Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ESA ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psl-pdklp ppsub Januari 2013.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ESA ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psl-pdklp ppsub Januari 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESA ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psl-pdklp ppsub Januari 2013

2 ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY Environmental safety is the practice of policies and procedures that ensure that a surrounding environment, including work areas, laboratories or facilities, is free of dangers that could cause harm to a person working in those areas. A safe place to work is the key element of environmental safety. Read more: Define Environmental Safety | eHow.com safety.html#ixzz2HWGopdVL Diunduh dari: ………. 10/1/2013 “Safety” means the state of being "safe”, the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event.

3 SAFETY safety [ ˈ se ɪ ft ɪ ]n pl –ties 1. The quality of being safe 2. Freedom from danger or risk of injury 3. A contrivance or device designed to prevent injury. Safety 1. 1.Feel as safe as a lone subway rider at 2 a.m. —Anon 2. 2.Feel as safe as guarded by a charm —Elizabeth Barrett Browning 3. 3.Looked as dangerous as a squirrel and much less nervous — Raymond Chandler 4. 4.The man who looks for security, even in the mind, is like a man who would chop off his limbs in order to have artifical ones which will give him no pain or trouble —Henry Miller 5. 5.Nothing as safe as simplicity —Edith Wharton 6. 6.Safe and more or less invulnerable like sulky Achilles among Trojans —George Garrett 7. 7.(I thought I was) safe as a good new boat —Reynolds Price 8. 8.(They think they’re) safe as angels —Dashiell Hammet 9. 9.Safe as a nun in a roomful of eunuchs —Donald Seaman Safe as a tank town —W. R. Burnett Safe as houses —Mary Gordon Safe as in a cradle —William Wordsworth Safe as in God’s pocket —American colloquialism, attributed to New England Safe as sunshine —Slogan R. E. Dietz Co Security … tighter than the skin on a snake —William H. Hallhan She’s safe as a vault —Raymond Chandler Squatting in safety like the yolk in an egg —Bertold Brecht Diunduh dari: 12/1/2013

4 SAFETY Noun 1. 1.Safety - the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions; "insure the safety of the children"; "the reciprocal of safety is risk"condition, status - a state at a particular time; "a condition (or state) of disrepair"; "the current status of the arms negotiations“ a. a.Biosafety - safety from exposure to infectious agents b. b.Risklessness - safety as a consequence of entailing no risk c. c.Impregnability, invulnerability - having the strength to withstand attack d. d.Salvation - the state of being saved or preserved from harm e. e.Security - the state of being free from danger or injury; "we support the armed services in the name of national security" f. f.Danger - the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury; "you are in no danger"; "there was widespread danger of disease" 2. Safety - a safe place; "He ran to safety" refuge a. a.Area, country - a particular geographical region of indefinite boundary (usually serving some special purpose or distinguished by its people or culture or geography); "it was a mountainous area"; "Bible country" b. b.Harborage, harbourage - (nautical) a place of refuge (as for a ship) 3. Safety - a device designed to prevent injury or accidentssafety device, guard a. a.device - an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose; "the device is small enough to wear on your wrist"; "a device intended to conserve water" b. b.fender - a low metal guard to confine falling coals to a hearth c. c.safety catch, safety lock - guard consisting of a locking device that prevents a weapon from being fired Diunduh dari: 12/1/2013

5 KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Kesehatan Lingkungan (WHO - World Health Organization) : Suatu keseimbangan ekologi antara manusia dan lingkungan hidupnya agar DAPAT menjamin keadaan sehat bagi manusia. Ruang lingkup kesehatan lingkungan a.l. penyediaan air bersih /air minum, pengolahan dan pembuangan limbah cair, gas dan padat, pencegahan kebisingan, pencegahan penyakit bawaan air, udara, makanan, dan vektor; pengelolaan kualitas lingkungan air, udara, makanan, pemukiman dan bahan berbahaya. Kualitas Lingkungan yang buruk dapat mengakibatkan gangguan kesehatan di masyarakat sehingga diperlukan adanya pengelolaan kesehatan lingkungan konsisten dan berkelanjutan. Ruang lingkup Kesehatan Lingkungan ada 8, yaitu (Menurut Pasal 22 ayat (3) UU No 23 tahun 1992 ): 1) Penyehatan Air dan Udara 2) Pengamanan Limbah padat/sampah 3) Pengamanan Limbah cair 4) Pengamanan limbah gas 5) Pengamanan radiasi 6) Pengamanan kebisingan 7) Pengamanan vektor penyakit 8) Penyehatan dan pengamanan lainnya : Misal Pasca bencana Diunduh dari: kesehatan-lingkungan_29.html ………. 13/1/2013

6 RUANG LINGKUP KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Menurut WHO ada 17 ruang lingkup kesehatan lingkungan, yaitu : 1. 1.Penyediaan Air Minum 2. 2.Pengelolaan air Buangan dan pengendalian pencemaran 3. 3.Pembuangan Sampah Padat 4. 4.Pengendalian Vektor 5. 5.Pencegahan/pengendalian pencemaran tanah oleh ekskreta manusia 6. 6.Higiene makanan, termasuk higiene susu 7. 7.Pengendalian pencemaran udara 8. 8.Pengendalian radiasi 9. 9.Kesehatan kerja Pengendalian kebisingan Perumahan dan pemukiman Aspek kesling dan transportasi udara Perencanaan daerah dan perkotaan Pencegahan kecelakaan Rekreasi umum dan pariwisata Tindakan-tindakan sanitasi yang berhubungan dengan keadaan epidemi / wabah, bencana alam dan perpindahan penduduk Tindakan pencegahan yang diperlukan untuk menjamin lingkungan. Diunduh dari: lingkungan_29.html ………. 13/1/2013 Diunduh dari:

7 KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Sasaran Kesehatan Lingkungan berdasarkan pasal 22 ayat (2) UU No 23 Tahun 1992, meliputi : 1. 1.Tempat umum : hotel, terminal, pasar, pertokoan, dan usaha-usaha yang sejenis 2. 2.Lingkungan pemukiman : rumah tinggal, asrama/yang sejenis 3. 3.Lingkungan kerja : perkantoran, kawasan industri/yang sejenis Angkutan umum : kendaraan darat, laut dan udara yang digunakan untuk umum. Diunduh dari: kesehatan-lingkungan_29.html ………. 13/1/2013 Kesehatan Pemukiman Kriteria rumah sehat secara umum: 1. 1.Memenuhi kebutuhan fisiologis, yaitu : pencahayaan, penghawaan dan ruang gerak yang cukup, terhindar dari kebisingan yang mengganggu Memenuhi kebutuhan psikologis, yaitu : privacy yang cukup, komunikasi yang sehat antar anggota keluarga dan penghuni rumah 3. 3.Memenuhi persyaratan pencegahan penularan penyakit antar penghuni rumah dengan penyediaan air bersih, pengelolaan tinja dan limbah rumah tangga, bebas vektor penyakit dan tikus, kepadatan hunian yang tidak berlebihan, cukup sinar matahari pagi, terlindungnya makanan dan minuman dari pencemaran, disamping pencahayaan dan penghawaan yang cukup Memenuhi persyaratan pencegahan terjadinya kecelakaan baik yang timbul karena keadaan luar maupun dalam rumah antara lain persyaratan garis sempadan jalan, konstruksi yang tidak mudah roboh, tidak mudah terbakar, dan tidak cenderung membuat penghuninya jatuh tergelincir.

8 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN 'Environmental hazard' is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect people's health. This term incorporates topics like pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes. Hazards can be categorized in five types: 1. 1.Chemical 2. 2.Physical 3. 3.Mechanical 4. 4.Biological 5. 5.Psychosocial Diunduh dari: ………. 13/1/2013 CONTOH-CONTOH: 1. 1.Allergens 2. 2.Anthrax 3. 3.Antibiotic agents in animals destined for human consumption 4. 4.Arbovirus 5. 5.Arsenic - a contaminant of fresh water sources (water wells) 6. 6.Asbestos – carcinogenic 7. 7.Avian influenza 8. 8.Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) 9. 9.Carcinogens Cholera Cosmic rays DDT Dioxins Drought Dysentery Electromagnetic fields Endocrine disruptors

9 Prinsip Manajemen Bahaya 1. 1.Establish the context and identify the hazard: These are the first steps. You have learned that a hazard is something that is harmful to our health. A description of the categories of hazards is given in Section 2.2 above. You should identify the type of the hazard in as much detail as you can. You should also describe the exposure conditions and try to answer the following questions: What is the source of the hazard? Who is exposed? What are the pathways or activities that expose a person? What part of the environment is involved in the transfer of the hazard to humans? 2.Hazard/risk analysis and evaluation: Here you would analyse the risk and evaluate the potential of the hazard to cause damage to health. This step needs a deeper appraisal in collaboration with the woreda environmental health worker. The evaluation may require appropriate design, sampling and laboratory investigation Communicate and consult: When the hazards and risks have been determined, advice can be communicated on the interventions or control measures that are needed to control the hazard. There can also be consultations with relevant people and organisations Treat the hazard/risk: The interventions or control measures are carried out by the person or people responsible for the hazard or risk Monitoring and reviewing: The implementation of interventions or control measures for the hazard must be followed up in order to determine whether they are successful. Correction measures can be applied if there is any failure. Identifying appropriate indicators for monitoring is critical and must be done formally Record keeping: Keeping records and reports on hazard management is always important. These records must contain the type of hazard, exposures and what control measures were taken. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

10 SAFETY HEALTH ENVIRONMENT Diunduh dari: 6/1/2013

11 Kesehatan lingkungan : Suatu keseimbangan ekologis yang harus adaantara manusia dengan lingkungannya agar dapat menjamin keadaan sehatdari manusia. Ruang lingkupnya: 1. 1.Penyediaan air minum 2. 2.Pengolahan air buangan dan pengendalian pencemaran 3. 3.Pengelolaan sampah padat 4. 4.Pengendalian vector 5. 5.Pencegahan dan pengendalian pencemaran tanah dan ekskreta manusia 6. 6.Hygiene makanan 7. 7.Pengendalian pencemaran udara 8. 8.Pengendalian radiasi 9. 9.Kesehatan kerja Pengendalian kebisingan Perumahan dan permukiman Perencanaan daerah perkotaan Kesehatan lingkungan transportasi udara, laut dan darat Pencegahan kecelakaan Rekreasi umum dan pariwisata Tindakan sanitasi yang berhubungan dengan epidemic, bencana,kedaruratan Tindakan pencegahan agar lingkungan bebas dari risiko gangguan kesehatan (WHO, 1979). Diunduh dari: Lingkungan...………. 13/1/2013 LINGKUP KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN

12 What is Safety, Health and Environmental Management It’s Doing the Right Thing! R. W. Campbell (1914) Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety

13 It’s Doing the Right Thing – Keeping People Healthy & Safe – Protecting the Environment in which we Live It’s Doing the Right Thing – Identifying, understanding & controlling SH&E Risks (Hazards) – Understanding that business changes can degrade controls and safeguards R.W. Campbell: “We aim at the preservation of the individual..” Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN It’s Doing the Right Thing – – Leadership Actions focused on protecting People – – SH&E as a Core corporate value – – An integrated SH&E Management System Aligned with corporate objectives & strategies Risk/Hazard identification, assessment & control – – SH&E Performance Measurement – – Achievement of Continuous Improvement Virtual elimination of injury, illness & environmental damage

