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1 Chan – A Way of Tangible Religious Practices Hong Lin Department of Computer Science and Engineering Technology University of Houston-Downtown.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chan – A Way of Tangible Religious Practices Hong Lin Department of Computer Science and Engineering Technology University of Houston-Downtown."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chan – A Way of Tangible Religious Practices Hong Lin Department of Computer Science and Engineering Technology University of Houston-Downtown

2 2 Introduction to Chan Chan (or Ch’an in Chinese) Zen (in Japanese) Dhyāna (in Sanskrit) Wikipedia Definition: Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism, referred to in Chinese as Chan. Chan is itself derived from the Sanskrit Dhyāna, which means "meditation" MahāyānaBuddhism

3 3 Wikipedia Definition (Cont’d) Zen emphasizes dharma practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. As such, it de-emphasizes both theoretical knowledge and the study of religious texts in favor of direct, experiential realization.dharma practice experientialwisdommeditationzazenawakeningtheoretical knowledgereligious texts

4 4 Origin Flower Sermon, in which Śākyamuni Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) transmitted direct prajñā (wisdom) to the disciple Mahākāśyapa. In the original Sino-Japanese, this story is called nengemishō ( 拈花微笑, literally "pick up flower, subtle smile").Śākyamuni Buddhatransmittedprajñā Mahākāśyapa Gautama Buddha gathered his disciples one day for a dharma talk. When they gathered together, the Buddha was completely silent and some speculated that perhaps the Buddha was tired or ill. The Buddha silently held up and twirled a flower and twinkled his eyes; several of his disciples tried to interpret what this meant, though none of them were correct. One of the Buddha's disciples, Mahākāśyapa, silently gazed at the flower and broke into a broad smile. The Buddha then acknowledged Mahākāśyapa's insight by saying the following:Gautama Buddhadharma talk Mahākāśyapa I possess the true Dharma eye, the marvelous mind of Nirvana, the true form of the formless, the subtle Dharma Gate that does not rest on words or letters but is a special transmission outside of the scriptures. This I entrust to Mahākāśyapa.

5 5 Lineage and Spread-out Indian prince turned monk Bodhidharma (early 5th century): the 28 th patriarch in India and the 1 st patriarch in ChinaBodhidharma "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words". From China, Zen spread south to Vietnam, and east to Korea and Japan.ChinaVietnamKoreaJapan In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Zen also began to establish a notable presence in North America and Europe. North AmericaEurope

6 6 Chan Methodology The Flower Sermon was wordless, encapsulating ineffable tathātā: it comprised the purity of direct communication between Śākyamuni and Mahākāśyapa, who smiled. The smile signified Mahākāśyapa's direct cognition.tathātā cognition Zen emphasizes experiential prajñā in the attainment of enlightenment. As such, it de-emphasizes theoretical knowledge in favor of direct realization through meditation and dharma practice.experientialprajñā enlightenmentdharma through Zen there developed a way which concentrated on direct experience rather than on rational creeds or revealed scriptures.

7 7 Jesus’ Teaching Johns 1:1: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Mathew 11:25: … Jesus said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and learned, and revealed them to little children. …” Mathew 18:3: And he said: “I tell you the truth, unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. …” Johns 4:24: God is spirit, and his worshippers must worship in spirit and in truth. Johns 4:14: but whoever drinks the water I give him will never thirst. Indeed, the water I gave him will become in him a spring of water welling up to eternal life.

8 8 The Middle Way of Religions --- Anti-idolatry Zen asserts, as do other schools in Mahāyāna Buddhism, that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature (Skt. Buddhadhātu, Tathāgatagarbha), the universal nature of transcendent wisdom (Skt. prajñā), and emphasizes that Buddha-nature is nothing other than the essential nature of the mind itself.Mahāyāna Buddhismsentient beingsBuddha-natureTathāgatagarbhawisdomprajñā The aim of Zen practice is to discover this Buddha- nature within each person, through meditation and practice of the Buddha's teachings. The ultimate goal of this is to become a Completely Enlightened Buddha.meditationCompletely Enlightened Buddha The cognition of this complete enlightenment is without the desire to become a Buddha, as said by Chan patriarchs. Therefore, Buddha is not an idol.

