Google Book Search History and Background Google Book Search Overview Tool for searching full text of scanned books in digital database Limited view of pages that contain searched keyword and relevant info Free PDF downloads of public-domain works and non-copyright material Over one million volumes in database Publishers can promote books for free by making them searchable online Content is protected; only limited preview allowed Publishers can use AdWords to run targeted ad campaigns Links to retailers allows users to buy books
Google Books Promo Video Dr. Joshua Schwimmer talks about using Google Book Search as a teaching tool for patient care. Google Book Search History and Background http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8rlJZDOef8
Google Book Search History and Background Library Project Working w/ several major libraries to digitize books and build a comprehensive, searchable virtual catalog Stanford University New York Public Library Keio University in Japan National Library of Catalonia SULAIR staff undertaking tasks from physical handling of books to database management Many items from Stanford collections, such as government docs from US Congress, available online Over 8 million collections at Stanford
Google Book Search History and Background Interview with Andrew Herkovic How did Google first pitch the Google Books Project to Stanford Libraries?
Google Book Search Copyright Google only places the full text of books that are not copyrighted. All other books can be searched within. Google has an opt-out policy, where books will be removed upon the copyright owner’s request. Google does not have to get the copyright owner’s permission because of “fair use.”
Google Book Search Copyright Google has been sued by The Author’s Guild and the Association of American Publishers. Google Book Search does not get the publisher’s permission to use a book. Google is profiting on a derivative, which is not fair use They argue: Google Book Search does not need the publisher’s permission because it falls under fair use. Fair use does not imply non-profit Google Argues:
Google Book Search Copyright Google’s argument relies on an analogy to Internet image searches. In the US court case Kelly vs Arriba Soft, a commercial photographer sued the image search engine for displaying his copyrighted image without his permission. The court judged that the thumbnail was protected by fair use because it is a representation of the image, not the image itself. The low-quality version is not a replacement for the original and does not affect its market. Google makes the same argument about the pages shown from a copyrighted book that surround the searched the keyword.
Google Book Search Censorship Book Censorship in the US 1 st Amendment guarantees freedom of speech and press Obscenity and defamation restricted in major media outlets by government Contents of books regulated by publishers Censorship of children’s books Harry Potter (witchcraft and wizardry) Books w/ obscene and profane contents Google’s policy on censorship in the US
Google Book Search Censorship Censorship in China Notorious for censorship Tight government regulations on print and online publications In 2006, Google launched a censored version of its site in China Restricts access to sensitive terms and web sites Taiwanese independence Tiananmen Square massacre Dalai Lama Falun Gong spiritual movement July 2006, Google Book Search made deal with four Chinese publishing houses Chinese version of Google Book Search only includes works from Mainland China
“Quand Google Defie l‘Europe: Plaidoyer Pour un Sursaut” - Jean-Noël Jeanneney “When Google Defies Europe: a Call to Wake up” - Jean-Noël Jeanneney Google Book Search Globalization “Quand Google Defie l‘Europe” - Jean-Noël Jeanneney “When Google Defies Europe” - Jean-Noël Jeanneney October 2004: Google Print Introduced at Frankfurt Book Fair January 22, 2005: Google comes under attack by the President of the French National Library April 2005: Expanded ideas published as a book
Google Book Search Globalization Google will favor books written in English. Google Book Search decontextualizes books from their cultures. The search results rank books in a way that is in conflict with the way literary scholars rank them. The world should not entrust its literary cultural heritage to a for-profit, American corporation. Google’s aggressive stance on copyright issues may lead to legislation which hampers existing digitization efforts by libraries.
University Library of Lausanne University Complutense of Madrid Google Book Search Globalization Bavarian State LibraryThe National Library of Catalonia Ghent University LibraryKeio University Library Google will favor books written in English.
Google Book Search Globalization Google will favor books written in English.
Google Book Search Globalization Google book search decontextualizes books from their cultures. The search results rank books in a way that is in conflict with the way literary scholars rank them. Who should be the arbiters of culture is an opinion?
Google Book Search Globalization The world should not entrust its literary cultural heritage to a for-profit, American corporation. Public libraries in the US have expressed similar concerns in the New York Times
Google Book Search Globalization The world should not entrust its literary cultural heritage to a for-profit, American corporation. Public libraries in the US have expressed similar concerns in the New York Times. This has led to the creation of non-profit book digitization projects. Open Content Alliance European Digital Library Project
Google Book Search Globalization Google’s aggressive stance on copyright issues may lead to legislation which hampers existing digitization efforts by libraries. A Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) for books?
Google Book Search Conclusion Do you think that Google Book Search will become a global library? What are your views on the future of the library filled with hardcover books?
Google Book Search Website http://www.stanford.edu/~gaxiola/Google%20Books/Home.html
Google Book Search Appendix: Copyright Fair Use is as the right set forth in Section 107 of the United States Copyright Act, to use copyrighted materials without the copyright holder’s permission 1 : Section 107 sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair: 1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes 2. The nature of the copyrighted work 3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole 4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work 1 Definition of “fair use” from the Yale Library
Google Book Search Copyright Google also argues that it would be impossible to obtain the copyright owner’s permission for every copyrighted article, since many copyrights have exchanged owners over time with no central record. Therefore, it is common sense that they should be protected by fair use, since the project would be impossible otherwise. Supreme Court case, farmers sue so planes cannot fly over their land, defined from the earth to "an indefinite extent, upwards." “Common sense revolts at the idea.” Similarly, it is common sense that Google would have to scan a book in order to provide a book search.