Presentation on theme: "Pertemuan – 21/22 Matakuliah: M0304/Corporate Information System Management Tahun: 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Pertemuan – 21/22 Matakuliah: M0304/Corporate Information System Management Tahun: 2008
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-2 S ETTING A D IRECTION FOR I NFORMATION R ESOURCES
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-3 W HY S ET A D IRECTION FOR I NFORMATION R ESOURCES? To share information among diverse parts of the organization To communicate the future to others To provide a consistent rationale for making individual decisions Planning discussions help business managers and IS professionals in making decisions about how the “business” of IS will be conducted
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-4 T HE O UTPUTS OF THE D IRECTION- S ETTING P ROCESS Information Resources Assessment Information resources assessment – includes inventorying and critically evaluating these resources in terms of how well they are meeting the organization’s business needs
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-5 O UTPUTS OF THE D IRECTION- S ETTING P ROCESS Information Vision and Architecture Is an ideal view of the future Not the plan on how to get there Must be flexible enough to provide policy guidelines for individual decisions More than just fluff Must focus on the long term
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-6 O UTPUTS OF THE D IRECTION- S ETTING P ROCESS Information Vision and Architecture Information vision – a written expression of the desired future about how information will be used and managed in the organization
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-7 O UTPUTS OF THE D IRECTION- S ETTING P ROCESS Information Vision and Architecture Information vision – a written expression of the desired future about how information will be used and managed in the organization Information technology architecture – depicts the way an organization’s information resources will be deployed to deliver that vision
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-8 O UTPUTS OF THE D IRECTION- S ETTING P ROCESS Information Resources Plans Strategic IS plan – contains a set of longer-term objectives that represent measurable movement toward the information vision and technology architecture and a set of associated major initiatives that must be undertaken to achieve these objectives
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-9 O UTPUTS OF THE D IRECTION- S ETTING P ROCESS Information Resources Plans Strategic IS plan – contains a set of longer-term objectives that represent measurable movement toward the information vision and technology architecture and a set of associated major initiatives that must be undertaken to achieve these objectives Operational IS plan – is a precise set of shorter-term goals and associated projects that will be executed by the IS department and by business managers in support of the strategic IS plan
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-10 T HE P ROCESS OF S ETTING D IRECTION Assessment Vision Strategic Planning Operational Planning Figure 21.1 The Information Resources Planning Process
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-11 T HE P ROCESS OF S ETTING D IRECTION Strategic Planning – the process of constructing a viable fit between the organization’s objectives and resources and its changing market and technological opportunities Figure 21.2 The Information Resources Planning Process
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-12 T HE P ROCESS OF S ETTING D IRECTION Operational Planning – lays out the major actions the organization needs to carry out in the shorter term to activate its strategic initiatives Figure 21.2 The Information Resources Planning Process
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-13 T HE P ROCESS OF S ETTING D IRECTION Needs-based IS planning or project-oriented IS planning: – Bottom-up, immediate approach to information resources planning – Used when a specific, urgent business need called for a new system – Emphasis on project planning rather than overall organizational planning Traditional Planning in the IS Organization
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-14 A SSESSING C URRENT I NFORMATION R ESOURCES Information resources assessment: – Must measure current levels of information resources use within the organization and compare it to a set of standards Standards can come from: – Past performance – Technical benchmarks – Industry norms – “Best of class” estimates from other companies Measuring IS Use and Attitudes
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-15 A SSESSING C URRENT I NFORMATION R ESOURCES IS mission statement: – Should set forth the fundamental rationale (or reason to exist) for activities of the IS department – Can vary substantially from one organization to another Reviewing the IS Organizational Mission
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-16 Reviewing the IS Organizational Mission Figure 21.3 IS-Prepared Mission Statement Example Example IS Mission Statement
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-17 A SSESSING C URRENT I NFORMATION R ESOURCES Traditional goal: – Reduce cost by increasing operating efficiencies Scope of IS goals has expanded to include: – Systems to assist in decision making – Ways to help with competitive advantage Assessing Performance versus Goals
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-18 Assessing Performance versus Goals Table 21.5 Objectives for the IS Department
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-19 Information Vision: Represents how senior management wants information to be used and managed in the future Starts with speculation on how the business’s competitive environment will change and how the company should take advantage of it Business vision is specified and written Implications for information use are outlined C REATING AN I NFORMATION V ISION
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-20 D ESIGNING THE A RCHITECTURE IT architecture – specifies how the technological and human assets and the IS organization should be deployed in the future to meet the information vision
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-21 D ESIGNING THE A RCHITECTURE Components of Architecture Figure 21.6 Elements of an Information Technology Architecture
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-22 Strategic IS
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-23 Strategic Information System
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-24 Information System – Supports Strategic Management Innovative applications: Create innovative applications that provide direct strategic advantage to organizations. Competitive weapons: Information systems themselves are recognized as a competitive weapon Changes in processes: IS/IT supports changes in business processes that translate to strategic advantage Links with business partners: IS/IT links a company with its business partners effectively and efficiently.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-25 Information System – Supports Strategic Management (Continued) Cost reductions: IS/IT enables companies to reduce costs. Relationships with suppliers and customers: IS/IT can be used to lock in suppliers and customers or to build in switching costs. New products: A firm can leverage its investment in IS/IT to create new products that are in demand in the marketplace. Competitive intelligence: IS/IT provides competitive (business) intelligence by collecting and analyzing information about products, markets, competitors, and environmental changes.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-26 Porter’s Competitive Forces Model
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-27 We Develop a Competitor Analysis First Competitive Force What Drives them? What are they Doing and What Can they do? What are their strengths & weaknesses? Is Competition Intense?
