment:succession of presidency
6The Constitutional Powers of the President The Appointment Power: The Constitution authorizes the president to appoint members to his cabinet, with the consent of the Senate.“Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law.”The appointment power gives the President the opportunity to set and filter in his political agenda. It is also a great mechanism to gain popularity from the government.
7Power to Convene Congress The Constitution requires the president to inform the Congress periodically of “the State of the Union”.The president has the power to convene either or both houses of Congress during time of “extraordinary occasions.”This rarely happens which is why today this power simply has symbolic significance.
8Power to make TreatiesThe President has the power to make treaties under the condition that all treaties must be approved by at least two-third majority of the Senate.Of all the treaties submitted to Congress only sixteen treaties were rejected.Treaty of Versailles (1919)
9ContinuedPresidents have been able to get around the constitutional “advice and consent” of the Senate by entering into an executive agreement.This allows the president to form arrangements with foreign nations without Senate approval.Executive agreements have been used far more than treaties.
10Veto PowerPresidents can affect the policy process through the veto power which is the authority to reject any congressional legislation.During Constitutional Convention proponents of a strong executive wanted presidents to have an absolute and final veto.
11ContinuedJames Madison made the most compelling argument for no sort of absolute and final veto he stated:“Experience has proven a tendency in our governments to throw all power into the legislative vortex. The Executives of the States are in general little more than Ciphers, the legislatures omnipotent. If no effectual check be devised for restraining the instability and encroachments of the latter, a revolution of some kind or other would be inevitable.”
12Line-item vetoPresident Ulysses S. Grant was the first president to propose a constitutional amendment to give president the power of a line-item veto. It was finally allowed in 1996.This will give Presidents the opportunity to disapprove of individual items within a spending bill.Clinton v. City of New York (1998)
13Power as the Commander in Chief Article II states that the president is the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States.Presidents in the past have used the C.I.C clause in conjunction with the chief executive’s duty to “take care that the laws be faithfully executed”.Vietnam War and Nixon
14War Powers ActIn the light of the misleading information from President Nixon Congress passed the War Powers Act.The War Powers Act limits the president’s authority to introduce American troops into hostile foreign lands without congressional approval.Presidents since Nixon have continued to insist that the act is unconstitutional on their executive power.
15The Pardoning PowerPresident may provide a check on the judicial branch by granting a reprieve or pardon.A pardon is an executive grant releasing an individual from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime before or after conviction, and restores all rights and privileges of citizenship.Pardons cannot be be used in cases of impeachment.The most famous pardon?Gerald Ford
17Party LeaderThe President helps members of his political party get elected or appointed to office.The president campaigns for members of his party.Example: Traveling to California to speak at a rally for a party nominee to the U.S Senate.
18Commander in ChiefThe President is the commander in chief of the U.S armed forces.The president performs this duty as a civilian, someone who is not in military service.Example: Deciding in wartime, whether to invade Afghanistan after the 9/11 attacks.
19Chief ExecutiveThe president is empowered to administer the laws and affairs of the nation.The president is responsible for enforcing the law regardless of personal opinion.Example: Holding a Cabinet meeting to discuss government business.
20Chief of StateThe president’s role as chief of state to represent the United States at public events.Ceremonial role to promote or convey American values to the world.Example: Awarding medals to students receiving academic honors.
21Chief DiplomatThe president interacts with leaders from other nations.This position allows him to develop foreign policy with other nations.Example: Traveling to London to meet with the British prime minister.
22Chief LegislatorThe president doesn’t make laws, yet he can voice his opinion and voice his own ideas.The president has the power to veto a bill.Example: Signing or vetoing a bill passed by Congress.
23Presidential Selection: The Framers Plan Describe the original provisions for choosing the President.Outline how the rise of political parties changed the original process set out in the Constitution.
24Choosing a President The President is chosen based on Provisions of the ConstitutionState and federal lawsPractices created by the nation’s leading political parties.
25Framers PlanTorn between selecting the President by Congress or by a direct vote of the people.Only a few of the Framers favored choosing the President by popular vote.
26Reasons why they were skeptical about a direct vote of the people Most delegates felt that people scattered over so wide an area could not possibly know enough about the candidates to make a wise and an informed choice.George Mason of Virginia statedThe extent of the Country renders it impossible that the people can have the requisite capacity to judge of the respective pretensions of the Candidates.”
27Compromise: Presidential Selection The President and Vice President were to be chosen by a special body of presidential electors.The electors would cast two electoral votes, each for a different candidate.The candidate with the most votes would become President, person with the second most votes would become Vice President.The Electoral College is a group of people (electors) chosen from each State and the District of Columbia to formally select the President and the Vice President.
28The Rise of Parties Flaws in the system began to appear in 1796. John Adams, a Federalist candidate was elected to the presidency.Thomas Jefferson, an arch-rival and Democratic Republican lost to Adams by just three votes and then became Adams’ Vice President?How did political parties expose a flaw in the Electoral College?
29The Election of 1800 There were two well-defined parties Federalists (Adams), Democratic-Republicans (Jefferson)Both parties nominated a President and V. President.They also nominated presidential electors in several States with the understanding that if elected, they would vote for their party’s presidential and vice-presidential nominee.
30In doing so they both produced a tie for the presidency. Each of the 73 Democratic-Republicans who won posts as electors voted for his party’s nominees.In doing so they both produced a tie for the presidency.This election marked the introduction of three new elementsParty nominations for candidatesNominations for presidential electors who pledge to vote for their partyThe automatic casting of the electoral votes in line with those pledges.
31The 12th AmendmentAmendment was added as a way to end the fiasco of the election of 1800.Made one major change to the Electoral CollegeIt separated the presidential and vice-presidential elections.This amendment certainly guarantees that the President and Vice President will be of the same party.