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11 OVC Programme Effort Index 2007: Progress since 2004 Douglas Webb, Richard Matikanya UNICEF Regional Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and AIDS Conference,

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Presentation on theme: "11 OVC Programme Effort Index 2007: Progress since 2004 Douglas Webb, Richard Matikanya UNICEF Regional Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and AIDS Conference,"— Presentation transcript:

1 11 OVC Programme Effort Index 2007: Progress since 2004 Douglas Webb, Richard Matikanya UNICEF Regional Inter-Agency Task Team on Children and AIDS Conference, September 2008

2 21 OVC Support in southern Africa

3 31 The Programme Effort Index (PEI) Developed to measure the current response by countries in sub-Saharan Africa to the crisis facing OVC First conducted in 2004 Specifically designed to assess how countries are progressing with the national infrastructure to underpin the Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of OVC living in a world of HIV and AIDS (2004) UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (2001) Reporting requirement Overall 35/40 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa completed the questionnaire

4 41 The Index Questionnaire: 8 components ComponentThe questions related to this component explore National Situation AnalysisWhether country has investigated the situation of OVC made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS &, if so, the nature of that research. Consultative processExtent to which key stakeholders are involved in planning interventions for OVC made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS. Coordinating mechanismWhether action for OVC made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS is being coordinated and the nature of that coordination National Action PlansWhether country has a national plan of action for OVC made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS, and the nature of that plan PolicyWhether country has a policy on OVC made vulnerable by HIV & AIDS and the nature of that policy Legislative reviewWhether country has reviewed & updated the legal framework relating to OVC made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS Monitoring & evaluationWhether M&E is being conducted nationally into the situation of OVC and into programmes addressing their needs ResourcesAvailability of resources to meet needs of OVC in the country

5 51 Preliminary findings: Interpretation of scores OVC index scores are based on responses that are a mixture of fact and judgement: scores do not provide a truly objective measure of effort that can be used to rank countries precisely. The OVC Effort Index scores represent a self- assessment, useful for examining countries’ own level and profile of effort and deciding where increased efforts are needed. The index is intended to measure programme effort independent of programme outputs.

6 61 Overall findings In 2007, the overall effort index score for Sub- Saharan Africa is 59%; an improvement of 10% on the score of 2004 The countries in Southern Africa have on average the highest score with 69% closely followed by the countries in East Africa with 64%

7 71 Overall score: trends

8 81 Distribution of countries by total index score

9 91 East Africa

10 101 East Africa Marginal improvement in regional average from 63% in 2004 to 64% in 2007

11 111 Southern Africa

12 121 Southern Africa Overall improvement in regional average from 54% in 2004 to 69% in 2007

13 131 Index scores by component

14 141 Ranking of components from overall highest average score to lowest National situation analysis National Action planning Consultative process Coordination mechanism Policy Monitoring and evaluation Resources Legislative review

15 151 Progress in the implementation of national situation analysis

16 161 National situation analysis All countries excluding Guinea Bissau had completed situation analysis by end of 2007 Strengths: countries have a clearer and more robust picture of the situation of OVC made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS and almost all report that the analysis produced specific recommendations for action. There is movement away from narrow assessments that focus on OVC affected by HIV to inclusive assessments that focus on all (vulnerable) children Challenges: Many of the national situation analyses that inform existing programming have not been recently updated, but intentions exist to update them. Rigour is essential.

17 171 Progress in developing a national plan of action for OVC,

18 181 National action planning 16 countries in ESAR have national action plans specifically focused on OVC Strengths: Planning for children recognised as important. Move to second generation national plans that are inclusive of all children. Almost all have integrated OVC in national AIDS strategic frameworks and plans and social protection strategies where these are in place. Challenges: Limited integration into national development plans/PRSPs. NPAs not synchronised with government funding & planning cycles. In addition, a number of the plans developed have limitations (not strategic, not sufficiently detailed, not evidence based due to limited strategic information, not prioritised, not costed & do not provide clear guidance on roles and responsibilities of stakeholders)

19 191 Progress in involving key stakeholders in national response for OVC,

20 201 Consultative process A significant majority of countries report having held national meeting to formally discuss situation of children recently Strengths: In general these meetings included senior representatives from a range of stakeholders and have led to the establishment of formal structures that meet regularly Challenges: These national consultative meetings do not happen as often as countries would require, plus stakeholder involvement is seen as between poor and fair

21 211 Progress in establishing a mechanism to coordinate the national response

22 221 Coordination mechanisms Almost all countries report that bodies have been formally established to coordinate national action for OVC, led by government with multisectoral representation Strengths: Improved coordination of national action for OVC with coordinating mechanisms that have clear terms of reference and engagement. Some countries have established coordination mechanisms headed within powerful government departments or ministries enabling high level coordination e.g. Kenya and Namibia Challenges: Coordination mechanisms do not generally meet regularly, have limited institutional capacity of coordinating authorities to guide and coordinate national responses for children, including alignment of partners, as well as overall managerial capacity. Coordinating mechanisms tend to be underfunded

23 231 Policy Generally countries have either adopted specific policies on OVC or have adopted inclusive policies on all children Strengths: policy frameworks exist that are supportive of implementation of programming for children Challenges: Majority of national policies are outdated and have not been updated. As a result, many do not reflect new developments and evidence based approaches. Several are still in draft form and have stalled at draft stage or are yet to be approved by government.