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-28 Second Competitive Force We Analyze the Entry Barriers If nothing slows entry of competitors, competition will become intense. Incumbent Reaction? What Actions are required to build market share? Production Process?
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-29 We Analyze the Substitute Products Third Competitive Force Products or services from another industry enter the market. Customers becoming acclimated to using substitutes. Is the substitute market growing?
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-30 We Analyze the Supply Chain Fourth & Fifth Competitive Forces Who controls the transaction? Each element adds value – question: who captures it? The Suppliers The Buyers
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-31 Generic Strategies Developing a Sustained Competitive Advantage Cost leadership strategy: Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry. Differentiation strategy: Offer different products, services, or product features. Niche strategy: Select a narrow-scope segment (niche market) and be the best in quality, speed, or cost in that market. Analyzing the forces that influence a company’s competitive position will assist management in crafting a strategy aimed at establishing a sustained competitive advantage. To establish such a position, a company needs to develop a strategy of performing activities differently than a competitor.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-32 Generic Strategies Developing a Sustained Competitive Advantage (Continued) Growth strategy: Increase market share, acquire more customers, or sell more products. Alliance strategy: Work with business partners in partnerships, alliances, joint ventures, or virtual companies. Innovation strategy: Introduce new products and services, put new features in existing products and services, or develop new ways to produce them. Operational effectiveness strategy: Improve the manner in which internal business processes are executed so that a firm performs similar activities better than rivals.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-33 Generic Strategies Developing a Sustained Competitive Advantage (Continued) Customer-orientation strategy: Concentrate on making customers happy Time strategy: Treat time as a resource, then manage it and use it to the firm’s advantage. Entry-barriers strategy: Create barriers to entry. Lock in customers or suppliers strategy: Encourage customers or suppliers to stay with you rather than going to competitors. Increase switching costs strategy: Discourage customers or suppliers from going to competitors for economic reasons.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-34 The Value Chain Primary activities are those activities in which materials are purchased, processed into products, and delivered to customers. Each adds value to the product or service hence the value chain. – Inbound logistics (inputs) – Operations (manufacturing and testing) – Outbound logistics (storage and distribution) – Marketing and sales – Service According to the value chain model (Porter, 1985), the activities conducted in any organization can be divided into two parts: primary activities and support activities.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-35 The Value Chain (Continued) Unlike the primary activities, which directly add value to the product or service, the support activities are operations that support the creation of value (primary activities) – The firm’s infrastructure (accounting, finance, management) – Human resources management – Technology development (R&D) – Procurement The initial purpose of the value chain model was to analyze the internal operations of a corporation in order to increase its efficiency, effectiveness, and competitiveness. We can extend that company analysis by systematically evaluating a company’s key processes and core competencies to eliminate any activities that do not add value to the product.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-36 The Value Chain (Continued)
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-37 The Value System These Internet-based EDI systems offer strategic benefits – Faster business cycle (PO to Receiving) – Automation of business procedures (Automated Replenishment) – Reduced operational costs – Greater advantage in a fierce competitive environment A firm’s value chain is part of a larger stream of activities, which Porter calls a value system. A value system includes the suppliers that provide the inputs necessary to the firm and their value chains. This also is the basis for the supply chain management concept. Many of these alliances and business partnerships are based on Internet connectivity are called interorganizational information systems (IOSs)
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-38 Sustaining a Strategic Information System (SIS) These Internet-based EDI systems offer strategic benefits. – One popular approach is to use inward systems that are not visible to competitors. These proprietary systems allow the company to perform the activities on their value chain differently than their competitors. Strategic information systems are designed to establish a profitable and sustainable position against the competitive forces in an industry. Due to advances in systems development it has become increasingly difficult to sustain an advantage for an extended period. Experience also indicates that information systems, by themselves, can rarely provide a sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore, the major problem that companies now face is how to sustain their competitive advantage.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-39 T HE S TRATEGIC IS P LAN Strategic IS Plan – statement of the major objectives and initiatives that the IS organization and business managers must accomplish over some time period in order to: move toward the information vision fit the business strategic plan
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-40 T HE S TRATEGIC IS P LAN The Strategic IS Planning Process The planning process includes: Setting objectives Conducting internal and external analyses Establishing strategic initiatives
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-41 Critical success factors Analysis of Competitive Forces Value Chain Analysis T HE S TRATEGIC IS P LAN Tools for Identifying IS Strategic Opportunities
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-43 IS Plan Methodology
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-44 IS Planning – Critical