14 It’s good for individuals Hydro’s Commitment – Eliminate fatal accidents Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

15 It’s good for families – Transportation accidents are the number one cause of occupational fatalities in North America – Vehicle accidents are also the leading cause of death for children Honda’s Commitment Advanced crash testing Front side airbags with (OPDS) – 82% of 2004 models – 100% by 2006 Side curtain airbags – 64% of 2004 models – 100% by 2006 Anti-lock braking system (ABS) – 88% of 2004 models – 100% by 2006 Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) & rollover sensor Advanced Compatibility Engineering – Honda Odyssey and Acura RL for 2005 Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

16 It’s good for communities EPCOR’s Commitment – Coal plant emissions reduced to the equivalent of a state of the art natural gas plant. Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

17 TransAlta’s Commitment: – Manage SH&E risks using a defined & documented management system – Meet all SH&E legislation, regulations and applicable requirements – Continually improve SH&E performance to contribute to business success – Hold leadership accountable for systematically managing SH&E risks – Train employees on their SH&E responsibilities – Hold employees accountable for following SH&E procedures and working in a manner that safeguards themselves, their co- workers, the public & the environment – Encourage communication, consultation & collaboration with employees, customers, suppliers, contractors and public stakeholders – Identify and develop new business practices and pollution prevention opportunities as solutions to environmental problems – Assess compliance with SH&E legal requirements and conformance to the SH&E management system – Audit results and report SH&E performance to the Board of Directors Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

18 How do you know when your doing the right thing? – You understand your business’s SH&E risks (hazards)… …and you control them! Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

19 Understanding your business’s SH&E Risks? Identify Risks What can happen? How can it happen? Consider Energy Forms Establishing a process (policy, procedures, standards) to identify, assess and eliminate or control unacceptable risks or hazards. Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

20 Understanding your business’s SH&E Risks? Consider Energy Forms Energy Unwanted Flow Injury Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

21 Gravitation Energy – Working at height – Using ladders – Construction Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN Energi mekanik dapat dibedakan atas dua pengertian. yaitu_ energj potensial dan energi kinetik. Jumlah kedua energi itu dinamakan energi mekanik. Setiap benda mempunyai berat,maka baik dalam keadaan diam atau bergerak setiap benda memiliki energi. Misalnya energiyang tersimpan dalam air yang dibendung pada sebuah waduk bersifat tidak aktif dan disebut energi potensial (energi tempat). Bila waduk dibuka, air akan mengalir dengan deras, sehingga energi air menjadi aktif. Mengalirnya air ini adalah dengan energi kinetik (tenaga gerak) (diunduh dari:

22 Electrical Energy – Installations – Repair work – In proximity to circuits Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN Energi listrik ditimbulkan/ Dibangkitkan melalui bermacam-macam cara, a.l.: 1. 1.dengan sungai atau air terjun yang memilikienergi kinetik; 2. 2.dengan energi angin yang dipakaiuntuk menggerakkan kincir angin; 3. 3.dengan menggunakan accu (energi kimia); 4. 4.Dengan menggunakan tenaga uap yang dapat memutar generator listrik; 5. 5.dengan menggunakan tenagadiesel; dan 6. 6.dengan menggunakan tenaga nuklir

23 Mechanical Energy – Installations – Repair work – Receiving & shipping – In proximity to moving vehicles – Rotating equipment Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

24 Chemical Energy – Welding – Manufacturing – Lab testing – Spills – Emissions Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN ENERGI KIMIA Yang dimaksud dengan energi kimia ialah energi yang diperoleh melalui suatu proses kimia. Energi yang dimiliki manusia dapat diperoleh dari makanan yang dimakan melalui proses kimia. Jika kedua macam atom-atom karbon dan atom oksigen, tersebut dapat bereaksi, akan terbentuk molekul baru yaitu karbondioksida. Bergabungnya kedua atom tersebut memerlukan energi. Kalori tersebut dikenal sebagai energi kimia. Bila kedua atom yang telah tergabung dipisahkan, maka akan melepaskan energi. Energi yang terbebas disebut energi eksoterm. (SUMBER:

25 Understanding your business’s SH&E Risks? Evaluate Risks Compare against Your standards? Determine Your risk priorities? Analyze Risks Determine existing Controls DetermineDetermine LikelihoodConsequences Estimate the Risk Level Risk = L X C Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

26 Analyze and evaluate your business’s SH&E risk controls / barriers? Consider Energy Barriers Energy[GEMC] Unwanted Flow Healthy & Safe Design Design Physical Procedural Admin. Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

27 Sumber: diunduh dari: 12/1/2013 MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN Kesehatan adalah keadaan sehat, baik secara fisik, mental,spritual maupun sosial yang memungkinkan setiap oranguntuk hidup produktif secara sosial dan ekonomis. (Pasal 1 butir 1 UU No. 36 Tahun 2009) Kesehatan lingkungan adalah suatu kondisi lingkungan yang mampumenopang keseimbangan ekologis yang dinamis antara manusia danlingkungan untuk mendukung tercapainya realitas hidup manusia yang sehat,sejahtera dan bahagia(Himpunan Ahli Kesehatan Lingkungan). Ilmu Kesehatan Lingkungan : ilmu yang mempelajari dinamika hubungan interaksi antara masyarakat dengan segala macam perubahan komponen lingkungan hidup seperti spesies organisme, bahan, zat atau kekuatan di sekitar manusia, yang menimbulkan ancaman, atau berpotensi menimbulkan gangguan kesehatan masyarakat, serta mencari upaya-upaya pencegahan. (Umar Fahmi Achmadi, 1991) Kesehatan lingkungan : upaya untuk melindungi kesehatan manusiamelalui pengelolaan, pengawasan dan pencegahan factor- faktor lingkungan yang dapat mengganggu kesehatan manusia (Sumengen Sutomo, 1991). Kesehatan lingkungan: ilmu & seni dalam mencapai keseimbangan, keselarasan dan keserasian lingkungan hidup melalui upaya pengembangan budaya perilaku sehat dan pengelolaan lingkungan sehingga dicapai kondisi yang bersih, aman, nyaman, sehat dan sejahtera terhindar dari gangguan penyakit, pencemaran dan kecelakaan, sesuai dengan harkat dan martabat manusia (Sudjono Soenhadji, 1994).

28 Treat, Monitor and Review Risks & Controls? HOW? Establish a SH&E Management System! CHECK DO ACT PLAN Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

29 R.W. Campbell Award Criteria for SH&E Management Excellence Leadership – Consensus and commitment to SH&E goals – Senior executives visibly demonstrate personal commitment Linkage between SH&E performance and productivity – SH&E is a Core corporate value – SH&E is integrated into the business management system – Alignment of SH&E with corporate objectives and strategies SH&E Management System – Executives accountable to personally and directly participate – Effective communication, consultation & collaboration – Systematic risk (hazard) recognition, evaluation and control – Operational SH&E programs to manage risks (hazards) – Effective competency-building and behaviour re-enforcement – Assessments, audits and evaluations Performance Measurements – Valid, reliable, comparable leading & lagging indicators SH&E Results – Continuous improvement in performance or sustained excellence Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety

30 Leadership – Organizational consensus and commitment to SH&E goals – Senior executives visibly demonstrate personal commitment – Defined SH&E goals and objectives – SH&E performance is recognized as a key indicator of organizational excellence Linkage between SH&E performance and productivity – SH&E is a Core corporate value – SH&E is fully and completely integrated into the business management process of the organization – Alignment of SH&E with corporate objectives and strategies – The discipline necessary for SH&E performance excellence contributes to productivity and financial returns Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety KUNCI DARI SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

31 SH&E Management System Elements – Management Executives accountable to personally and directly participate Appropriate training, authority and accountability for managers and supervisors Sufficient resources to achieve SH&E program objectives Effective communication, consultation & collaboration Assessments, audits and evaluations to identify any gaps in compliance with policy and objectives – Operations Systematic risk (hazard) recognition, evaluation and control process Design and engineering to eliminate risks and optimize the interaction of people with machines, equipment & materials Operational SH&E programs to manage risks (hazards) and meet standards (regulatory). Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety KUNCI DARI SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

32 SH&E Management System Elements – Organizational behaviour (Culture) Employee involvement and empowerment – increases acceptance and support of efforts Effective competency-building through training and skill development Verification that competency-building activities are achieving the objectives Clear delegation, concise direction and empowerment to create positive attitudes Behaviour reinforcement and coaching to motivate people to support organizational goals Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety KUNCI DARI SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

33 Performance Measurements – Valid, reliable, feasible and comparable – Leading indicators JSA, observations, inspections, audits/assessments, & certifications completed – Lagging indicators Incident and accident frequency & severity Energy use SH&E Results – Continuous improvement in performance or sustained excellence Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety KUNCI DARI SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

34 Executive Leadership Vision & Policy Assessed SH&E Risks/ Hazards Integrated Objectives/ Strategies Integrated Operational SH&E Programs Employee Education, Involvement & Coaching Measurement/ Assessment, Audit Results and Evaluation Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety KUNCI DARI SISTEM MANAJEMEN KESEHATAN DAN KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN

35 Senior Manager Leadership Actions! Establish and communicate Your Vision Know your SH&E risks (hazards) – Establish a process for risk identification, evaluation and control Establish SH&E objectives & targets Build competencies of employees Hold people accountable – Managers for systematically managing risks – Employees for following procedures and working in manner that safeguards themselves and others Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety Diunduh dari: content/uploads/2012/07/risk_management_process.jpg

36 Personal Leadership Actions! Model the behaviours you want exhibited – Set personal objectives & targets and ask employees about theirs – Start all meetings with a discussion of SH&E – Use safety gear where it is required – Learn enough to observe work and provide feedback when on- site – Intervene if a worker appears to be at risk Personally review the Mgmt. System performance – Be part of an assessment or audit – Be part of an incident investigation Sumber: diunduh dari: 2/1/2013www.safetymanagementeducation.com/.../What%20is%20Safety Kesehatan lingkungan adalah Ilmu dan seni untuk mencegah pengganggu,menanggulangi kerusakan dan meningkatkan/memulihkan fungsi lingkungan melalui pengelolaan unsur-unsur/faktor-faktor lingkungan yang berisiko terhadap kesehatan manusia dengan cara identifikasi, analisis,intervensi/rekayasa lingkungan, sehingga tersedianya lingkungan yang menjamin bagi derajat kesehatan manusia secara optimal. (Tri Cahyono, 2000).