24 241 Progress in reviewing and updating the legal framework related to OVC

25 251 Legislative review Generally, very few countries have enacted specific legislation on OVC. Majority feel that existing legislation is sufficient. Strengths: Move to inclusive legislation and integration of children’s issues into existing legislation or upcoming legislation. Mechanisms to enforce laws e.g. Child protection units within police services and community based child protection mechanisms have been established Challenges: Much of the legislation is in form of bills that have yet to be enacted by parliament. Very few countries have established enforcement mechanisms and where they do exist, all countries report that they are not sufficiently resourced to effectively carry out their functions.

26 261 Progress in conducting monitoring and evaluation of the national response to OVC

27 271 Monitoring and evaluation Strengths: Almost all countries have nationally agreed definition of orphans and are collecting either through DHS, MICS or AIDS Indicator Surveys. In addition, some M&E frameworks have been developed Challenges: – Many M&E programmes are insufficiently staffed, lack specific technical expertise to identify and aggregate available data and adequately coordinate and manage new data collection among multiple partners. – Most importantly, there is a lack of capacity to synthesize the information that is collected for strategic decision making and accountability. – Systems for dissemination of such strategic information are not developed and in many cases non-existent. – 100% of the countries note that the organization mandated to conduct national M&E for OVC does not have the resources required to enable it to do so effectively. – 80% of countries do not have estimates of coverage data

28 281 Progress in resource mobilization for the national response to OVC

29 291 Resources Strengths: NAPs have been used to mobilize resources in several countries, however far more is needed. In addition, as a result of the Global Fund, PEPFAR, MAP and large bilateral and multilateral funding, there are significantly more resources available to support responses for OVC Challenges: – Low levels of government funding as manifested in the fact that OVC are not programmed in the national budget or MTEF. – No Resource tracking systems are in place. – Many of the national plans of action are not adequately costed or prioritised. – Absorption capacity (for both government and civil society) has also been regularly cited as a challenge. – 65% of countries feel that while their governments are committed to responding to OVC, given the numerous developmental challenges faced, prioritising resources for children is ‘difficult’

30 301 Conclusions 1.Overall but uneven progress since Greatest improvements between 2004 and 2007 are national situation analyses, consultative processes, coordination mechanisms and national action planning 3.Need for more effective coordination mechanisms at national and sub-national levels

31 311 Conclusions 4. National action plans must be prioritised, results focused, evidence based and accurately costed. 5. There has been limited progress in enforcing legislation that protects children. 6. Greater efforts are made to resource and strengthen national monitoring and evaluation systems.

32 321 National Responses for Children Affected by AIDS: Review of Progress and Lessons Learned Inter Agency Task Team on Children HIV & AIDS Working Group on National Plans of Action

33 331 Progress in East & Southern Africa Most NPAs (16) developed through the RAAAP process Strong flow of donor resources but limited government funds for NPA implementation Not just targeting children affected by AIDS but orphans and vulnerable children due to all causes: –Targeting on basis of orphanhood is not robust for identifying vulnerability –Most children affected by AIDS, so targeting on vulnerability rather than AIDS-specific criteria more effective –Targeting on AIDS-specific criteria risks increasing stigma against children affected by AIDS Increasingly governments and donors focusing on social protection and cash transfers to households with vulnerable children

34 341 Headline findings - High level government ownership and political will e.g. Namibia, Malawi - Availability of resources e.g. PEPFAR and GFATM -Involvement of non-governmental organizations in programming e.g. Zimbabwe & advocacy e.g. South Africa -Integration of vulnerable children into national policies, particularly PRSPs, has made little difference in reality re: domestic budget contributions, sectoral coordination and weak operational capacity - Integration into sectors, especially national AIDS instruments (NSFs), have brought clear short-term benefits for vulnerable children i.e. external funds. Education, health & social protection more varied in country & over time -Off-budget resources can challenge long-term national ownership and need greater alignment and phased handing- over

35 351 Headline findings -General agreement that MSWs are under-funded, under-staffed and politically weak. -Multi-sectoral coordination and budget allocation may be better when coordination rests above line ministries e.g. PM’s office -Limited data on national scale-up of NPAs, but indications of large scale activity in many countries in Africa e.g. cash transfers (Malawi) neighbourhood care points (Swaziland), nutrition interventions, PSS (Namibia), community justice education (Tanzania) -M&E hampered by variation between global, national & local definitions of target group - multiple data requirements for different sectors & donors -Few NPAs deal with stigma and discrimination

36 361 Recommendations 1.The IATT and other global and regional stakeholders should provide countries with more contextualized guidance on national responses for children affected by AIDS and other vulnerable children 2.Countries and their partners need to build the capacity of national social welfare and justice systems to protect all children 3.Global, regional and country level stakeholders must strengthen all aspects of monitoring and evaluation for national responses to children affected by AIDS and other vulnerable children 4.National, regional and global stakeholders should increase effort and resources to reduce HIV-related stigma and discrimination, which persist as significant barriers in most countries.

37 371 East and Southern Africa Regional Status Report:

38 381 Overall opportunities and challenges to scaling up universal access for prevention, treatment, care and support for children affected by AIDS Strengths: Increasing child participation Increasing awareness of the importance of monitoring and evaluation in effectively and efficiently programming and planning for children; Increasing awareness of the effectiveness of an integrated approach (government, civil society and faith based organizations, the private sector and development partners) Challenges: Food insecurity; Political instability and / or conflict; National and household poverty: government can’t provide services and people can’t access services; Magnitude of the HIV pandemic and the increasing number of orphans; Lack of coordination between the national and district levels, primarily due to the lack of resources; Lack of awareness of the value of strong civil (death) registration systems in planning and protecting children.


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