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“The power of Rhetoric”

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1 “The power of Rhetoric”
Contact: EMMA REYES REYES Ph-D Applied Physics Department University of Cadiz “This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein."


3 Outlines INTRODUCTION What is “Rhetoric”? The power of “Rhetoric”
The use of “Rhetoric” for Stakeholders BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Content: Information to be included Format: Information design GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATION 10 Simples Rules for making a good oral presentation (Philip E. Bourne) Good and Bad practices POSTER PRESENTATIONS How to design a poster? How to present a poster?

4 The five canons of Rhetoric
What is “rhetoric”? Rhetoric: the intentional use of language to influence an audience Parts and functions of Rhetoric: Invention: To discover the available means of persuasion. Arrangement: To select and assemble the argument effectively. Style: To present the argument cogently and eloquently. Memory: To speak extemporaneously. Delivery: To effectively use voice, gestures, text, and images. The five canons of Rhetoric INTRODUCTION

5 Four Factors in a Rhetorical context
What is “rhetoric”? Every rhetorical act, every use of language, occurs within a rhetorical context, which includes at least 4 elements: Aim: Why are you speaking or writing? Subject: What is your message about? Audience: To whom are you speaking or writing? . Medium: How will your message be delivered or received? Four Factors in a Rhetorical context INTRODUCTION

6 The Three Rhetorical Appeals to the audience
The power of “rhetoric” Within the rhetorical context, we, as speakers and writers, make three types of appeals to our audience: AIM SUBJECT AUDIENCE MEDIUM Ethos Pathos Logos The Three Rhetorical Appeals to the audience INTRODUCTION

7 sharing and consultation
The use of “rhetoric” for Stakeholders Stakeholder engagement is about building and maintaining constructive relationships over time. PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS COMPANY Partnerships Information sharing and consultation Participation Negotiation Key principles for stakeholder’s engagement INTRODUCTION

8 The use of “rhetoric” for Stakeholders
Reporting back Providing meaningful information in advance Respect for local traditions Two way dialogue Disseminating information NO Intimidation NO coercion Diemination information STAKEHOLDERS COMPANY Inclusiveness in representation Clear mechanisms Feedback Key principles of effective engagement INTRODUCTION

Content: Information to be included 1.- Title/author/affiliation (1 slide) 2.- Forecast (1 slide): the gist problem “Abstract” 3.- Outline (1 slide): the talk structure 4.- Background Motivation and Problem Statement (1-2 Slides) Related Work (0-1 Slides) Method (1 slide) 5.- Results (4-6 slides) 6.- Summary (1 slide) 7.- Future Work (0-1 slides) 8.- Backup Slides (0-3 slides): for expected questions 9. - Set out your contact details BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Format: Information design Make it Big Make your presentations easy to read! The title should have the biggest font size The rest of the text should be bigger than 18 font size Keep it simple Without many colours and without many FONTS and Styles The rule 6 x 7: Not more than 6 lines/slide Not more than 7 words/slide BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Format: Information design Make it clear Serif and Italics fonts are difficult to read Sanserif, normal or bold fonts are clearer Underlines = hyperlinks Use colours to emphasize DO NOT USE CAPITAL LETTERS Mix case is much easier to read Numbers = sequence Bullets = show a list without priority, sequence, hierarchy Increase the contrast Use graphs and images Dark on light Light on dark Complement colours BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Format: Information design Make it progressive and focused Use animations (appear and disappear options) Be consistent Differences draw attention Differences may imply importance Use surprises to attract, not distract And finally Communication the key Text support communication Pictures simplify complex concepts Animations for complex relationships Visuals support, not distract BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Rules for making an oral presentation An excellent oral presentation does not require a brilliant orator - you can do it. Talk to the audience Less is more Only talk when you have something to say Make the Take-Home message persistent Be logical Treat the floor as a Stage Practice and time your presentation Use visuals sparingly but effectively Review audio and/or video of your presentations Provide appropriate acknowledgments Practice, practice …. and practice again and again GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS

Good and Bad practices Do it Expectation shapes reality Be convincing, dynamic, enthusiastic Make a dramatic opening with the very first words Move around a little Look at people Use a laser or stick (keeps one hand busy) Speak clear and loud Ask question, provide answers Be self confident BUT humble Respect time constraints imposed by the exercise Do not do it Never admit to feeling anxious, unsure or unwell. Do not add many dramatic effects. Do not give a monotonous speech. Do not ask a question that invites a cynical answer from your audience Do not put hands into pockets Never turn your back to the audience Do not spend your time with uninteresting material. Never be arrogant GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS

15 How to design a poster? An effective poster is simple
It focused on a single message It avoids saturating the viewer with text It does not tell, it shows: graphics dominate. It uses a visual hierarchy for emphasis. FOCUSED SIMPLE GRAPHIC ORDERED POSTER PRESENTATIONS

16 Title makes a strong statement
How to design a poster? Work place, institution’s logo and web site TITLE (the biggest) Title makes a strong statement Authors Something important (big) Fig X: Small Summary states results Context (big) Explanations (medium) Fig X: Small 1.Take-home 2. Result 3. Result 4.Result 5.Result 6.Summary Conclusions We Acknowledge Conclusions interpret results POSTER PRESENTATIONS

17 How to present a poster? For the 7 second Scientist walking by:
have an informative title. have one central picture or sketch illustrative of your work. For the 30 seconds Scientist walking by: put the conclusions at the top. use few words. use large fonts. use simple graphics. organize the information in a logical way. use narrow columns (for speed reading). POSTER PRESENTATIONS

18 How to present a poster? For the 2 minutes Scientist fully stopping:
prepare a 30 seconds talk include some technical. details on methods. include most important results. include references. let the person go. For the “I will read it later” Scientist: print small versions of your poster. put prints of associated papers. POSTER PRESENTATIONS

19 Acknowledgements This case study has been prepared using the notes from the lecture by Veronique Garçon and Baris Salihoglu from LEGOS-CNRS, France, during 2006 Euro-Oceans summer school, modified from the original version by Corinne Le Quéré and Eric Saltzman, during 2005 SOLAS summer school. I wish to thank all those who have posted valuable information on the web and who make science accessible by teachers, students, and anybody.

20 Thank you very much for your attention!!!

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