Presentation on theme: "“The power of Rhetoric” Contact: EMMA REYES REYES Ph-D Applied Physics Department University of Cadiz Contact: EMMA REYES REYES."— Presentation transcript:
“The power of Rhetoric” Contact: EMMA REYES REYES Ph-D Applied Physics Department University of Cadiz Contact: EMMA REYES REYES Ph-D Applied Physics Department University of Cadiz “This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein."
Outlines INTRODUCTION –What is “Rhetoric”? –The power of “Rhetoric” –The use of “Rhetoric” for Stakeholders BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS –Content: Information to be included –Format: Information design GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATION –10 Simples Rules for making a good oral presentation (Philip E. Bourne) –Good and Bad practices POSTER PRESENTATIONS –How to design a poster? –How to present a poster?
Rhetoric: the intentional use of language to influence an audience Parts and functions of Rhetoric: What is “rhetoric”? INTRODUCTION Invention: To discover the available means of persuasion. Arrangement: To select and assemble the argument effectively. Style: To present the argument cogently and eloquently. Memory: To speak extemporaneously. Delivery: To effectively use voice, gestures, text, and images. The five canons of Rhetoric
What is “rhetoric”? INTRODUCTION Every rhetorical act, every use of language, occurs within a rhetorical context, which includes at least 4 elements: Aim: Why are you speaking or writing? Subject: What is your message about? Audience: To whom are you speaking or writing?. Medium: How will your message be delivered or received? Four Factors in a Rhetorical context
The power of “rhetoric” The Three Rhetorical Appeals to the audience INTRODUCTION AIM SUBJECT AUDIENCE MEDIUM Ethos PathosLogos Within the rhetorical context, we, as speakers and writers, make three types of appeals to our audience:
The use of “rhetoric” for Stakeholders INTRODUCTION PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS COMPANY Partnerships Information sharing and consultation Participation Negotiation Key principles for stakeholder’s engagement Stakeholder engagement is about building and maintaining constructive relationships over time.
The use of “rhetoric” for Stakeholders INTRODUCTION Key principles of effective engagement STAKEHOLDERS COMPANY Providing meaningful information in advance Diemination information Respect for local traditions Two way dialogue Feedback Reporting back NO Intimidation NO coercion Inclusiveness in representation Clear mechanisms Disseminating information
Content: Information to be included BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS 1.- Title/author/affiliation (1 slide) 2.- Forecast (1 slide): the gist problem “Abstract” 3.- Outline (1 slide): the talk structure 5.- Results (4-6 slides) 6.- Summary (1 slide) 7.- Future Work (0-1 slides) 8.- Backup Slides (0-3 slides): for expected questions 9. - Set out your contact details 4.- Background Motivation and Problem Statement (1-2 Slides) Related Work (0-1 Slides) Method (1 slide)
Format: Information design BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Make it Big Make your presentations easy to read! The title should have the biggest font size The rest of the text should be bigger than 18 font size Keep it simple Without many colours and without many FONTS and Styles The rule 6 x 7: Not more than 6 lines/slide Not more than 7 words/slide
Format: Information design BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Make it clear Serif and Italics fonts are difficult to read Sanserif, normal or bold fonts are clearer Underlines = hyperlinks Use colours to emphasize DO NOT USE CAPITAL LETTERS Mix case is much easier to read Numbers = sequence Bullets = show a list without priority, sequence, hierarchy Increase the contrast Use graphs and images Dark on lightLight on darkComplement colours
Format: Information design BASICS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Make it progressive and focused Use animations (appear and disappear options) Be consistent Differences draw attention Differences may imply importance Use surprises to attract, not distract And finally Communication the key Text support communication Pictures simplify complex concepts Animations for complex relationships Visuals support, not distract
Rules for making an oral presentation An excellent oral presentation does not require a brilliant orator - you can do it. Talk to the audience Less is more Only talk when you have something to say Make the Take-Home message persistent Be logical Treat the floor as a Stage Practice and time your presentation Use visuals sparingly but effectively Review audio and/or video of your presentations Provide appropriate acknowledgments Practice, practice …. and practice again and again GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Good and Bad practices GIVING AN ORAL PRESENTATIONS Do not do it Never admit to feeling anxious, unsure or unwell. Do not add many dramatic effects. Do not give a monotonous speech. Do not ask a question that invites a cynical answer from your audience Do not put hands into pockets Never turn your back to the audience Do not spend your time with uninteresting material. Never be arrogant Do it Expectation shapes reality Be convincing, dynamic, enthusiastic Make a dramatic opening with the very first words Move around a little Look at people Use a laser or stick (keeps one hand busy) Speak clear and loud Ask question, provide answers Be self confident BUT humble Respect time constraints imposed by the exercise
POSTER PRESENTATIONS FOCUSED SIMPLE GRAPHIC ORDERED An effective poster is simple – It focused on a single message – It avoids saturating the viewer with text – It does not tell, it shows: graphics dominate. – It uses a visual hierarchy for emphasis. How to design a poster?
POSTER PRESENTATIONS Conclusion s interpret results Summary states results Something important (big) Fig X: Small Work place, institution’s logo and web site TITLE (the biggest) Title makes a strong statement Authors Context (big) Explanations (medium) Fig X: Small 1.Take- home 2. Result 3. Result 4.Result 5.Result 6.Summary Conclusions We Acknowledge
How to present a poster? For the 7 second Scientist walking by: have an informative title. have one central picture or sketch illustrative of your work. For the 30 seconds Scientist walking by: put the conclusions at the top. use few words. use large fonts. use simple graphics. organize the information in a logical way. use narrow columns (for speed reading). POSTER PRESENTATIONS
How to present a poster? For the 2 minutes Scientist fully stopping: prepare a 30 seconds talk include some technical. details on methods. include most important results. include references. let the person go. For the “I will read it later” Scientist: print small versions of your poster. put prints of associated papers. POSTER PRESENTATIONS
Acknowledgements This case study has been prepared using the notes from the lecture by Veronique Garçon and Baris Salihoglu from LEGOS-CNRS, France, during 2006 Euro-Oceans summer school, modified from the original version by Corinne Le Quéré and Eric Saltzman, during 2005 SOLAS summer school. I wish to thank all those who have posted valuable information on the web and who make science accessible by teachers, students, and anybody.