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-45 IS Planning — A Critical Issue for Organizations (Continued)
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-46 IS Alignment with Organizational Plans: The primary task of IS planning is to identify information systems applications that fit the objectives and priorities established by the organization. Analyze the external environment (industry, supply chain, competition) and the internal environment (competencies, value chain, organizational structure) then relate them to technology (alignment). Alignment is a complex management activity whose complexity increases in accordance with the complexity of organization. Strategic Information System Planning - Stage 1 The first stage of the IS planning model identifies the applications portfolio through which an organization will conduct its business. This stage can also be expanded to include the process of searching for strategic information systems (SIS) that enable a firm to develop a competitive advantage. This involves assessing the current business environment and the future objectives and strategies.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-47 The business systems planning (BSP) model, developed by IBM, deals with two main building blocks which become the basis of an information architecture. – Business processes – Data classes Stages Of IS Growth Model, indicates that organizations go through six stages of IS growth – Initiation. When computers are initially introduced. – Expansion (Contagion). Centralized growth takes place as users demand more applications. – Control. In response to management concern about cost versus benefits, systems projects are expected to show a return. – Integration. Expenditures on integrating (via telecommunications and databases) existing systems – Data administration. Information requirements rather than processing drive the applications portfolio. – Maturity. The planning and development of IS are closely coordinated with business development Strategic Information System Planning – Methodologies Several methodologies exist to facilitate IS planning.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-48 Critical success factors (CSFs) are those few things that must go right in order to ensure the organization's survival and success. Critical success factors vary by industry categories — manufacturing, service, or government — and by specific industries within these categories. Sample questions asked in the CSF approach are: – What objectives are central to your organization? – What are the critical factors that are essential to meeting these objectives? – What decisions or actions are key to these critical factors? – What variables underlie these decisions, and how are they measured? – What information systems can supply these measures? Scenario planning is a methodology in which planners first create several scenarios, then a team compile possible future events that may influence the outcome of each scenario. Strategic Information System Planning – Methodologies (Continued)
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-49 Critical success factors (CSFs) Strategic Information System Planning – Methodologies (Continued)
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-50 After the strategic plan, initiatives must be: – Identified – Translated into a set of defined IS projects with: Precise expected results Due dates Priorities Responsibilities T HE O PERATIONAL IS P LAN
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-51 Developed for a 3-to-5 year time period Focuses on project definition, selection, and prioritization T HE O PERATIONAL IS P LAN The Long-Term Operational IS Plan
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-52 T HE O PERATIONAL IS P LAN The Long-Term Operational IS Plan Table 21.8 IS Long-Range Operational Plan Project Portfolio
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-53 T HE O PERATIONAL IS P LAN Table 21.9 Sample 2004 Operational IS Plan
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-54 T HE O PERATIONAL IS P LAN The Short-Term Operational IS Plan Developed for a 1-year time period Focuses on specific tasks to be completed on projects that are currently underway or ready to be started
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-55 Early clarification of the purpose of the planning process Planning effort should be iterative Plan should reflect realistic expectations Process of setting expectations should involve business management Plans should integrate all applications of IT Plan will take into consideration the barriers and constraints facing all organizations G UIDELINES FOR E FFECTIVE P LANNING
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-56 Better IS resource allocation Communicating with top management Helping vendors Creating a context for decisions Achieving integration and decentralization Evaluating options Meeting expectations of management B ENEFITS OF I NFORMATION R ESOURCES P LANNING
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-57 Active participation Accept most of responsibility for identifying specific projects that contribute to vision Stay involved in planning and system development activities Regularly provide feedback and necessary input R OLES IN THE I NFORMATION R ESOURCES P LANNING P ROCESS Role of the Business Manager
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-58 R OLES IN THE I NFORMATION R ESOURCES P LANNING P ROCESS Role of the IS Professional Act more in consulting and planning role Help business managers understand how their ideas for competitive advantage can get built into a new information system Create a project plan Combine technical and organizational skills
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-59 Managerial Issues Sustaining competitive advantage. Importance. Organizing for planning. Fitting the IT architecture to the organization. IT architecture planning. IT policy. Ethical and legal issues. IT strategy.
Fakultas Ilmu Komputer Modul-21-60 Review Q Explain how IT can contribute to strategic objectives and competitive advantage. Assess potential impacts of IT using several frameworks Explain the value and challenges of aligning business and IT strategies. Describe the importance of IT planning and methodologies to facilitate it. Discuss factors to be considered to optimize that allocation of an organization’s IT resources. Identify and describe how to build strong relationships between information systems department and business units.