9 9 Meditation Sitting meditation: core aspect of Zen practice, during which practitioners usually assume a position such as the lotus position.lotus position To regulate the mind, awareness is directed towards counting or watching the breath or put in the energy center below the navel.

10 10 Essence of Meditation Bodhidharma Chan: Meditation with no objects, anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference.Bodhidharma The awakening is carried not in meditation, but in every moment of life. Therefore, sitting meditation is simply a form of practice, not the essence.

11 Buddhism and Christianity on practice Meditation and Prayer –Bodhidharma: “The Dharma way of watching minds embraces all Dharma ways.” (“On Breaking Forms”, Tang Dynasty) –Pure Land School ( 净土宗 ): Amitābha Buddha –Original Oath School ( 本愿门 ): Meditation – no salvation –Christianity: built on faith –Prayer the only communication to God 11

12 The Way Pure land is in the “heart”: “Ascending to the pure land is real, while not leaving the present world.” John 17:15: “My prayer is not that you take them out of the world but that you protect them from the evil one.” John 14:20: “… you will realize that I am in my Father, and you are in me, and I am in you.” John 17:21: “that all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us …” Luke 17:20, 21: “The kingdom of God does not come with your careful observation, nor will people say, ‘Here it is.’ Or ‘There it is.’ Because the kingdom of God is within you.” 12

13 Meditation and Religious Truth Winston L. King (Theologist at Vanderbilt University) “Meditation is a scientific way to reach religious truth.” 3 Books: –Buddhism and Christianity –In the Hope of Nibbana –A Thousand Lives Away 13

14 14 Effects of Chan --- Proactive Therapy Chinese saying: Illness comes from heart (mind). Cause of illness: obsess (desires) in mind, which causes greed, anger, and dumbness, which further cause physical anomaly. Desires in mind is caused by separating self from its environment.

15 15 Words in Bible Genesis 2:25: The man and his wife were both naked, and they felt no shame. Mathew 16: 2-3: He (Jesus) replied, “When evening comes, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.’ and in the morning, ‘Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.’ You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times. …” Mark 8:34: “If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross and follow me. …” Luke 6:37: “Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn, and you will not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. …” Luke 12: 22, 25, 26: Then Jesus said to his disciples: “Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat; or about your body, what you will wear. … Who of you by worrying can add a single hour to his life? Since you cannot do this very little thing, why do you worry about the rest? …”

16 16 Science on Chan James 2:17: … faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead. Can faith be measured by its physical manifestations? Since Chan is a practice of self control in an every-thought level, and its effect is clearly felt, is there a way to measure the effects by scientific means? Summarized measurement can help regulate Chan practice. The starting point is measuring meditation.

17 17 Chan Medicine Health indicators: heart pulse rate, blood pressure, regularity in breath, electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, … Statistical Model: –Comparisons in temporal progress –Comparisons among groups Micro Model: –Five Element Theory –Channels (Jing-luo) Theory

18 Five Element Model Categorization of Zang, Fu, Flavours and Senses according to the Five Elements 18 ElementsWoodFireEarthMetalWater Flavorssourbittersweetpungentsalty Zangliverheartspleenlungkidney FuGall, bladders. intestinestomachl. intestineurinary Senseseyetonguemouthnoseear Tissuetendonvesselmusclehair/skinbone Lessons at:

19 Modeling Functionalities of Organs

20 Five Element Testing An example: testing done by Terrapin Therapy

21 Five Element Psychology Emotion-Organ relationship

22 Five Element Astrology Categorization of Objects, Nature and Phenomena according to the Five Elements A science of harmony between life (perceptions) and the environment Chan’s goal: No separation between one’s self and the surroundings ( 物我一如 ) ElementsWoodFireEarthMetalWater Directionseastsouthcenterwestnorth Changesgerminategrowtransformreapstore Colorgreenredyellowwhiteblack

