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Pertemuan -23/24 Matakuliah: M0304/Corporate Information System Management Tahun: 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Pertemuan -23/24 Matakuliah: M0304/Corporate Information System Management Tahun: 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pertemuan -23/24 Matakuliah: M0304/Corporate Information System Management Tahun: 2008

2 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-2 M ANAJEMEN F UNGSI- F UNGSI S ISTEM I NFORMASI

3 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-3 Rapid technological change Exploding applications and data Growth in business management understanding of technology Frequent external shocks T HE C HALLENGES F ACING IS L EADERSHIP

4 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-4 IS leadership must manage these organizational assets: – Human resources – Organizational data – Physical infrastructure – Applications portfolio M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON

5 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-5 Provide specialized IT training for IS professionals and others M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Developing Human Resources

6 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-6 M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Figure 23.1 Selected IS Management Positions (1 of 3) Possible IS Management Positions

7 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-7 M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Figure 23.1 Selected IS Management Positions (2 of 3) Possible IS Management Positions

8 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-8 M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Figure 23.1 Selected IS Management Positions (3 of 3) Possible IS Management Positions

9 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-23-9 Develop policies and procedures to manage an IT system’s physical assets – computer hardware and networks M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Improving the Physical Infrastructure

10 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Infrastructure management issues addressed in policy statements:  Location  The workstation  Supported operating systems  Redundancy  Supported communications protocols M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Improving the Physical Infrastructure

11 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Infrastructure management issues addressed in policy statements (cont.):  Bandwidth  Response time on the network  Security versus ease of access  Breadth of network access  Access to external data services M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Improving the Physical Infrastructure

12 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Most companies cannot operate without software applications – they are critical assets Just as physical infrastructure, software portfolio needs managed as an asset M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Managing the Applications Portfolio

13 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul A company must know: – What software it owns – Where it is located – What it does – How effective it is – What condition it is in M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Managing the Applications Portfolio

14 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Policies and guidelines must exist for the development and maintenance of IS applications Maintenance should be treated as an activity necessary to preserve an asset’s value M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Managing the Applications Portfolio

15 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Application portfolio policies must address:  Assumed user  Application location  Process-driven or data-driven design  Evaluation criteria for new applications systems M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON Managing the Applications Portfolio

16 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Process-Driven Design – Collects, manipulates, and stores only data needed to operate a particular process – Most often used in the past Data-Driven Design – Concentrates on all data needed and collects into database – Each application accesses common database for needed information Managing the Applications Portfolio M ANAGING THE A SSETS IN AN IS O RGANIZATON

17 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Ten key issues:  Developing effective change management system (Chapter 12)  Ethical use of IT (Chapter 16)  Agreeing upon the role of the IS organization  Selecting effective IS leadership  Creating an active partnership with business managers  Determining an outsourcing strategy  Designing an equitable financing system  Deploying global information systems  Designing an appropriate IS organization and governance system  Ensuring regular performance measurement I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

18 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul IS organization: Role is continually changing Needs a mission statement Must be future-oriented while fulfilling today’s requirements Must be aligned closely with business activities 1. Agreeing Upon the Role of the IS Organization I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

19 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul IS organization is expected to: Demonstrate business understanding and maintain close communication with business managers Respond quickly to changing business needs Help reengineer business processes to be more customer responsive Ensure business can participate in e-commerce Keep final customer in mind Build systems that provide direct customer benefit Help business managers make better decisions with information Use IT for competitive advantage Help business integrate IT 1. Agreeing Upon the Role of the IS Organization I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

20 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul IS organization is also expected to: Be steward of organization’s IT resources Deploy IT resources throughout the organization Facilitate productive use of resources Lead development of information vision and IT architecture Communicate vision and architecture Maintain managerial control over important information resources Administer corporate data Make current and new IT available at lowest possible cost Help business managers know and use technology Develop partnership with business managers to exploit technology 1. Agreeing Upon the Role of the IS Organization I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

21 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Chief Information Officer (CIO): A member of executive management team Needs mix of business and technical knowledge Guides and unifies entire organization’s IT resources Masters understanding of business, products, vendors, sales channels, customers, and competition Recognize IT advantages and where to apply Hires good people and delegates Works with executive management team to achieve competitive advantage 2. Selecting Effective IS Leadership I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

22 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Senior IS Management Issues: Improving data and IT planning, especially linking IS to the business Gaining business value through IT Facilitating organizational learning about and through IT Refining the IS unit’s role and position Guiding systems development by business managers Managing organizational data as an asset Measuring IS effectiveness Integrating information technologies Developing systems personnel 2. Selecting Effective IS Leadership I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

23 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Creating an Active Partnership with Business Managers I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Partnership – a critical strategy based on sustaining a long-term relationship between IS and business management