37 ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT Diunduh dari: 6/1/2013

38 ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT Eric Silberhorn, PhD, DABT Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

39 Describes the animal, construct, and proposed claim Are there sequences that are likely to contain potential hazards to the animal, humans, or animals consuming food from that animal, or the environment? e.g., does the construct contain mobilizable sequences from viruses that may be endemic in that species? Does the insertion of the rDNA construct pose a hazard to the animal, humans, other animals by feed, or the environment? Are the genotype or phenotype changing over the product lifespan in a way that would affect the risks associated with the product? Is there a plan in place to monitor those changes? What are the direct and indirect risks posed to the GE animal? (e.g., can surveying the health and other phenotypic characteristics of the animal inform us with respect to risk to the animal and potential human food safety concerns?) What are the risks of direct or indirect adverse outcomes associated with the consumption of the GE animal as food or feed? Direct or indirect effects from introduction of the GE animal into the environment? KEAMANAN LINGKUNGAN What hazards/risks have been identified in the hierarchical review? Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

40 Statutory/Regulatory Requirements Sponsor must submit Environmental Assessment/supporting data under INAD/NADA National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirement triggered by “agency action” – EA  FONSI? (finding of no significant impact) – If no FONSI, EIS (environmental impact statement) Environmental Assessment: General Risk Questions For a specific GE animal (population) containing a specific rDNA construct…. – – Risk(s) under conditions of use/free release? – – Likelihood of escape/free release? Containment/redundancy – – Potential adverse outcomes associated with escape/free release? Considered in context of appropriate comparator on a case-by-case basis. Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

41 Source(s) Escape or Introduction Introduction Able to Survive Impact on Target Resources in Accessible Environments (habitats, wildlife) Dispersion Direct and Indirect Effects Accessible Environment s Able to Reproduce Establishment Spread of Transgene(s) Wild Conspecifics Feral Relatives Physical Containment Biological Containment Net Fitness Model Konsep : Pendugaan risiko Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

42 This previous slide is a flow diagram describing the steps that a risk assessor might follow in order to understand the risks associated with an environmental release of GE animal. The flow diagram begins with understanding the Source (the physical location in which the GE animal is being housed (e.g., farm, hatchery)). This includes a complete description of the physical containment that has been imposed on that source. The next step considers either intended release or the likelihood of an escape from containment. In the next step, the risk assessor evaluates the environments accessible to the released or escaped GE animal. The ability to survive comprises the next steps, followed by an assessment of either dispersion or the ability for that animal to reproduce considering any applicable biological confinement. If the animal is capable of reproducing, the next point of evaluation looks at the spread of the transgene(s) via horizontal transfer to wild conspecifics or to feral relatives. Another path from the ability to reproduce involves an evaluation of the ability of the GE animal to become established in the local environment. Finally, the assessment ends with a consideration of the potential direct and indirect effects that the released or escaped GE animal can cause to target resources in the accessible environments (e.g., habitats and on wildlife). Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013 Model Konsep : Pendugaan risiko

43 Prioritas Minat Consideration of the following factors: 1.Ability of GE animal to disperse into diverse communities upon release or escape 2.“Fitness” of GE animal within the receiving ecosystem 3.Stability and resiliency of the receiving community Overall concern is a product (and not the sum) of these three variables Consequences of Introduction, Escape, and Dispersion Depends on Physical locations of use or release Extent of containment (if applicable) – – Physical – – Biological (sterility, triploidy, monosex) – – Geographical – – Niche limitations Domestication of species (ability to become feral) Mobility of species Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

44 Fitness - Kebugaran Genetic contribution by an individual’s descendants to future generations of a population Fitness depends on both survival and reproduction Net fitness components include – Juvenile and adult viability – Age at sexual maturity – Female fecundity/male fertility/mating success * These characteristics are used to assess fitness regardless of an animal’s GE status Does incorporation of the rDNA construct alter the animal’s fitness? Potential examples of altered fitness – – Disease resistance – – Temperature tolerance – – Growth factors / hormones – – Nutrient/carbohydrate utilization Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

45 Efek Langsung & Tidak-langsung Pathogen / disease transfer Genetic disturbance Resource competition Displacement Habitat destruction Predation Population changes Community/Ecosystem disruptions Sumber: diunduh dari: erinary/.../UCM ppt,... 4/1/2013 Sanitasi adalah usaha pengendalian faktor-faktor lingkungan fisik manusiayang mungkin menimbulkan atau dapat menimbulkan hal- hal yang merugikanbagi perkembangan fisik, kesehatan dan daya tahan hidup manusia. Ruang lingkup : 1. 1.Cara pembuangan ekskreta, air buangan dan sampah 2. 2.Penyediaan air bersih 3. 3.Perumahan 4. 4.Makanan 5. 5.Individu dan masyarakat agar berperilaku sehat (personal hygiene) 6. 6.Arthropoda, mollusca, binatang pengerat serta pejamu lainnya 7. 7.Kondisi udara 8. 8.Pabrik, perkantoran, permukiman, jalan umum dan lingkungan umumnya.(WHO) DIUNDUH DARI: ……. 13/1/2013

46 Potensial Risiko Lingkungan BahayaRisiko Use of viral sequences, including vectors (Characterized in Molecular Characterization steps) Increased probability of new pathogenic recombinants Traits increasing species fitness or adaptation (Characterized in Phenotypic Characterization) Increased probability of disruption of existing ecosystems due to establishment of a GE animal in the environment Altered population dynamics due to horizontal transfer of gene construct(s) (Likelihood of transfer part of Molecular Characterization steps) Specific risk is a function of the nature of the trait Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

47 Pendugaan Lingkungan Pertanyaan Risiko secara umum – Risk associated with the goats in confinement? – Likelihood of escape? – Potential adverse outcomes associated with escape? Kesimpulan – No environmental risks from confined rhAT goats, wastes – Escape unlikely (multiple levels of confinement, security, ID) – In event of escape without recapture, survival, reproduction, population establishment is highly unlikely Note: EA/FONSI posted FOIADrugSummaries/UCM pdf gineering/GeneticallyEngineeredAnimals/UCM pdf Sumber: diunduh dari: 4/1/2013

48 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Environmental hazard' is the state of events which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect people's health. This term incorporates topics like pollution and natural disasters such as storms and earthquakes.natural disasters Hazards can be categorized in five types: 1. 1.Chemical 2. 2.Physical 3. 3.Mechanical 4. 4.Biological 5. 5.Psychosocial Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 UU No. 36 Tahun 2009 Tentang Kesehatan BAB XI. KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Pasal 162 Upaya kesehatan lingkungan ditujukan untuk mewujudkan kualitas lingkunganyang sehat, baik fisik, kimia, biologi, maupun sosial yang memungkinkansetiap orang mencapai derajat kesehatan yang setinggi- tingginya.

49 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 Environmental Hazards are hazards that everyone is exposed to in their everyday lives. These hazards are part of nature but can be very harmful if the proper precautions aren't taken. Often we do not have a choice regarding whether or not we may be exposed to environmental hazards. However, we are usually able to make lifestyle and occupational choices that may increase our risk of exposure to things that may adversely affect our health, such as hazardous chemicals and metals, radiation, pathogenic microorganisms and other things in the environment that are bad for our health.

50 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN CONTOH-CONTOH Allergens;Anthrax Antibiotic agents in animals destined for human consumption Arbovirus Arsenic - a contaminant of fresh water sources (water wells) Asbestos – carcinogenic;Avian influenza Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) CarcinogensCholera Cosmic raysDDT DioxinsDrought DysenteryElectromagnetic fields Endocrine disruptorsEpidemics E-wasteExplosive material FloodsFood poisoning FungicidesFurans HaloalkanesHeavy metals HerbicidesHormones in animals destined for human consumptionLead in paint Light pollutionLighting LightningMalaria Marine debrisMercury MoldsMutagens Noise pollutionOnchocerciasis (river blindness) PandemicsPathogens PesticidesPollen for allergic people Polychlorinated biphenylsQuicksand RabiesRadon and natural radioactivity Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Sick building syndromeSoil pollution Tobacco smokingToxic waste Ultraviolet lightVibration WildfireX-rays Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013

51 BENCANA ALAM A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, severe weather, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover. Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 GEMPA BUMI An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in magnitude. Earthquakes are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning.

52 BENCANA ALAM Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 ERUPSI VULKANIK Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and consequent disaster in several ways. The effects include the volcanic eruption itself that may cause harm following the explosion of the volcano or the fall of rock. Second, lava may be produced during the eruption of a volcano. As it leaves the volcano, the lava destroys many buildings and plants it encounters. Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in nearby locations. When mixed with water this forms a concrete-like material. In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to collapse under its weight but even small quantities will harm humans if inhaled. Since the ash has the consistency of ground glass it causes abrasion damage to moving parts such as engines. The main killer of humans in the immediate surroundings of a volcanic eruption is the pyroclastic flows, which consist of a cloud of hot volcanic ash which builds up in the air above the volcano and rushes down the slopes when the eruption no longer supports the lifting of the gases. It is believed that Pompeii was destroyed by a pyroclastic flow. A lahar is a volcanic mudflow or landslide.

53 BENCANA ALAM Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 BANJIR A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. \ In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless the water covers land used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area, roads, expanses of farmland, etc.

54 BENCANA ALAM Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 KEKERINGAN Drought is unusual dryness of soil, resulting in crop failure and shortage of water for other uses, caused by significantly lower rainfall than average over a prolonged period. Hot dry winds, high temperatures and consequent evaporation of moisture from the ground can contribute to conditions of drought. A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply whether surface or underground water. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Although droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage and harm the local economy. Succulent plants are well-adapted to survive long periods of drought. Many plant species, such as cacti, have adaptations such as reduced leaf area and waxy cuticles to enhance their ability to tolerate drought. Some others survive dry periods as buried seeds. Semi-permanent drought produces arid biomes such as deserts and grasslands. Most arid ecosystems have inherently low productivity. This global phenomenon has a widespread impact on agriculture. Lengthy periods of drought have long been a key trigger for mass migration and played a key role in a number of ongoing migrations and other humanitarian crises in the Horn of Africa and the Sahel.

55 BENCANA ALAM Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 TORNADO A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. It is also referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider sense, to refer to any closed low pressure circulation. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are approximately 250 feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (perhaps more than 100 km).

56 BENCANA ALAM Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 An environmental disaster is a disaster to the natural environment due to human activity, which distinguishes it from the concept of a natural disaster. In this case, the impact of humans' alteration of the ecosystem has led to widespread and/or long-lasting consequences.It can include the deaths of animals (including humans) and plants, or severe disruption of human life, possibly requiring migrationecosystem Environmental disasters can have an effect on agriculture, biodiversity, the economy and human health. The causes include pollution, depletion of natural resources, industrial activity or agriculture. UU No. 36 Tahun 2009 Tentang Kesehatan Pasal 163 (3) (3)Lingkungan sehat sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (2) bebas dari unsur-unsur yang menimbulkan gangguan kesehatan, antara lain: 1. 1.Limbah cair; 2. 2.Limbah padat; 3. 3.Limbah gas; 4. 4.Sampah yang tidak diproses sesuai dengan persyaratan yang ditetapkan pemerintah; 5. 5.Binatang pembawa penyakit; 6. 6.Zat kimia yang berbahaya; 7. 7.Kebisingan yang melebihi ambang batas; 8. 8.Radiasi sinar pengion dan non pengion; 9. 9.Air yang tercemar; Udara yang tercemar; dan Makanan yang terkontaminasi.

