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1Dorota Klimek-Jankowska Introduction to linguisticsLECTURE 3Dorota Klimek-Jankowska
2What is the difference between words in (1) and (2)? cat,lady,walk,nice,put,rose,cry,love(2)replay,comfortable,unnatural,misinterpretations,icecream,bigheaded,sisterhood,
3Words in (2) can be broken down into still smaller units.How many units does the word unnaturalconsist of?Does the first unit have a meaning?What does un- mean?The smallest meaningful element of alanguage is called....
4Morphology focuses on these linguistic regularities which are active in our mind andwhich determine the way we structure ofwords in natural language.
5Now consider the words look, looks, and looked. Are -s and -ed morphemes?Do they have any meaningWhat role do they play?Morphemes are the smallest units ofa language that can be associatedwith meaning or grammatical function.
6Exercise1: Look at the following list of words Exercise1: Look at the following list of words. Try to divide each word into parts.1. timetable4. grammarian7. recreate2. emptiness5. personified8. unfriendly3. meaningful6. non-smoker9. surfer
7What is the difference between morphemes in (3) and (4) cat,happy,girl,flower(4) un-,re-,-s,-ation,-able,-ed
8What is the difference between morphemes in (3) and (4) cat,happy,girl,flowerFREE MORPHEMESCAN STAND ALONE(4) un-,re-,-s,-ation,-able,-edBOUND MORPHEMESARE ALWAYSATTACHED TO SOMEOTHER MORPHEME.
9Exercise 2: The following words are made up of either one or two morphemes: isolate them and decide for each if it is free or bounda. catsd. brokeng. biggestj. entrustb. unhappye. milderh. childhoodk. signpostc. rejoinf. hatefuli. greedyl. spacious
10ROOT: the most essential form of a word that cannot be further analyzed without total lossof identity. It is also that part of the word leftwhen all affixes are removedWe can attach AFFIXES to roots.A PREFIX attaches to the beginning (unhappy, impossible, misinterpret) and aSUFFIX attaches to the end of a word (excitement, sisterhood, information).
11BASE: the form to which an affix is attached. UNHAPPINESSHAPPY – functions as a root and a baseUNHAPPY – (prefix ‘un-’ + root ‘happy’) (base ‘unhappy’ + suffix ‘-ness’) Infix – a type of affix which occurs within abase.
12Morphemes can be devided into: lexical (carry a certainmeaning) e.g.verbs, nouns, adjectives,adverbs(5) car, book, sun, doll, dress…(open class)functional morphemes(purely grammaticalfunction) e.g. articles,conjunctions, numerals,prepositions(6) the, on, one, and, or, a(closed class)
15Exercise: Identify the function of the following inflectional suffixes StemwaiteatchairfastSuffix-s-ed-ing-en-'s-er-estFunction
16DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES -ship, -hood, -able, -ment, -tion, re-, un-, in-, -al, -lyChange the part of speech e.g., -ment added to a verb forms a noun: judge-mentChange the meaning of a word, re-activate means 'activate again'.Are usually not very productive –hood cannot attach to all members of a class of nouns brother, neighbo but not *friendhood, *daughterhood, or *horsehood.Derivational morphemes occur before inflectional suffixes, e.g., govern-ment-s: -ment, a derivational suffix, precedes -s, an inflectional suffix.Derivational morphemes may be prefixes or suffixes (in English), e.g., pre-arrange, arrange-ment.
17INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES -ed, -s, ‘s, -er, -ing, -en, estInflectional morphemes do not change meaning or part of speech, e.g., dog - dogs are both nouns, jump – jumps - jumped are all verbs.Inflectional morphemes indicate grammatical relations between words John love-s Mary -s marks the 3rd person singular present form of the verb, relating it to the 3rd singular subject John.Inflectional morphemes are very productive. They typically occur with all members of a lexical category the plural morpheme -s occurs with almost all nouns.Inflectional morphemes occur after derivational morphemes e.g., ration-al-iz-ation-s: -s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word. (hence they are suffixes only).
19The same morpheme may have more than one phonological manifestation. Different phonologicalrealizations of a morpheme are called allomorphs.
20 QUIZ1. Which morpheme can stand alone as a word?free or bound2. Which morpheme has the principal meaning of the word it's in?stem or affix3. Which morpheme creates a new word by changing the meaning or part of speech, or both?derivational or inflectional4. Which morpheme has a meaning or causes a change in meaning when added to a word?content or function morpheme
21Word formation process DERIVATION/AFFIXATION – adding affixeswhich changes meaning or category e.g. un-lucky,excite-mentCOMPOUNDING – putting two words together inorder to create a new lexical item. Compoundsconsist of more than one stemstreet light, happy hour, bookcase, blackird, overload,fireman, forget-me-not
22CLIPPING – (abbreviations) - the word-formation process in which a portion of a longer word is used toproduce a clipped word.telephone – phonerefridgerator – fridgeexam(ination)math(ematic),lab(oratory)
23BLENDING – mixing words together, a blend is a word formed from parts of two other wordsbrunch = breakfast + lunchmotel = motor + hotelsmog = smoke + fogBACKFORMATION – the reverse of affixation,creation of a new word from an existing word falselyassumed to be its derivative. For example, the verb ‘to edit’ has been formed from the noun ‘editor’, donation from ‘to donate’.
24CONVERSION: changing a category (a part of speech) without changing a forma bottle – to bottlebutter – to buttera drink – to drinkACRONIMIZATION – letter abbreviations: NATO, ZUS, PZU, BBCSUPPLETION: a root morpheme is replaced by aphonologically unrelated form go – went1.REDUPLICATION: duplicates all or part of the baseIndonesian: anak – child, anak anak – childrenTurkish: gyzel – beautiful, gyzel gyzel – very beautiful
25CRANBERRY MORPEMES: determining its internal structure is tricky since berry is clearly a morpheme, we do not know what to make of cran- which never occurs elsewhere in language as an independent bound morpheme.