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Bouillons and Broths  Stock-like preparations that are made with a larger proportion of meat than bone and a greater variety of vegetables than stocks.

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Presentation on theme: "Bouillons and Broths  Stock-like preparations that are made with a larger proportion of meat than bone and a greater variety of vegetables than stocks."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bouillons and Broths  Stock-like preparations that are made with a larger proportion of meat than bone and a greater variety of vegetables than stocks  Are clearer and contain less gelatin due to lack of bones  Classically reserved for soup preparation  However, many restaurants use stocks because bouillons and broths are more expensive

2 Vegetable Stock  Technically, they are not true stock but they are not made from bones  Can be prepared in endless ways because they are so many different types of vegetables  For white stocks vegetables are raw; for brown stocks are roasted  Differ from meat-based stocks in that vegetables have no gelatin  So stocks lack mouthfeel and do not solidify when chilled

3 Bases  Concentrated instant powder or paste that dissolves in hot water to make a stock-like liquid  Saves stove space  Takes much less time to make- lower labor cost and free cooks up to do other tasks  Don’t have the same taste as stock from scratch  Contains a lot of salt  Vary considerably in quality  Ones that require refrigeration are better  Bases that list salt, sugar, and fat as main ingredients are lower in quality

4 White StockVegetable StockBroth/BouillonBrown Stock Water Bouquet garni and/or sachet Possibly tomato product Brown mirepoix Raw or blanched bones White wine for fish stock only Possibly wine Meat with a smaller amount of bones Browned bones Raw or sweated white mirepoix Raw, sweated, or browned mirepoix, plus additional vegetables Tomato product

5 Sauces Chapter 24 Pages 387-401

6 Objectives  Explain the role of sauces.  Compare thickening agents and how to use them.  Understand the classic system of mother sauces and derivative sauces.  Recall several nontraditional sauces.

7 Terminology  Sauce  Nappé  Roux  Slurry  Whitewash  Beurre manié  Coulis  Curdle  Tempering  Liaison  Mother sauces  Derivative sauces  Béchamel sauce  Onion piqué  Velouté sauce  Jus lié  Espangnole sauce  Demi-glace sauce  Hollandaise sauce  Homogeneous

8 Sauces  Along with stocks, sauces are considered one of the building blocks of the culinary arts  Thickened liquids that complement other foods  Thousands of sauces and even more ways they can be paired with other foods

9 Quick History of Sauces  Can be traced back at least 2,000 years to the Romans  They were not what we think of today- more intensely flavored used more like a condiment garum  Often flavored with numerous spices and garum  a fermented fish liquid  Middle Ages  Not only strongly flavored but also heavily thickened with bread crumbs  Today  Thinner  Designed not to overpower but to complement

10 Roles of Sauces  All perform at least one of the following roles:  Improve the appearance of food by adding color and shine.  Contribute flavors that complement or accent the flavors of a particular dish.  Add moisture to keep the dish from tasting dry and unappetizing.  Add richness, especially if the sauce is high in fat.  Add visual appeal to a simple center of the plate item and command a higher value on the menu.

11 Thickening Sauces nappé  Traditionally thickened to nappé consistency  A sauce is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon  Use starch to thicken either with a roux, slurry, or beurre manié  Or can be thickened by reduction, puréeing, adding egg yolks, or emulsion

12 Starch  Carbohydrates  Flour, cornstarch, and arrowroot  Starches are combined with hot liquid and they absorb the liquid  The liquid must come to a full boil if it does not the full potential is not attained  making the temptation to add more starch to the liquid  the liquid will be over thickened and taste like the starch

13 Commonly Used Starches  Cornstarch  Inexpensive and produces a glossy sauce  Sauces thickened with cornstarch become thinner the longer they are held hot  Arrowroot  Similar to cornstarch, derived from a tropical root  Expensive and produces a glossy sauce  It will not lose its thickening abilities if held hot  The best choice if a thickened product is to be frozen for later use  Flour  Not a pure starch so it does not produce the same glossy finish  A slurry is made with flour called whitewash- used to make American- style gravies

14 Roux  A mixture of equal parts flour and fat by weight that is cooked to varying degrees of doneness and used to thicken liquids  Cooking the starch and fat together allows the fat to coat the starch  the coated starch then distributes evenly in the hot liquid and prevents lumps  Cooking process accomplishes 2 objectives  It removes the taste of the raw starch  Adds additional flavor depending on how long the roux is cooked  3 types of roux  Each has the same proportions of fat and flour  Only difference is the length of time it is cooked