23 Channel (Jing-luo) Model Jing Luo (Channels and Collaterals I Meridians and Sub-Meridians) classification based on the main location of the Channel and its terminal point 23 Yin Channels (Organ) Yang Channels (Organ) LungLung (LU)Large IntestineLarge Intestine (LI) SpleenSpleen (SP)StomachStomach (ST) HeartHeart (HT)Small IntestineSmall Intestine (SI) KidneysKidneys (KI)BladderBladder (BL) Pericardium Pericardium (PC) San JiaoSan Jiao (SJ) LiverLiver (LV)Gall BladderGall Bladder (GB) Hand MeridiansFoot Meridians LungLung (LU)StomachStomach (ST) Large Intestine Large Intestine (LI) SpleenSpleen (SP) HeartHeart (HT)BladderBladder (BL) Small Intestine Small Intestine (SI) KidneysKidneys (KI) Pericardium Pericardium (PC) Gall BladderGall Bladder (GB) San JiaoSan Jiao (SJ)LiverLiver (LV)

24 Energy Pathways Basis of Acupuncture Abbrevia tions Pathway 3 Yin Meridians of the Hand (LU, HT, PC) Chest to Hand 3 Yang Meridians of the Hand (LI, Sl, SJ) Hand to Face 3 Yang Meridians of the Foot (ST, BL, GB) Face to Foot 3 Yin Meridians of the Foot (SP, KI, LV) Foot to Chest

25 A Time-Space System Circulation of Energy Through the Primary Meridians Lungs3 AM to 5 AM Large Intestine5 AM to 7 AM Stomach7 AM to 9 AM Spleen9 AM to 11 AM Heart11 AM to 1 PM Small Intestine1 PM to 3 PM Bladder3 PM to 5 PM Kidney5 PM to 7 PM Pericardium7 PM to 9 PM San Jiao9 PM to 11 PM Gall Bladder11 PM to 1 AM Liver1 AM to 3 AM

26 Chan Psychology Behavioral Model: Analyzing mental health indicators – Lust, Anger, Fear, Self-control, … eg. using Five Element Model) Suzuki Teitaro Daisetz ( 铃木大拙 ), E. Fromm, Zen and Psychoanalysis. 26

27 Progression Model Four-Level Chan (catvari-dhyanani) Theory Methods for entering four dhyanas Zhi Kai ( 智凯, AC ), Essentials of Concentration and Reception ( 止观 ) Meditation. Four Dhyanas 1) First Dhyana: Bliss Born of Separation 2) Second Dhyana: Bliss Born of Samadhi (proper concentration and proper reception) 3) Third Dhyana: Wonderful Happiness of Being Apart from Bliss 4) Fourth Dhyana: Clear Purity of Casting Away Thought

28 Bodily Manifestations In the First Dhyana (The Ground of Bliss Born of Separation), one's pulse stops, but this doesn't mean one is dead. This brings a particular happiness which is unknown to those in the world. The Second Dhyana is called the Ground of Bliss Born of Samadhi.... In the Second Dhyana, one's breath stops. There is no detectible breathing in and out, but at that time an inner breathing takes over. The Third Dhyana is the Ground of the Wonderful Happiness of Being Apart from Bliss. One renounces the dhyana-bliss as food and the happiness of the Dharma that occurs in initial samadhi. One goes beyond that kind of happiness and reaches a sense of wonderful joy. It is something that one has never known before, that is inexpressible in its subtlety, and that is inconceivable. The Fourth Dhyana is called the Ground of the Clear Purity of Casting Away Thought. In the Third Dhyana thoughts were stopped- -held at bay--but they still had not been renounced altogether. In the heavens of the Fourth Dhyana, not only are thoughts stopped, they are done away with completely. There basically are no more cognitive considerations. This state is extremely pure, subtly wonderful, and particularly blissful.