57 BENCANA ALAM Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 Pertanaian 1. 1.Main article: Environmental impact of agriculture 2. 2.Salinity in Australia 3. 3.Salinization of the Fertile Crescent 4. 4.The Dust Bowl in Canada and the United States (1934–1939)Dust Bowl 5. 5.The Great sparrow campaign; sparrows were eliminated from Chinese farms, which caused locusts to swarm the farms and contributed to a famine which killed 38 million people Africanized bees, known colloquially as "killer bees" 7. 7.Mismanagement of the Aral Sea 8. 8."Dirty dairying" in New Zealand. Kesehatan Manusia 1. 1.Introduction of the Bubonic Plague (the Plague of Justinian) in Europe from Africa in the 7th century resulting in the death of up to 60% (100 million) of the population Introduction of the Bubonic Plague (the Black Death) in Europe from Central Asia in the 14th century resulting in the death of up to 60% (200 million) of the population and recurring until the 18th century Introduction of infectious diseases by Europeans causing the death of indigenous people during European colonization of the Americas 4. 4.Health effects arising from the September 11 attacks 5. 5.Goiânia accident, human deaths resulting from dismantling a scrapped medical machine containing a source of radioactivity

58 BENCANA LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 Biodiversitas 1. 1.Chestnut blight 2. 2.Extinction of American megafauna 3. 3.Extinction of Australian megafauna 4. 4.Deforestation of Easter Island 5. 5.Destruction of the old growth forests 6. 6.Rabbits in Australia 7. 7.Red imported fire ants 8. 8.Dutch Elm Disease 9. 9.Devil facial tumour disease Reduction in the number of the American Bison Introduction of the Nile perch into Lake Victoria in Africa, decimating indigenous fish species The Saemangeum Seawall Emerald Ash Borer Environmental threats to the Great Barrier Reef Zakouma elephant slaughter Invasive species in New Zealand The loss of Biodiversity of New Zealand Ghost nets Grounding of SS Makambo on Lord Howe Island Shark finning Decline of vultures in India due to Diclofenac leading to increased incidence of rabies Extinction of the Tasmanian Tiger

59 BENCANA LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 INDUSTRI 1. 1.Minamata disease - mercury poisoning in Japan (1950s & 1960s) 2. 2.Ontario Minamata disease in Canada Itai-itai disease, due to cadmium poisoning in Japan 4. 4.Love Canal toxic waste site 5. 5.Seveso disaster (1976), chemical plant explosion, caused highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations 6. 6.Bhopal disaster (December 3, 1984, India), The leak of methyl isocyanate that took place in 1984 resulted in more than 22,000 deaths (and counting) and the various genetic diseases that will continue to be seen for generations to come among the newly born, caused by the negligence and corruption, ignoring safety standards in India by Warren Anderson, CEO of Union Carbide, a US company now a subsidiary of Dow Chemicals Sandoz chemical spill into the Rhine river (1986) 8. 8.United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites in the United States AZF Explosion at a Toulouse chemical factory (2001)AZF Jilin chemical plant explosions The Sydney Tar Ponds and Coke Ovens sites in the city of Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, known as the largest toxic waste site in North America Release of lead dust into Esperance Harbour Release of cyanide, heavy metals and acid into the Alamosa River, Colorado from the Summitville mine, causing the death of all marine life within a 17 mile radius.acid

60 BENCANA LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 Bencana Nuklir 1. 1.Chernobyl disaster in 1986 in Chernobyl, Ukraine, "killed at least 4056 people and damaged almost $7 billion of property". Radioactive fallout from the accident concentrated near Belarus, Ukraine and Russia and at least 350,000 people were forcibly resettled away from these areas. After the accident, "traces of radioactive deposits unique to Chernobyl were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere" Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster: Following an earthquake, tsunami, and failure of cooling systems at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and issues concerning other nuclear facilities in Japan on March 11, 2011, a nuclear emergency was declared. This was the first time a nuclear emergency had been declared in Japan, and 140,000 residents within 20 km of the plant were evacuated. Explosions and a fire have resulted in dangerous levels of radiation, sparking a stock market collapse and panic-buying in supermarkets.

61 KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 Environmental health is a branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health. Other phrases that concern or refer to the discipline of environmental health include environmental public health and environmental health and protection. The field of environmental health differs from environmental science in that environmental health is concerned with environmental factors affecting human health whereas environmental science is concerned with the environment as it affects ecosystems. Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behaviour not related to environment, as well as behaviour related to the social and cultural environment, and genetics.

62 KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 Environmental health is defined by the World Health Organization as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially affect health. Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and the effects (often indirect) on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological, social and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport. Environmental health services are defined by the World Health Organization as: 1. 1.Those services which implement environmental health policies through monitoring and control activities They also carry out that role by promoting the improvement of environmental parameters and by encouraging the use of environmentally friendly and healthy technologies and behaviors They also have a leading role in developing and suggesting new policy areas.

63 KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 Environmental health addresses all human-health-related aspects of both the natural environment and the built environment. Environmental health concerns include: 1. 1.Air quality, including both ambient outdoor air and indoor air quality, which also comprises concerns about environmental tobacco smoke Body art safety, including tattooing, body piercing and permanent cosmetics Climate change and its effects on health Disaster preparedness and response Food safety, including in agriculture, transportation, food processing, wholesale and retail distribution and sale Hazardous materials management, including hazardous waste management, contaminated site remediation, the prevention of leaks from underground storage tanks and the prevention of hazardous materials releases to the environment and responses to emergency situations resulting from such releases Housing, including substandard housing abatement and the inspection of jails and prisons Childhood lead poisoning prevention Land use planning, including smart growth Liquid waste disposal, including city waste water treatment plants and on- site waste water disposal systems, such as septic tank systems and chemical toilets Medical waste management and disposal Noise pollution control Occupational health and industrial hygiene Radiological health, including exposure to ionizing radiation from X-rays or radioactive isotopes Recreational water illness prevention, including from swimming pools, spas and ocean and freshwater bathing places Safe drinking water Solid waste management, including landfills, recycling facilities, composting and solid waste transfer stations Toxic chemical exposure whether in consumer products, housing, workplaces, air, water or soil Vector control, including the control of mosquitoes, rodents, flies, cockroaches and other animals that may transmit pathogens.

64 INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air is currently or how polluted it is forecast to become. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. Different countries have their own air quality indices which are not all consistent. Different countries also use different names for their indices such as Air Quality Health Index, Air Pollution Index and Pollutant Standards Index.government agenciespolluted Air quality is defined as a measure of the condition of air relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species or to any human need or purpose. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. The AQI can go up (meaning worse air quality) due to a lack of dilution of air pollutants. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone, temperature inversion, or low wind speeds lets air pollution remain in a local area, leading to high concentrations of pollutants and hazy conditions. anticyclone An agency might encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high.

65 Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 Understanding the AQI The purpose of the AQI is to help you understand what local air quality means to your health. To make it easier to understand, the AQI is divided into six categories: INDEKS KUALITAS UDARA Air Quality Index (AQI) Values Levels of Health ConcernColors When the AQI is in this range:..air quality conditions are:...as symbolized by this color: 0-50GoodGreen ModerateYellow Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange 151 to 200UnhealthyRed 201 to 300Very UnhealthyPurple 301 to 500HazardousMaroon Each category corresponds to a different level of health concern. The six levels of health concern and what they mean are: 1. 1."Good" AQI is Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk "Moderate" AQI is Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people. For example, people who are unusually sensitive to ozone may experience respiratory symptoms "Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups" AQI is Although general public is not likely to be affected at this AQI range, people with lung disease, older adults and children are at a greater risk from exposure to ozone, whereas persons with heart and lung disease, older adults and children are at greater risk from the presence of particles in the air "Unhealthy" AQI is Everyone may begin to experience some adverse health effects, and members of the sensitive groups may experience more serious effects "Very Unhealthy" AQI is This would trigger a health alert signifying that everyone may experience more serious health effects "Hazardous" AQI greater than 300. This would trigger a health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.

66 Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 AQI colors EPA has assigned a specific color to each AQI category to make it easier for people to understand quickly whether air pollution is reaching unhealthy levels in their communities. For example, the color orange means that conditions are "unhealthy for sensitive groups," while red means that conditions may be "unhealthy for everyone," and so on. AIR QUALITY INDEXES Air Quality Index Levels of Health Concern Numerical Value Meaning Good0 to 50 Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk Moderate51 to 100 Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution. Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101 to 150 Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected. Unhealthy151 to 200 Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects. Very Unhealthy 201 to 300 Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected. Hazardous301 to 500 Health alert: everyone may experience more serious health effects

67 EHS : ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH & SAFETY Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) – also Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) or HES or HSE – is often used as the name of a department in corporations and government agencies. The EHS guidelines were created by the International Finance Corporation in Companies that aspire to be better environmental stewards invest in strong environmental, health and safety management, otherwise known as EHS. From an environmental standpoint, it involves creating a systematic approach to managing waste, complying with environmental regulations, or reducing the company’s carbon footprint. Successful EHS programs also include measures to address ergonomics, air quality, and other aspects of workplace safety that could affect the health and well-being of employees. Sanitasi adalah usaha pengendalian faktor-faktor lingkungan fisik manusiayang mungkin menimbulkan atau dapat menimbulkan hal-hal yang merugikanbagi perkembangan fisik, kesehatan dan daya tahan hidup manusia. Ruang lingkup : 1. 1.Cara pembuangan ekskreta, air buangan dan sampah 2. 2.Penyediaan air bersih 3. 3.Perumahan 4. 4.Makanan 5. 5.Individu dan masyarakat agar berperilaku sehat (personal hygiene) 6. 6.Arthropoda, mollusca, binatang pengerat serta pejamu lainnya 7. 7.Kondisi udara 8. 8.Pabrik, perkantoran, permukiman, jalan umum dan lingkungan umumnya. (sumber: WHO)

68 EHS : ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH & SAFETY Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 The EHS Guidelines are technical reference documents with general and industry- specific examples of Good International Industry Practice (GIIP). 1. Environmental 1.1 Air Emissions and Ambient Air Quality 1.2 Energy Conservation 1.3 Wastewater and Ambient Water Quality 1.4 Water Conservation 1.5 Hazardous Materials Management 1.6 Waste Management 1.7 Noise 1.8 Contaminated Land and Remediation 2. Occupational Health and Safety 2.1 General Facility Design and Operation 2.2 Communication and Training 2.3 Physical Hazards 2.4 Chemical Hazards 2.5 Biological Hazards 2.6 Radiological Hazards 2.7 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 2.8 Special Hazard Environments 2.9 Monitoring 3. Community Health and Safety 3.1 Water Quality and Availability 3.2 Structural Safety of Project Infrastructure 3.3 Life and Fire Safety (L&FS) 3.4 Traffic Safety 3.5 Transport of Hazardous Materials 3.6 Disease Prevention 3.7 Emergency Preparedness and Response 4. Construction and Decommissioning 4.1 Environment 4.2 Occupational Health and Safety 4.3 Community Health and Safety

69 KUALITAS UDARA & KESEHATAN MANUSIA Diunduh dari: 9/1/2013 Air Quality and Human Health The Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme was set up to review the scientific basis of air quality regulation for the EU thematic strategy. CAFE commissioned a World Health Organisation review of the health effects of transport-related air pollution in Europe, which found evidence that exposure to air pollutants can affect human health in a variety of ways. These include respiratory illness and allergenic illnesses, heart disease, cancer, adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes and lowering of male fertility. A recent report by the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP), a panel of independent experts that advises the government, has concluded that there is a causal link between air pollutants and heart diseases. The most serious effects on health occur at the greatest frequency at the highest levels of exposure to air pollutants. Air quality limit values are set at levels which ensure this does not occur. However, the air pollutants particulate matter and ozone have no exposure threshold levels below which adverse human health effects do not occur. Although such thresholds can be established for individuals, the wide range of susceptibilities within a population, makes it impossible to define a more widely applicable threshold value. As a result, the derived air quality limit values for ‘non-threshold’ air pollutants are arbitrary, as significant public health benefits could be obtained by reductions in the pollutants both above and below the set limit.

