Presentation on theme: "“The power of Rhetoric”"— Presentation transcript:
1 “The power of Rhetoric” Contact:EMMA REYES REYESPh-D Applied Physics DepartmentUniversity of Cadiz“This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made ofthe information contained therein."
3 Outlines INTRODUCTION What is “Rhetoric”? The power of “Rhetoric” The use of “Rhetoric” for StakeholdersBASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONSContent: Information to be includedFormat: Information designGIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATION10 Simples Rules for making a good oral presentation (Philip E. Bourne)Good and Bad practicesPOSTER PRESENTATIONSHow to design a poster?How to present a poster?
4 The five canons of Rhetoric What is “rhetoric”?Rhetoric: the intentional use of language to influence an audienceParts and functions of Rhetoric:Invention: To discover the available means of persuasion.Arrangement: To select and assemble the argument effectively.Style: To present the argument cogently and eloquently.Memory: To speak extemporaneously.Delivery: To effectively use voice, gestures, text, and images.The five canons of RhetoricINTRODUCTION
5 Four Factors in a Rhetorical context What is “rhetoric”?Every rhetorical act, every use of language, occurs within a rhetorical context, which includes at least 4 elements:Aim: Why are you speaking or writing?Subject: What is your message about?Audience: To whom are you speaking or writing? .Medium: How will your message be delivered or received?Four Factors in a Rhetorical contextINTRODUCTION
6 The Three Rhetorical Appeals to the audience The power of “rhetoric”Within the rhetorical context, we, as speakers and writers, make three types of appeals to our audience:AIMSUBJECTAUDIENCEMEDIUMEthosPathosLogosThe Three Rhetorical Appeals to the audienceINTRODUCTION
7 sharing and consultation The use of “rhetoric” for StakeholdersStakeholder engagement isabout building and maintaining constructive relationshipsover time.PROJECTSTAKEHOLDERSCOMPANYPartnershipsInformationsharing and consultationParticipationNegotiationKey principles for stakeholder’s engagementINTRODUCTION
8 The use of “rhetoric” for Stakeholders Reporting backProviding meaningful information in advanceRespect for local traditionsTwo way dialogueDisseminating informationNO IntimidationNO coercionDiemination informationSTAKEHOLDERSCOMPANYInclusiveness in representationClear mechanismsFeedbackKey principles of effective engagementINTRODUCTION
9 BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Content: Information to be included1.- Title/author/affiliation (1 slide)2.- Forecast (1 slide): the gist problem “Abstract”3.- Outline (1 slide): the talk structure4.- BackgroundMotivation and Problem Statement (1-2 Slides)Related Work (0-1 Slides)Method (1 slide)5.- Results (4-6 slides)6.- Summary (1 slide)7.- Future Work (0-1 slides)8.- Backup Slides (0-3 slides): for expected questions9. - Set out your contact detailsBASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
10 BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Format: Information designMake it BigMake your presentations easy to read!The title should have the biggest font sizeThe rest of the text should be bigger than 18 font sizeKeep it simpleWithout many colours and without many FONTS and StylesThe rule 6 x 7:Not more than 6 lines/slideNot more than 7 words/slideBASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
11 BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Format: Information designMake it clearSerif and Italics fonts are difficult to readSanserif, normal or bold fonts are clearerUnderlines = hyperlinksUse colours to emphasizeDO NOT USE CAPITAL LETTERSMix case is much easier to readNumbers = sequenceBullets = show a list without priority, sequence, hierarchyIncrease the contrastUse graphs and imagesDark on lightLight on darkComplement coloursBASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
12 BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Format: Information designMake it progressive and focusedUse animations (appear and disappear options)Be consistentDifferences draw attentionDifferences may imply importanceUse surprises to attract, not distractAnd finallyCommunication the keyText support communicationPictures simplify complex conceptsAnimations for complex relationshipsVisuals support, not distractBASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
13 GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS Rules for making an oral presentationAn excellent oral presentation does not require a brilliant orator - you can do it.Talk to the audienceLess is moreOnly talk when you have something to sayMake the Take-Home message persistentBe logicalTreat the floor as a StagePractice and time your presentationUse visuals sparingly but effectivelyReview audio and/or video of your presentationsProvide appropriate acknowledgmentsPractice, practice …. and practice again and againGIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS
14 GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS Good and Bad practicesDo itExpectation shapes realityBe convincing, dynamic, enthusiasticMake a dramatic opening with the very first wordsMove around a littleLook at peopleUse a laser or stick (keeps one hand busy)Speak clear and loudAsk question, provide answersBe self confident BUT humbleRespect time constraints imposed by the exerciseDo not do itNever admit to feeling anxious, unsure or unwell.Do not add many dramatic effects.Do not give a monotonous speech.Do not ask a question that invites a cynical answer from your audienceDo not put hands into pocketsNever turn your back to the audienceDo not spend your time with uninteresting material.Never be arrogantGIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS
15 How to design a poster? An effective poster is simple It focused on a single messageIt avoids saturating the viewer with textIt does not tell, it shows: graphics dominate.It uses a visual hierarchy for emphasis.FOCUSEDSIMPLEGRAPHICORDEREDPOSTER PRESENTATIONS
16 Title makes a strong statement How to design a poster?Work place,institution’slogo andweb siteTITLE (the biggest)Title makes a strong statementAuthorsSomething important (big)Fig X: SmallSummarystates resultsContext (big)Explanations (medium)Fig X: Small1.Take-home2. Result3. Result4.Result5.Result6.SummaryConclusionsWe AcknowledgeConclusions interpret resultsPOSTER PRESENTATIONS
17 How to present a poster? For the 7 second Scientist walking by: have an informative title.have one central picture or sketch illustrative of your work.For the 30 seconds Scientist walking by:put the conclusions at the top.use few words.use large fonts.use simple graphics.organize the information in a logical way.use narrow columns (for speed reading).POSTER PRESENTATIONS
18 How to present a poster? For the 2 minutes Scientist fully stopping: prepare a 30 seconds talkinclude some technical. details on methods.include most important results.include references.let the person go.For the “I will read it later” Scientist:print small versions of your poster.put prints of associated papers.POSTER PRESENTATIONS
19 AcknowledgementsThis case study has been prepared using the notes from the lecture by Veronique Garçon and Baris Salihoglu from LEGOS-CNRS, France, during 2006 Euro-Oceans summer school, modified from the original version by Corinne Le Quéré and Eric Saltzman, during 2005 SOLAS summer school.I wish to thank all those who have posted valuable information on the web and who make science accessible by teachers, students, and anybody.