15 3 Types of Roux  White  Cooked until the raw flour taste disappears  3-5 minutes  Blond  Cooked until the color turns an even straw color  10 minutes  Brown  20-30  Some chefs make it in a 300°F oven to keep from scorching  When using roux to make a sauce a cool roux is added to hot liquid  Reduces the possibility of lumps

16 Slurry  Mixture of cold liquid and starch  Must be mixed well so the starch is evenly distributed in the liquid to avoid lumps  To thicken, the slurry is slowly poured into a boiling liquid while whisking constantly  Thicken very quickly  Liquids must be stirred as the slurry is added to avoid lumps of starch from forming  Lumps are not lonely ugly but they are unable to thicken the sauce

17 Beurre Manié: Mixture of softened whole butter and flour  Used to thicken sauces and stews at the last minute  Unlike a roux, the longer its in the liquid, the more pronounced the flavor of raw flour will be  Unless last minute, a roux is preferred over beurre manié

18 Reduction  Not only a way to concentrate flavor but is always a way to thicken some liquids  Accomplished by boiling a sauce to evaporate some of the water  As the water evaporates other ingredients become concentrated  Gelatin is one of those  Expensive to make since they cook for long periods of time and the volume is greatly reduced  Chefs speak of reducing a liquid by a certain fraction or percentage  If they reduce a gallon of sauce by 3/4s there is 1 quart of sauce left

19 Purée  Another way to thicken a liquid is to add finely ground solids to them  Many different puréed fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts can be used  A sauce made from puréed fruits or vegetables is called a coulis

20 Egg Yolk  Thickening sauces with egg yolks require practice  If egg yolks are added directly to a hot sauce, they will likely curdle  When either milk or egg mixtures curdle, the liquid and solid portions separate from each other  To avoid curdling, egg yolks are mixed with a small amount of chilled cream before being added to a sauce  A small amount of the hot liquid is then added to the yolk and cream mixture  This mixture is added back into the larger amount of hot liquid  This method of gradually warming the temperature of the yolks is referred to as tempering

21 Egg Yolk--- Liaison  The yolk and cream mixture that is used to thicken liquids is called a liaison  Once the yolk mixture is added to the liquid, the sauce is slowly cooked while stirring constantly  The sauce will thicken between 160° and 179°F  If the mixture is heated much above 180°F the egg yolk curdle and the sauce thins out  The only time an egg yolk thickened sauce can be heated above 180°F without curdling is if the sauce has previously been thickened with a starch

22 Emulsion is homogeneous, or uniform throughout  An emulsion is a mixture of fat and water that is homogeneous, or uniform throughout  Normally, fat and water do not remain mixed, but separate back into fat and water  Properly made emulsions will thicken a sauce  Important to pay close attention to the following:  Maintain the recommended temperature ranges  Use natural emulsifiers such as those found in egg yolks or mustard to create and hold the emulsion together  Add the fat portion slowly to the water portion of the emulsion while stirring constantly

23 Bread  One of the oldest and most rustic ingredients used to thicken sauces  Toasted or untoasted bread crumbs can be added to a sauce  Rarely used today because they produce a somewhat pasty texture

24 Mother vs. Derivative Sauces  In the early 1900s French chefs created a system of sauces- as a result many of the sauces have French names  Consists of five mother sauces from which a large number of derivative sauces are produced  System was developed to save time  Large batches of mother sauces are made in advance, then the chef can quickly make many derivative sauces as needed  Mother sauces  Are the base sauces from which other sauces are quickly made  White sauce (béchamel sauce)  Velouté sauce  Brown sauce (demi-glace sauce)  Tomato sauce  Hollandaise sauce  Derivative sauce  A sauce that is made from a mother sauce


26 White Sauce  Consists of milk thickened with a white roux and flavored with onion, bay leaf, and a small amount of nutmeg  Classically called béchamel sauce  Used as ingredient in many other preparations such as casseroles  Derivatives  Served with vegetables, poultry, veal, and fish dishes  Cheddar  Créme  Soubise  Mornay

27 Velouté  Means “velvety”  A mother sauce made by thickening a white stock with a blond roux  Finished sauce should have an attractive beige appearance  Stock is the principal ingredient so the stock must be well flavored and free from any defects  Derivative sauces

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