70 Diunduh dari: ………. 9/1/2013 Susceptibility to Air Pollutants The surface of the human lung is covered by a thin layer of fluid containing various defences to protect its cells from damage6. Once levels of air pollutants overwhelm these defences, the cells become damaged triggering an inflammatory response. Inflammatory effects can spread throughout the body, although in the case of particulates, it is not clear whether this is the result of air pollutants directly entering the blood stream in the lung, local production of inflammatory factors or a combination of both. It has also been proposed that particulate pollutants can enter the nervous system through nerve endings in the nose, causing effects in the brain. Factors that affect individual susceptibility to adverse health effects include age, health status, diet and genetic background. In particular, groups such as asthmatics or those with other pre- existing diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) may be more susceptible to an inflammatory response at lower air pollution levels. The most severe effects occur in the most susceptible individuals, and are reflected in the daily number of deaths occurring. Children are also particularly vulnerable as the process of lung growth and development continues until adolescence, and they have incomplete metabolic systems, immature immune defences and higher breathing rates than adults. KUALITAS UDARA & KESEHATAN MANUSIA

71 HASIL-HASIL PENELITIAN METODE ESA

72 . Effect of silver nanoparticles on Oryza sativa L. and its rhizosphere bacteria Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 88, P (1 Feb 2013) Fateme Mirzajani, Hossein Askari, Sara Hamzelou, Mohsen Farzaneh, Alireza Ghassempour. Abstract Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used as antibacterial and antifungal agents in agriculture. Nevertheless, these nanoparticles with newborn properties pose a potential risk to the environment, Due to contact with crops and bacteria that are beneficial to the soil. This study is based on the examination of the phytotoxic effects of AgNPs on Oryza sativa L. and some of its rhizosphere bacteria, by physiological and biochemical assays. In order to study the complex interaction of the AgNPs life expectancy that are mixed with culture medium, the incubation time for the fresh mixture, 7, 14 and 21 days old of AgNPs, on the seedlings growth was investigated. Results indicated that plant’s response to the treatment with AgNPs affected on the cell wall, and that with an increase in its concentration (up to 60 μg/mL). The obtained results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) exhibited that those particles not only penetrated the cell wall, but they could also damage the cell morphology and its structural features. AgNPs treatment up to 30 μg/mL accelerated root growth and at 60 μg/mL was able to restrict a root’s ability to grow. The 30 μg/mL treatment had significant effect on root branching and dry weight. In contrast, shoot growth was more susceptible to the effects of AgNPs treatment. The root content for total soluble carbohydrates and starch demonstrated that despite stable starch content, total soluble carbohydrates showed the tendency to significantly decline in response to AgNPs. However, induction of root branching and photosynthetic pigments can attributed to AgNPs stress based on evidence from the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and local root tissue death. Nine isolates of the genus Bacillus selected and identified according to morphological and chemotaxonomic methods. The AgNPs treatment revolutionized the populations of bacteria as Bacillus thuringiensis SBURR1 was totally eliminated, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SBURR5 became the most populated one. Images from an electron microscope and the leakage of reducing sugars and protein through the bacterial membrane, similarly confirmed the “pit” formation mechanism of the AgNPs. Moreover the hypothesis from the growth curve study demonstrated that AgNPs may damage bacterium cell wall and transform them to protoplasts. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

73 . Effect of silver nanoparticles on Oryza sativa L. and its rhizosphere bacteria Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 88, P (1 Feb 2013) Fateme Mirzajani, Hossein Askari, Sara Hamzelou, Mohsen Farzaneh, Alireza Ghassempour Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

74 . Assessment of the environmental risk of long-chain aliphatic alcohols S.E. Belanger aS.E. Belanger a,,, H. Sanderson b, 1, P.R. Fisk c, C. Schäfers d, S.M. Mudge e, A. Willing f, Y. Kasai g, A.M. Nielsen h, S.D. Dyer a, R. ToyH. Sanderson b1P.R. Fisk cC. Schäfers dS.M. Mudge eA. Willing fY. Kasai gA.M. Nielsen hS.D. Dyer aR. Toy Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 72, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 1006–1015Volume 72, Issue 4 An environmental assessment of long-chain alcohols (LCOH) has recently been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Aliphatic Alcohols Consortium. LCOH are used primarily as intermediates, as a precursor to alcohol- based surfactants and as alcohol per se in a wide variety of consumer product applications. Global production volume is approximately 1.58 million metric tonnes. The OECD HPV assessment covers linear to slightly branched LCOH ranging from 6 to 22 alkyl carbons (C). LCOH biodegrade exceptionally rapidly in the environment (half-lives on the order of minutes); however, due to continuous use and distribution to wastewater treatment systems, partitioning properties, biodegradation of alcohol- based surfactants, and natural alcohol sources, LCOH are universally detected in wastewater effluents. An environmental risk assessment of LCOH is presented here by focusing on the most prevalent and toxic members of the linear alcohols, specifically, from C 12−15. The assessment includes environmental monitoring data for these chain lengths in final effluents of representative wastewater treatment plants and covers all uses of alcohol (i.e., the use of alcohol as a substance and as an intermediate for the manufacturing of alcohol-based surfactants). The 90th percentile effluent discharge concentration of μg/L (C 12 −C 15 ) was determined for wastewater treatment plants in 7 countries. Chronic aquatic toxicity studies with Daphnia magna demonstrated that between C 13 and C 15 LCOH solubility became a factor and that the structure–activity relationship was characterized by a toxicity maximum between C 13 and C 14. Above C 14 the LCOH was less toxic and become un-testable due to insolubility. Risk quotients based on a toxic units (TU) approach were determined for various scenarios of exposure and effects extrapolation. The global average TU ranged from to depending on the scenario employed suggesting a low risk to the environment. The fact that environmental exposure calculations include large fractions of naturally derived alcohol from animal, plant, and microbially mediated biotransformations further supports a conclusion of low risk. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

75 . Assessment of the environmental risk of long-chain aliphatic alcohols S.E. Belanger aS.E. Belanger a,,, H. Sanderson b, 1, P.R. Fisk c, C. Schäfers d, S.M. Mudge e, A. Willing f, Y. Kasai g, A.M. Nielsen h, S.D. Dyer a, R. ToyH. Sanderson b1P.R. Fisk cC. Schäfers dS.M. Mudge eA. Willing fY. Kasai gA.M. Nielsen hS.D. Dyer aR. Toy Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 72, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 1006–1015Volume 72, Issue 4 Potential sources of fatty (long chain) alcohols in the aquatic environment. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

76 . Assessment of the environmental risk of long-chain aliphatic alcohols S.E. Belanger aS.E. Belanger a,,, H. Sanderson b, 1, P.R. Fisk c, C. Schäfers d, S.M. Mudge e, A. Willing f, Y. Kasai g, A.M. Nielsen h, S.D. Dyer a, R. ToyH. Sanderson b1P.R. Fisk cC. Schäfers dS.M. Mudge eA. Willing fY. Kasai gA.M. Nielsen hS.D. Dyer aR. Toy Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 72, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 1006–1015Volume 72, Issue 4 Conceptual diagram of developing toxic unit (TU) predictions for LCOH environmental risk characterization. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

77 . Assessment of the environmental risk of long-chain aliphatic alcohols S.E. Belanger aS.E. Belanger a,,, H. Sanderson b, 1, P.R. Fisk c, C. Schäfers d, S.M. Mudge e, A. Willing f, Y. Kasai g, A.M. Nielsen h, S.D. Dyer a, R. ToyH. Sanderson b1P.R. Fisk cC. Schäfers dS.M. Mudge eA. Willing fY. Kasai gA.M. Nielsen hS.D. Dyer aR. Toy Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 72, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 1006–1015Volume 72, Issue 4 Cumulative frequency distribution of final effluent concentrations before (total, unadjusted) and after (total adjusted) correcting for bioavailability, dilution and in- stream mineralization of parent alcohol. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

78 . Assessment of the environmental risk of long-chain aliphatic alcohols S.E. Belanger aS.E. Belanger a,,, H. Sanderson b, 1, P.R. Fisk c, C. Schäfers d, S.M. Mudge e, A. Willing f, Y. Kasai g, A.M. Nielsen h, S.D. Dyer a, R. ToyH. Sanderson b1P.R. Fisk cC. Schäfers dS.M. Mudge eA. Willing fY. Kasai gA.M. Nielsen hS.D. Dyer aR. Toy Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 72, Issue 4, May 2009, Pages 1006–1015Volume 72, Issue 4. Cumulative frequency distribution of TU determinations for LCOH for the 32 monitored sites in Europe, Canada and the US. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

79 . Assessing, mapping and validating site-specific ecotoxicological risk for pesticide mixtures: A case study for small scale hot spots in aquatic and terrestrial environments Claudia Vaj a Claudia Vaj a, Stefania Barmaz a, Peter Borgen Sørensen b, David Spurgeon c, Marco VighiStefania Barmaz aPeter Borgen Sørensen bDavid Spurgeon cMarco Vighi Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 74, Issue 8, November 2011, Pages 2156–2166Volume 74, Issue 8 Mixture toxicity is a real world problem and as such requires risk assessment solutions that can be applied within different geographic regions, across different spatial scales and in situations where the quantity of data available for the assessment varies. Moreover, the need for site specific procedures for assessing ecotoxicological risk for non- target species in non-target ecosystems also has to be recognised. The work presented in the paper addresses the real world effects of pesticide mixtures on natural communities. Initially, the location of risk hotspots is theoretically estimated through exposure modelling and the use of available toxicity data to predict potential community effects. The concept of Concentration Addition (CA) is applied to describe responses resulting from exposure of multiple pesticides The developed and refined exposure models are georeferenced (GIS-based) and include environmental and physico-chemical parameters, and site specific information on pesticide usage and land use. As a test of the risk assessment framework, the procedures have been applied on a suitable study areas, notably the River Meolo basin (Northern Italy), a catchment characterised by intensive agriculture, as well as comparative area for some assessments. Within the studied areas, the risks for individual chemicals and complex mixtures have been assessed on aquatic and terrestrial aboveground and belowground communities. Results from ecological surveys have been used to validate these risk assessment model predictions. Value and limitation of the approaches are described and the possibilities for larger scale applications in risk assessment are also discussed. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

80 . Assessing, mapping and validating site-specific ecotoxicological risk for pesticide mixtures: A case study for small scale hot spots in aquatic and terrestrial environments Claudia Vaj a Claudia Vaj a, Stefania Barmaz a, Peter Borgen Sørensen b, David Spurgeon c, Marco VighiStefania Barmaz aPeter Borgen Sørensen bDavid Spurgeon cMarco Vighi Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 74, Issue 8, November 2011, Pages 2156–2166Volume 74, Issue 8 Scheme of the general procedure for assessing and validating pesticide mixture risk. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

81 . Assessing, mapping and validating site-specific ecotoxicological risk for pesticide mixtures: A case study for small scale hot spots in aquatic and terrestrial environments Claudia Vaj a Claudia Vaj a, Stefania Barmaz a, Peter Borgen Sørensen b, David Spurgeon c, Marco VighiStefania Barmaz aPeter Borgen Sørensen bDavid Spurgeon cMarco Vighi Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 74, Issue 8, November 2011, Pages 2156–2166Volume 74, Issue 8 Scheme of the procedures for pesticide risk assessment of pollinators. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