24 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul IS steering committee or advisory board used to: Ensure frequent interaction Set priorities Check progress Allocate scarce resources Communicate concerns Provide education Develop shared responsibility 3. Creating an Active Partnership with Business Managers I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

25 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Determining an Outsourcing Strategy I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Outsourcing – hired outside services to perform some of a company’s IS operations Application service providers (ASPs) – provide total systems to organizations, ranging from competitive intelligence systems to broad ERP applications

26 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Outsourcing: Allows an organization to pay only for what it uses Trend might relate to the position of the CIO Popular, largely due to: – Fast pace of technological change – Dissatisfaction and costs related to past in-house services Must be both a remedy for service failures or costs and a strategic choice Should not be used for strategic information systems with security or privacy issues I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

27 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Key factors in selecting an outsourcing vendor: Vendor reputation Quality of service Flexible pricing I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES

28 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Equitable Financing System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Typical measures used to track IT costs: – Total IT budget as percentage of total organization revenues or income – Total IT budget as percentage of total organization budget – IS personnel costs as percentage of total organization professional personnel salaries and wages – Ratio of hardware and software costs to IS personnel costs – Costs for IT hardware and software per managerial or knowledge worker

29 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Equitable Financing System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Why is it hard to measure IT costs? – Some IT costs are hidden – No relationship to benefits included in these measures – Benefits may happen after development costs occur

30 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Measuring Benefits : No simple way to measure value added benefits of IT Can track IS performance measures over time

31 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Controlling IS Costs Use IS organization’s budget Divide costs: – Personnel – Equipment and software – Outside services – Overhead

32 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Chargeback Systems IS chargeback process – places control of IS spending with business managers, and is used to better understand true costs

33 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Equitable Financing System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Why use a chargeback system? – Assign costs to those who consume – Control wasteful use of IT resources – Overcome belief that IT costs unnecessarily high – Provide incentives using subsidy – Change IS to be more business driven – Encourage managers to be knowledgeable consumers

34 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Equitable Financing System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Successful chargeback systems must be: – Understandable – Timely – Controllable – Accountable – Clearly linked to benefits – Consistent with IS and organizational goals

35 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Deploying Global Information Systems I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Region and country issues influencing global IS management:  Country telecommunications infrastructures  Legal and security considerations  Language and culture  Time zone differences

36 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Deploying Global Information Systems I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Key trends of global outsourcing: Offshore development centers – permanent offshore presence Near-shore sourcing – outsourcing to countries close to home and overlapping time zones Multisourcing – relying on multiple service providers in a number of companies, based on price and skills

37 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Deploying Global Information Systems I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Global team manager traits: – Multiculturalist – E-facilitator – Recognition promoter – Internationalist – Traveler

38 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Appropriate IS Organization and Governance System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Figure 23.8 Classic IS Organization Structure

39 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Appropriate IS Organization and Governance System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Types of IS Organizational Design: – Centralized – IS applications and resources housed, managed, and controlled centrally – Decentralized – business units have complete control of their own IS resources – Federal – attempt to achieve benefits of both centralized and decentralized – Customized – mixed design in large enterprises where each division determines best design for that division

40 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Figure 23.9 Common Designs for the IS Organization Centralized Decentralized Federal Customized

41 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Designing an Appropriate IS Organization and Governance System I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Organization design depends on: – How rest of business is organized – Type of customer markets, products, and geographical spread – Role of IT within the organization – Reporting level of most senior IS leader – Types of technologies managed by IS organization

42 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Figure Four Types of IS Governance Mechanisms

43 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Ensuring Regular Performance Measurement I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Necessary for internal customers to regularly evaluate IS organization Need to show if promised cost savings are realized Required: – Agreement on measurable criteria – Metrics to judge work quality

44 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Ensuring Regular Performance Measurement I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES IS Evaluation Criteria – Meeting business objectives – Responding rapidly and economically to new needs – Expanding business or services – Developing an architecture and plan – Operating reliable and efficient technology resources – Focusing on the customer – Providing quality IS staff – Reducing size of backlog – Satisfying users – Adopting new technologies Figure IS Evaluation Criteria

45 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Ensuring Regular Performance Measurement I NFORMATION T ECHNOLOGY M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM I SSUES Other measures to evaluate IS performance: – Service level agreements with internal business units can be used to evaluate IS performance – Annual surveys for each major system – User satisfaction surveys – Balance Scorecard – Etc.

46 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul IT Quality Management Tugas Kelompok : Search di Internet, dan buatkan sinopsis dari topik-2 berikut, (pilih salah satu) : – ITQA : ISO Standard – CMMI – ITIL – TQM Hubungkan dengan : Corporate Information System Management, yang sdr pelajari ? Jangan lupa sebutkan sumbernya atau alamatnya ?

47 Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul Review – Questions


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