29 Possibilities for Testing No fear –Patriarch BaiZhang: Coming back from and going forth to death is like door’s opening –Chinese idiom: No eye winking when Mount Tai falling in front –Mathew 8: 24-26: Without warning, a furious storm came up on the lake, so that the waves swept over the boat. But Jesus was sleeping. The disciples went and woke him, saying, “Lord, save us! We’re going to drown!” He replied, “You of little faith, why are you so afraid?” –Mathew 14: 29-30: Then Peter got down out of the boat, walked on the water and came toward Jesus. But when he saw the wind, he was afraid and, beginning to sink, cried out, “Lord, save me!” Immediately Jesus reached out his hand and caught him. “You of little faith,” he said, “why did you doubt?”

30 Easy Test? Roller Coaster

31 Chan Fitness Focus on mental-physical correlation Shaolin Martial Arts –Origin: Bodhidharma and Shaolin TempleBodhidharma –Training of Mentality: Stand like Pine Sit like Bell Sleep like Bow 31

32 Chan Arts –Chan Poems –Chan Drawings –Chan Music –Tao of Tea Scientific Scrutiny of Chan Arts? –Why Nobel prize winners committed suicide? Ernest Hemingway Yasunari Kawabata ( 川端康成 ) –Superior or Obsessing? 32

33 Writers Should Learn Chan Master Geng Yun: “Writers Should Learn Chan.”

34 34 Chan in Modern Society Features of Modern Society –Instantaneous Information Propagation –Short Span of Attentions –Exposure and Vulnerabilities Mesh of Mouni Pearls –Individuals are not isolable from the group –All-inclusive perception of the surroundings is by separating from thoughts –Dong, Zizhu, Eastern Interpretation of Bible.

35 A Program for Brain State Analysis Using Electroencephalographic Data Example EEG peripheral device Nodes AF3 through AF4 (read counterclockwise)

36 Methodology Example of visualization rendered from test data on one node

37 Beyongsang Oh’s Work 37

38 Spiritual Consciousness Studies 2010

39 Frontal Sagittal Axis According to the Physical System theory generalized for Spiritual System Modelling (P S. Satsangi, 2008)*** the energy points lie beyond the pupils along the sagittal axis from the pupils to the forehead and from the forehead to the apex of the head in the white matter as ganglions or focal points that are resistant to anesthetics like chloroform. This is a distinguishing feature of the focal points as the cell bodies can all be inactivated by chloroform but the neurons (cell bodies in the forehead and nerve centers in the white matter) related to the focal points can never be anesthetized as they are the highest points of consciousness for a particular region and domain they cover. The domain still needs to be determined definitely by neuroimaging technology. ***On Systems Modelling of Macrocosm and Microcosm in the Domain of Spiritual Consciousness. Vision Talk at the Inaugural Function of International Seminar on Spiritual Awakening: A Systems Approach to adress the Civilizational Crisis (SPAWSYS 2008), January 12-13, 2008.

40 Medical Imaging: Towards a science of Consciousness, April 9-14, ) Correlation Measured: Energy distribution profiling, MEAD and level of consciousness in the upper 4 chakras –disciplined prayer schedule and focused cognitive tasks –consciousness and energy distribution between diff energy profiles of the human body –Electrical energy profile inverse of temperature profile

41 Toward Science of Consciousness 2013, March 3-9, 2013, Dayalbagh University, Agra, India Pioneering Consciousness through Forehead analysis of CHCL3 resistant focal points along Frontal Sagittal Axis Symmetry of the face. Sixty degree angle symmetry Validation of face-landmark as basis for measurement Landmark of the face Imaging by Polycontrast Interference Photography (PIP) and/or Heat maps using IR/FIR technology

42 Meditation vs. Talking 42

43 Meditation vs. Talking (cont’d) 43

44 Meditation vs. Talking (cont’d) 44

45 Concluding Remarks Chan is a superior mental training methodology Meditation is the primary way of Chan Effect of Chan is measurable Chan science: various models can be built Benefits to life and modern society 45

46 Questions and Suggestions? Hong Lin


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