82 . Assessing, mapping and validating site-specific ecotoxicological risk for pesticide mixtures: A case study for small scale hot spots in aquatic and terrestrial environments Claudia Vaj a Claudia Vaj a, Stefania Barmaz a, Peter Borgen Sørensen b, David Spurgeon c, Marco VighiStefania Barmaz aPeter Borgen Sørensen bDavid Spurgeon cMarco Vighi Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 74, Issue 8, November 2011, Pages 2156–2166Volume 74, Issue 8. Comparison between predicted and measured concentrations for terbuthylazine and metolachlor in Meolo river water, Northern Italy. The parameters of the correlations are the following: terbuthylazine: y=1.46x−0.09; R 2 =0.93; metolachlor: y=1.57x−0.03; R 2 =0.88. The line represents theoretical perfect fit. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

83 . Assessing, mapping and validating site-specific ecotoxicological risk for pesticide mixtures: A case study for small scale hot spots in aquatic and terrestrial environments Claudia Vaj a Claudia Vaj a, Stefania Barmaz a, Peter Borgen Sørensen b, David Spurgeon c, Marco VighiStefania Barmaz aPeter Borgen Sørensen bDavid Spurgeon cMarco Vighi Ecotoxicology and Environmental SafetyEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Volume 74, Issue 8, November 2011, Pages 2156–2166Volume 74, Issue 8. PECs (mg/m 2 ) in soil within the vineyard from the beginning of the plant protection product applications (28 April 2008), until the end of the productive season (30 September 2008). Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

84 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 Environmental health assessment covers a broad area: virtually all systematic analysis to support decision making on issues relevant to environment and health. Consequently, various different approaches have been developed and applied for different needs within the broad field. In this paper we explore the plurality of approaches and attempt to reveal the state-of-the-art in environmental health assessment by characterizing and explicating the similarities and differences between them. A diverse, yet concise, set of approaches to environmental health assessment is analyzed in terms of nine attributes: purpose, problem owner, question, answer, process, use, interaction, performance and establishment. The conclusions of the analysis underline the multitude and complexity of issues in environmental health assessment as well as the variety of perspectives taken to address them. In response to the challenges, a tendency towards developing and applying more inclusive, pragmatic and integrative approaches can be identified. The most interesting aspects of environmental health assessment are found among these emerging approaches: (a) increasing engagement between assessment and management as well as stakeholders, (b) strive for framing assessments according to specific practical policy needs, (c) integration of multiple benefits and risks, as well as (d) explicit incorporation of both scientific facts and value statements in assessment. However, such approaches are yet to become established, and many contemporary mainstream environmental health assessment practices can still be characterized as relatively traditional risk assessment. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

85 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 Outline of relevant issues to address in environmental health assessment and coverage of certain common approaches to risk and impact assessment. The figure is adapted from a framework for integrated environmental health impact assessment (Briggs, 2008).Briggs, 2008 Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

86 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The Red Book risk assessment process. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013 Karakteri- sasi Risiko Keputusan & Aksi Evaluasi Pilihan Pilihan Regulasi Karakterisasi Risiko Identifikasi Bahaya Pendugaan Paparan Pendugaan Respon- Dosis Ekstra- polasi Observasi Pendugaan RisikoManajemen Risiko

87 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The analytic-deliberative risk decision process Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

88 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The IRGC risk governance framework. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

89 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The chemical safety assessment process in REACH. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

90 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The Finnish environmental impact assessment procedure (YVA). Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

91 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The health impact assessment process as defined by WHO. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

92 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 The integrated environmental health impact assessment process. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

93 . State of the art in benefit–risk analysis: Environmental health M.V. Pohjola aM.V. Pohjola a,,, O. Leino a, V. Kollanus a, J.T. Tuomisto a, H. Gunnlaugsdóttir b, F. Holm c, N. Kalogeras d, J.M. Luteijn e, S.H. Magnússon b, G. Odekerken d, M.J. Tijhuis d, f, Ø. Ueland g, B.C. White h, H. VerhagenO. Leino aV. Kollanus aJ.T. Tuomisto aH. Gunnlaugsdóttir bF. Holm cN. Kalogeras dJ.M. Luteijn eS.H. Magnússon bG. Odekerken dM.J. Tijhuis dfØ. Ueland gB.C. White hH. Verhagen Food and Chemical ToxicologyFood and Chemical Toxicology. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 40–55Volume 50, Issue 1 Collaborative knowledge creation in open assessment. Adapted from an illustration of collaborative knowledge building with wikis (Cress and Kimmerle, 2008).Cress and Kimmerle, 2008 Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

94 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 Problem: Tragic marine and offshore accidents have caused serious consequences including loss of lives, loss of property, and damage of the environment. Method: A proactive, risk-based “goal setting” regime is introduced to the marine and offshore industries to increase the level of safety. Discussion: To maximize marine and offshore safety, risks need to be modeled and safety-based decisions need to be made in a logical and confident way. Risk modeling and decision-making tools need to be developed and applied in a practical environment. Summary: This paper describes both the offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships in detail with particular reference to the design aspects. The current practices and the latest development in safety assessment in both the marine and offshore industries are described. The relationship between the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment is described and discussed. Three examples are used to demonstrate both the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment. The study of risk criteria in marine and offshore safety assessment is carried out. The recommendations on further work required are given. Impact on industry: This paper gives safety engineers in the marine and offshore industries an overview of the offshore safety case approach and formal ship safety assessment. The significance of moving toward a risk- based “goal setting” regime is given. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

95 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 The HSE framework for decisions on the tolerability of risk. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

96 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 Relationships between offshore safety regulations. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

97 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 The five key elements of the safety case concepts. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

98 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 The detailed UKOOA framework. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

99 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 Risk contribution tree for fire. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

100 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 Generic fishing vessel. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

101 . Offshore safety case approach and formal safety assessment of ships J Wang Journal of Safety Research. Vol 33, Issue 1, Spring 2002, Pages 81–115Vol 33, Issue 1 The proposed approach. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

102 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Assessment of risks to aquatic organisms is important in the registration procedures for pesticides in industrialised countries. This risk assessment consists of two parts: (i) assessment of effects to these organisms derived from ecotoxicological experiments (=effect assessment), and (ii) assessment of concentration levels in relevant environmental compartments resulting from pesticide application (=exposure assessment). Current procedures lack a clear conceptual basis for the interface between the effect and exposure assessments which may lead to a low overall scientific quality of the risk assessment. This interface is defined here as the type of concentration that gives the best correlation to ecotoxicological effects and is called the ecotoxicologically relevant concentration (ERC). Definition of this ERC allows the design of tiered effect and exposure assessments that can interact flexibly and efficiently. There are two distinctly different exposure estimates required for pesticide risk assessment: that related to exposure in ecotoxicological experiments and that related to exposure in the field. The same type of ERC should be used consistently for both types of exposure estimates. Decisions are made by comparing a regulatory acceptable concentration (=RAC) level or curve (i.e., endpoint of the effect assessment) with predicted environmental concentration (=PEC) levels or curves (endpoint of the exposure assessment). For decision making based on ecotoxicological experiments with time- variable concentrations a tiered approach is proposed that compares (i) in a first step single RAC and PEC levels based on conservative assumptions, (ii) in a second step graphically RAC and PEC curves (describing the time courses of the RAC and PEC), and (iii) in a third step time-weighted average RAC and PEC levels. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

103 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Tiered effect and exposure flow charts for a risk assessment addressing a protection aim ‘X’ which needs exposure estimates of an ecotoxicologically relevant concentration (ERC) ‘Y’ as indicated by the large arrow. The boxes E-1 to E-4 are four effect tiers and the boxes F-1 to F-4 are four tiers for assessment of exposure in the field (‘F’ from ‘field’). Downward arrows indicate movement to a higher tier. Horizontal arrows from the exposure to the effect flow chart indicate delivery of field exposure estimates for comparison with effect concentrations in the effect flow chart. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013 F

104 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Schematic representation of activities in any combination of tiers of the effect and exposure flow chart. The dashed-line and dotted-line boxes indicate the division of the activities over the effect and exposure assessment illustrating that there are two distinctly different exposure assessments (‘A’ and ‘B’) in the risk assessment procedure (activity A being part of exposure tier F that delivers field exposure and activity B being part of the effect tier E). Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

105 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Diagrams of two different conceptual models of possible routes through combined effect and exposure flow charts. The boxes E-1 to E-4 are four effect tiers and the boxes F-1 to F-4 are four tiers for assessment of exposure in the field. Part A shows routes in which each effect tier is at the same level of sophistication as the exposure tier (called the ‘ladder’ model). Part B shows all possible routes (called the ‘criss- cross’ model). Downward arrows indicate movement to a higher tier. Arrows from right to left indicate delivery of field exposure estimates to the indicated effect tiers. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

106 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Flow chart for handling the procedure in the box ‘compare and decide’ of the effect tier shown in Fig. 2 in case of a time-variable exposure concentration in the ecotoxicological experiment. The numbers 1, 2, and 3 indicate the numbers of the three steps. RAC is ‘regulatory acceptable concentration’, PEC is ‘predicted environmental concentration’, TWA is ‘time-weighted average’.Fig. 2 Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

107 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Maxima of time-weighted average (TWA) linuron concentrations in surface water calculated for the R1-stream FOCUS scenario as a function of the length of the time window compared with the TWA concentration derived from a RAC curve derived from a mesocosm study by Van Geest et al. (1999) using effects of class 1 as a basis. The scenario concentrations are output from the TOXSWA model and the line from the RAC curve was obtained by numerical integration of the time course of concentrations measured by Van Geest et al. (1999).Van Geest et al. (1999) Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

108 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Linuron concentrations in surface water as a function of time as calculated with the TOXSWA model for the D1-ditch FOCUS Step 3 surface water scenario compared with an effect-class-1 and an effect-class-3 RAC curve as derived from the mesocosm experiment by Van Geest et al. (1999). Time 0 is 1 January The arrow indicates the application time of linuron in the TOXSWA simulations.Van Geest et al. (1999) Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

109 . Conceptual model for improving the link between exposure and effects in the aquatic risk assessment of pesticides J.J.T.I. Boesten, H. Köpp,, P.I. Adriaanse, T.C.M. Brock, V.E. ForbesH. Köpp P.I. Adriaanse Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Vol 66, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 291– 308Vol 66, Issue 3 Proposed system of effect and exposure flow charts for aquatic risk assessment at EU level. The two solid arrows from the box ‘Protect biodiversity of aquatic life in EU’ indicate the need to assess always both short-term and long-term risks. The dashed arrow indicates the possibility for the risk manager to ignore short-term risks if long- term risks are absent. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

110 . A subjective modelling tool applied to formal ship safety assessment Jin Wang Ocean Engineering. Volume 27, Issue 10, October 2000, Pages 1019– 1035 Formal safety assessment of ships has attracted great attention over the last few years. In this paper, following a brief review of the current status of marine safety assessment, formal ship safety assessment is discussed in detail. A subjective safety-analysis-based decision-making framework is then proposed for formal ship safety assessment in situations where a high level of uncertainty is involved. In the framework, failure events at the lowest level are modelled using fuzzy sets and safety synthesis at the different levels of a hierarchy is carried out using evidential reasoning. Multiple safety analysts' judgements can also be synthesised using the framework. Subjective safety and cost assessments obtained can finally be combined to produce the preference degrees associated with the design/operation options for ranking purposes. An example is used to demonstrate the framework. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

111 . A subjective modelling tool applied to formal ship safety assessment Jin Wang Ocean Engineering. Volume 27, Issue 10, October 2000, Pages 1019– 1035 A hierarchy of subjective safety modelling. A hierarchy of subjective safety modelling. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

112 . A subjective modelling tool applied to formal ship safety assessment Jin Wang Ocean Engineering. Volume 27, Issue 10, October 2000, Pages 1019– A hierarchical safety-based design/operation option ranking framework. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

113 . A subjective modelling tool applied to formal ship safety assessment Jin Wang Ocean Engineering. Volume 27, Issue 10, October 2000, Pages 1019– 1035 Ranking of the design options. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

114 . Application of fuzzy theory and PROMETHEE technique to evaluate suitable ecotechnology method: A case study in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed, Taiwan Wen-Chieh Chou, Wen-Tzu Lin, Chao-Yuan Lin Ecological Engineering. Volume 31, Issue 4, 3 December 2007, Pages 269–280 With the increase in industrial development and improper land uses, Taiwan has faced the extinction crisis and is seeing the signs of nature, revenge in the forms of frequent landslides, floods, and debris flows in recent years. The government has strongly promoted the concept of ecotechnology in the hope of maintaining the ecosystem and its integrity. However, the application of ecotechnology is still in its infancy, so there is currently no objective evaluation standard to assess its effectiveness. Deficiencies in the scientific approach to quantify the results are due to current disputes and bottlenecks in its implementation. In order to seek reasonable and feasible methods to overcome the deficiencies in the implementation of the scientific approach, this study collected domestic and international ecological evaluation models to develop innovative processes that utilize ecological, safety, and cost indices. First, the commonly used ecotechnology methods for river embankment were acquired from the governmental departments. Second, the ecological, safety and cost indices for the acquired ecotechnology methods and construction sites were analyzed and quantified using fuzzy theory. Third, indices of ecotechnology methods were linked with those of construction sites for the PROMETHEE technique evaluation for suitable ecotechnology method selection. A practical construction case located in Shihmen reservoir watershed was chosen for evaluation and verification. The results show that the developed model can provide useful information for decision making while performing ecotechnology engineering. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

115 . Application of fuzzy theory and PROMETHEE technique to evaluate suitable ecotechnology method: A case study in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed, Taiwan Wen-Chieh Chou, Wen-Tzu Lin, Chao-Yuan Lin Ecological Engineering. Volume 31, Issue 4, 3 December 2007, Pages 269–280 The evaluation processes for ecological index, safety index, and cost index. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

116 . Synthesis of ecosystemic and ecoscreening modelling in solving problems of ecological safety N.V Solovjova Ecological ModellingEcological Modelling. Vol. 124, Issue 1, 1 December 1999, Pages 1–10124, Issue 1 The traditional approach to modeling the state of complex ecological systems assumes realization of a series of numerical experiments with a dynamic model. The results obtained are difficult to evaluate for multicomponent systems. To give an integrated estimation of the state of an ecosystem as a whole is quite a complicated task. The synthesis of dynamic modeling for aggregated and averaged components of an ecosystem and ecoscreening approach for risk estimation is one way of overcoming this difficulty. The annual variations of the basic components of the ecological system (concentrations of phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroalgae, fish, nutrients, suspended and dissolved organic matter, and hydro-optical characteristics) are calculated from full dynamic modelling. The annual variations of ecological risk from effects on an ecological system are calculated based on the synthesis of the two approaches. This method was developed for prediction of variations of risk estimation for the north-western Black Sea shelf. The annual variations of risk are calculated when the ecological system is submitted to regular pollution and emergency situations. More accurate estimation of risk is reached by step wise application of each one of the approaches. Diunduh dari ………. 8/1/2013

117 . Synthesis of ecosystemic and ecoscreening modelling in solving problems of ecological safety N.V Solovjova Ecological Modelling. Volume 124, Issue 1, 1 December 1999, Pages 1–10Volume 124, Issue 1 Hierarchic scheme for a marine ecological system. Diunduh dari ………. 8/1/2013

118 The co-ordination of anthropogenous load with a natural annual variation of risk for ‘adverse’ (a) and ‘favourable’ (b, c) natural conditions. ▧, the area of allowable anthropogenous load for ecological system. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013. Synthesis of ecosystemic and ecoscreening modelling in solving problems of ecological safety N.V Solovjova Ecological Modelling. Volume 124, Issue 1, 1 December 1999, Pages 1–10Volume 124, Issue 1

119 Managing the Risks of Natural Hazards in Switzerland - An Alpine Country Peter Greminger Director of Protection Forest and Natural Hazards Sector, Swiss Forest Agency, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. For centuries, avalanches, mudslides, falls of stones and rocks, landslides and floods have all been part of the landscape of the Alpine region and of the way in which the landscape has changed. The increases in settlements and development mean that about a million people now live in the Swiss Alpine region, and this population is repeatedly threatened locally by natural hazards. Thanks to the efforts made by the state, the threat of avalanches and flooding has been reduced. However, the risk of damage to property from natural disasters has increased. Therefore, the prevention of any further increase in the risk of such damage represents a considerable challenge for the future. Possible measures include spatial planning, conservation of protection forests, early-warning systems, organizational measures, protective structures, prevention measures to deal with disasters, and measures to restore normal conditions after natural disasters. Economic, ecological, safety and social aspects must all be taken into account. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

120 Managing the Risks of Natural Hazards in Switzerland - An Alpine Country Peter Greminger Director of Protection Forest and Natural Hazards Sector, Swiss Forest Agency, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. STEPWISE APPROACH TO PROTECTION FROM NATURAL HAZARDS The declared aim of the authorities is to adapt land-use planning to natural hazards with the highest priority, despite the fact that it is not possible to ensure safety for everyone and for everything. This is not only a matter of resources, which are limited, but also a question of space and of what already exists in a densely populated Alpine country such as Switzerland. It is of great importance to know where natural processes may become a hazard for human beings. Only if we know where a danger may arise can we protect ourselves against it. A stepwise approach is to be recommended. Identifying natural hazards The first step is therefore to identify the natural hazards, in order to adapt spatial planning to them. It is necessary to distinguish between the knowledge that is required to give a general overview at the level of regional master plans and the detailed information relating to individual plots that provides the basis for a municipal hazard zone plan. For a master plan, the hazard information map is generally sufficient, whereas to demarcate a hazard zone, an accurate hazard map (based on expert opinion) is necessary. Assessing natural hazards Different natural hazards need to be assessed in terms of their probability of occurrence and severity (intensity), as shown in Fig. 4. For this purpose, it is necessary to study not only individual hazard processes, but also the interactions between processes such as mudslides and avalanches. By combining the potential hazard and community vulnerability, conclusions may be drawn with regard to the possible level of damage. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

121 Managing the Risks of Natural Hazards in Switzerland - An Alpine Country Peter Greminger Director of Protection Forest and Natural Hazards Sector, Swiss Forest Agency, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. STEPWISE APPROACH TO PROTECTION FROM NATURAL HAZARDS Considering natural hazards in land-use planning The results of the hazard assessment serve as the basis for the third step: taking natural hazards into account in spatial planning. The regional administration is responsible for preparing the master plan, whereas the municipalities are responsible for local planning, considering natural hazards. This is normally done by referring to hazard maps in land-use planning at the level of individual plots, and involves regulating land use on the basis of risk. In areas that have already become densely populated, and which have little potential for development, the pressure on the authorities to take risks is greater than in areas where there is still considerable potential for development. Protection from natural hazards The final step consists of providing suitable protection from natural hazards in cases where people and/or property of considerable value are at risk from avalanches, landslides, erosion, falls of ice or rocks, or flooding, and the possibilities offered by spatial planning have been exhausted. This involves the use of forestry measures, such as conservation of protective forest; organisational precautions, such as early- warning systems, evacuation and road closure; structural measures, e.g. providing protection from avalanches and floods; and appropriate emergency planning. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

122 Managing the Risks of Natural Hazards in Switzerland - An Alpine Country Peter Greminger Director of Protection Forest and Natural Hazards Sector, Swiss Forest Agency, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. Hazard levels for assessment of the danger of flooding Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

123 Managing the Risks of Natural Hazards in Switzerland - An Alpine Country Peter Greminger Director of Protection Forest and Natural Hazards Sector, Swiss Forest Agency, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. Sustainable protection strategy There is a need to stem the increase in damaging events by means of an appropriate protection strategy, based on the three key factors of sustainability: "social solidarity", "a favourable approach to the environment" and "economic capacity". For reasons of sustainability and of safety, it is essential that the following protection measures be applied (in descending order of priority): Avoidance of areas exposed to the risk of natural hazards Conservation of forests with a protective function Land use adapted to the actual risk Prevention of increased risks along transport routes and in settlements as a result of intensified use and appreciation in value Organisational measures, such as early-warning systems, evacuation, road closure, etc. Maintenance of existing protection structures New protection structures. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

124 Managing the Risks of Natural Hazards in Switzerland - An Alpine Country Peter Greminger Director of Protection Forest and Natural Hazards Sector, Swiss Forest Agency, Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), CH-3003 Berne, Switzerland. Overall protection strategies should provide balanced protection against natural hazards Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

125 . Application of fuzzy theory and PROMETHEE technique to evaluate suitable ecotechnology method: A case study in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed, Taiwan Wen-Chieh Chou, Wen-Tzu Lin, Chao-Yuan Lin Ecological Engineering. Volume 31, Issue 4, 3 December 2007, Pages 269–280Volume 31, Issue 4 With the increase in industrial development and improper land uses, Taiwan has faced the extinction crisis and is seeing the signs of nature, revenge in the forms of frequent landslides, floods, and debris flows in recent years. The government has strongly promoted the concept of ecotechnology in the hope of maintaining the ecosystem and its integrity. However, the application of ecotechnology is still in its infancy, so there is currently no objective evaluation standard to assess its effectiveness. Deficiencies in the scientific approach to quantify the results are due to current disputes and bottlenecks in its implementation. In order to seek reasonable and feasible methods to overcome the deficiencies in the implementation of the scientific approach, this study collected domestic and international ecological evaluation models to develop innovative processes that utilize ecological, safety, and cost indices. First, the commonly used ecotechnology methods for river embankment were acquired from the governmental departments. Second, the ecological, safety and cost indices for the acquired ecotechnology methods and construction sites were analyzed and quantified using fuzzy theory. Third, indices of ecotechnology methods were linked with those of construction sites for the PROMETHEE technique evaluation for suitable ecotechnology method selection. A practical construction case located in Shihmen reservoir watershed was chosen for evaluation and verification. The results show that the developed model can provide useful information for decision making while performing ecotechnology engineering. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

126 . Application of fuzzy theory and PROMETHEE technique to evaluate suitable ecotechnology method: A case study in Shihmen Reservoir Watershed, Taiwan Wen-Chieh Chou, Wen-Tzu Lin, Chao-Yuan Lin Ecological Engineering. Volume 31, Issue 4, 3 December 2007, Pages 269–280Volume 31, Issue 4 The evaluation processes for ecological index, safety index, and cost index. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

127 . Sustainable ecological economies John E Cantlon, Herman E Koenig Ecological Economics. Volume 31, Issue 1, October 1999, Pages 107–121Volume 31, Issue 1 A brief accounting is presented of the evolution of natural ecosystems and human cultures including industrialization and its ecologically-significant interactions with natural abiotic and biotic processes of the earth. These accounts show, among other things, that excess resource harvest rates and material releases into the natural environment have been ecological risks of growing scope and scale throughout the history of political economies. The growing ecological risks of industrialization are attributed to disparities between the rates and directions of evolution in the ecological features of process and structure of corporate and political economies relative to the rates and directions of evolution in their cultural institutions of control. Many social and political organizations are now calling for adaptations toward sustainable industrialization by promoting evolution in the cultural institutions of control through research, education, ethics, politics and government. What is required are on-line institutional processes for effectively translating emerging ecological risk assessments into economic incentives for feasible adaptations throughout the systems. Institutionalization of such on-line adaptive processes requires broad moral-ethical enlightenment and social-political commitment to make the emerging scientific, technological and economic dimensions productive (Faber et al., 1996). This paper presents on-line strategies of ecological risk assessment and control which are believed to be superior to alternatives that require a prior consensus on economic valuations of natural resource stocks, natural processes and environmental damages; and incentives have advantages over prescriptive regulations. When viewed in their greater economic context, the proposed strategies are formulated as coordinated institutions of on-line ecological and fiscal control processes on what is here defined as the ecological economies of corporate and political economies. The objective of the proposed control strategies is to pursue trajectories of joint ecological and cultural evolution toward systems that are ecologically and culturally both satisfying and sustainable. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

128 . Sustainable ecological economies John E Cantlon, Herman E Koenig Ecological Economics. Volume 31, Issue 1, October 1999, Pages 107–121Volume 31, Issue 1 The ecological economics of corporate and political economies, portraying (a) (between the dashed lines) its features of technological process and organizational structure, (b) (above the upper dashed line) its ecological risk-control strategy pursuant to containing the ecological risks as characterized by a vector of monitored ecological states, ψ n, and (c) (below the lower dashed line) its fiscal policy-control strategy pursuant to designated socioeconomic goals as characterized by a vector of monitored fiscal indicators ψ f. Vectors v i and v, respectively, represent the ecological variables of enterprises i and of the ecological economy at their respective ecological boundaries. Vector p d represents tactical incremental amendments to open-market prices on risk-generating ecological flows y d, as administered through effluent or resource extraction taxes, for example. Ecological Risk Control Strategy is policy determined and may be administered by one or more institutions internal to the corporate or political economy, with informational linkages to observed changes in the ecological states of at-risk natural processes, resource stocks and ecosystems, ψ n. Diunduh dari: 8/1/2013

129 Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities Michelle L. Bell, Luis A. Cifuentes, Devra L. Davis, Erin Cushing, Adriana Gusman Telles, Nelson Gouveia Environmental Research. Volume 111, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 57–66Volume 111, Issue 1 Environmental health indicators (EHIs) are applied in a variety of research and decision-making settings to gauge the health consequences of environmental hazards, to summarize complex information, or to compare policy impacts across locations or time periods. While EHIs can provide a useful means of conveying information, they also can be misused. Additional research is needed to help researchers and policy-makers understand categories of indicators and their appropriate application. In this article, we review current frameworks for environmental health indicators and discuss the advantages and limitations of various forms. A case study EHI system was developed for air pollution and health for urban Latin American centers in order to explore how underlying assumptions affect indicator results. Sixteen cities were ranked according to five indicators that considered: population exposed, children exposed, comparison to health-based guidelines, and overall PM 10 levels. Results indicate that although some overall patterns in rankings were observed, cities’ relative rankings were highly dependent on the indicator used. In fact, a city that was ranked best under one indicator was ranked worst with another. The sensitivity of rankings, even when considering a simple case of a single pollutant, highlights the need for clear understanding of EHIs and how they may be affected by underlying assumptions. Careful consideration should be given to the purpose, assumptions, and limitations of EHIs used individually or in combination in order to minimize misinterpretation of their implications and enhance their usefulness. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

130 Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities Michelle L. Bell, Luis A. Cifuentes, Devra L. Davis, Erin Cushing, Adriana Gusman Telles, Nelson Gouveia Environmental Research. Volume 111, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 57–66Volume 111, Issue 1 Air quality environmental health indicators: relationship between local characteristics, the environment and human health systems, and indicators. Note: GNP stands for gross national product. DALYs stands for disability-adjusted life years. This figure provides examples of environmental health indicators based on the relationship between local characteristics that affect the environment and health system. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

131 Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities Michelle L. Bell, Luis A. Cifuentes, Devra L. Davis, Erin Cushing, Adriana Gusman Telles, Nelson Gouveia Environmental Research. Volume 111, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 57–66Volume 111, Issue 1 Rankings of cities by various environmental health indicators. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

132 ECOLOGICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF MANAS RIVER BASIN OASIS, XINJIANG. LING Hong-bo;XU Hai-liang;SHI Wei;ZHANG Qing-qing Chinese Journal of Applied EcologyChinese Journal of Applied Ecology 2009, Vol. 20 Issue (09): Vol. 20Issue (09) By using analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, an index system for ecological safety assessment was built, and 18 indices in the aspects of water resource, environment, and social economy were selected to assess the ecological safety of Manas River Basin oasis in In the study area, the ecological situation in 2006 was basically safe, with the membership degree being and the integrated evaluation score being The water resource safety index, social economy index, and environmental safety index were in the levels of relatively safe, extremely safe, and unsafe, respectively. Water resource index could represent the sustainable development degree of oasis, while social economy index and environment safety index could indicate the oasis development level and environment situation, respectively. These three indices could most reflect the ecological safety level of the oasis. Diunduh dari: ………. 8/1/2013

133 . The Research and Practice of Ecological Safety Evaluation Methods(I) Evaluation Index and Model Li HongweiLi Hongwei, Lv Mou, Ye SongLv MouYe Song Procedia Environmental Sciences. Volume 11, Part C, 2011, Pages 1204– 1210Volume 11, Part C ABSTRACT According to the ecological security system being fuzzy, we make use of AHP to determine the weight of evaluation index on the basis of the relevant historical data and unique geographical climate characteristics of the petrochemical area. And set up the ecological safety evaluation system with the MATLAB and GUI References 1. 1.Guo Xianhua, Cui Shenghui and Zhao Xianyun, “Ecological risk assessment of water sources,” Environment Science Research, vol.22, pp Sep Patrick T, Donald R, “Applying security and vulnerability assessments to large water wholesaling agencies,” Pipelines. vol.3 pp Saaty T L, “A Scaling Method for Priorities in Hierarchical Structures” Journal of Math Psychology, vol 15, pp Diunduh dari: ………. 11/1/2013

134 . “Lean occupational” safety: An application for a Near-miss Management System design M.G. Gnoni, S. Andriulo, G. Maggio, P. Nardone Safety Science. Volume 53, March 2013, Pages 96–104Volume 53 A critical component of a safety management system is the Near-miss Management System (NMS). An effective NMS aims to recognize signals from the operational field in order to apply more effective prevention strategies. These systems are widespread in industrial contexts characterized by a high risk level, such as major hazard and hospital sectors. Few examples occur in manufacturing processes which are characterized by different operational conditions at workplace and, consequently, different risk types. The Lean Thinking (or Management) strategy currently represents a worldwide competitive tool for improving productivity in the manufacturing sector all over the world. Thus, the application of these principles forces firms to define new approaches to design and manage the whole organization and consequently the safety management system. The paper proposes innovative design of a NMS based on the integration of principles of Lean Management in occupational safety for a worldwide automotive supplier firm. As no reference model has been previously defined, several factors have been assessed aiming to efficiently integrate occupational safety in the current Lean Management system. Innovative features characterizing the proposed model have been also discussed together with first results obtained by the full scale application. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

135 . “Lean occupational” safety: An application for a Near-miss Management System design M.G. Gnoni, S. Andriulo, G. Maggio, P. Nardone Safety Science. Volume 53, March 2013, Pages 96–104Volume 53 Traditional representation proposed by Heinrich (a) and the more recent one proposed by Massimore (b). Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

136 . “Lean occupational” safety: An application for a Near-miss Management System design M.G. Gnoni, S. Andriulo, G. Maggio, P. Nardone Safety Science. Volume 53, March 2013, Pages 96–104Volume 53 Main pillars of the Bosch Production System (BPS). Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

137 . “Lean occupational” safety: An application for a Near-miss Management System design M.G. Gnoni, S. Andriulo, G. Maggio, P. Nardone Safety Science. Volume 53, March 2013, Pages 96–104Volume 53 Main phases in a NMS design. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

138 . “Lean occupational” safety: An application for a Near-miss Management System design M.G. Gnoni, S. Andriulo, G. Maggio, P. Nardone Safety Science. Volume 53, March 2013, Pages 96–104Volume 53 Event definition in the proposed NMS. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

139 . “Lean occupational” safety: An application for a Near-miss Management System design M.G. Gnoni, S. Andriulo, G. Maggio, P. Nardone Safety Science. Volume 53, March 2013, Pages 96–104Volume 53 The proposed informative flow in the NMS. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

140 . Realistic evaluation as a new way to design and evaluate occupational safety interventions Louise M. Pedersen, Kent J. Nielsen, Pete Kines Safety Science. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 48–54Volume 50, Issue 1 Recent debates regarding the criteria for evaluating occupational health and safety interventions have focused on the need for incorporating qualitative elements and process evaluation, in addition to attempting to live up to the Cochrane criteria. Reflecting fundamental epistemological conflicts and shortcomings of the Cochrane criteria in evaluating intervention studies, the debate challenges the traditional (quasi-) experimental design and methodology, which are often used within safety research. This article discusses a revised ‘realistic evaluation’ approach as a way to meet these challenges. Evidence from the literature as well as examples from an integrated (leader-based/worker-based) safety intervention study (2008–2010) in a large wood manufacturing company are presented, with focus on the pros and cons of using randomised-controlled-trials and a revised realistic evaluation model. A revised realistic evaluation model is provided which includes factors such as role behaviour, leader and worker motivation, underreporting of accidents/injuries, production pressure, unplanned organisational change and accounting for multilayer effects. These can be attained through qualitative and/or quantitative methods, allowing for the use of realistic evaluation in both large and small scale studies, as well as in systematic reviews. The revised realistic evaluation model offers a promising new way of designing and evaluating occupational safety research. This model can help safety science move forward in setting qualitative and/or quantitative criteria regarding context, mechanisms and processes for single studies and for reviews. Focus is not limited to whether the expected results appear or not, but include suggestions for what works for whom, under what circumstances, in what respects and how. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

141 . Realistic evaluation as a new way to design and evaluate occupational safety interventions Louise M. Pedersen, Kent J. Nielsen, Pete Kines Safety Science. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 48–54Volume 50, Issue 1 Context, mechanism, and outcome (CMO figuration). Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

142 . Realistic evaluation as a new way to design and evaluate occupational safety interventions Louise M. Pedersen, Kent J. Nielsen, Pete Kines Safety Science. Volume 50, Issue 1, January 2012, Pages 48–54Volume 50, Issue 1 Revised realistic evaluation model for use in occupational safety research. Diunduh dari: 13/1/2013

143 Redefining innovation — eco-innovation research and the contribution from ecological economics Klaus Rennings Ecological Economics. Volume 32, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 319–332Volume 32, Issue 2 While innovation processes toward sustainable development (eco- innovations) have received increasing attention during the past years, theoretical and methodological approaches to analyze these processes are poorly developed. Against this background, the term eco-innovation is introduced in this paper addressing explicitly three kinds of changes towards sustainable development: technological, social and institutional innovation. Secondly, the potential contribution of neoclassical and (co-)evolutionary approaches from environmental and innovation economics to eco- innovation research is discussed. Three peculiarities of eco-innovation are identified: the double externality problem, the regulatory push/pull effect and the increasing importance of social and institutional innovation. While the first two are widely ignored in innovation economics, the third is at the least not elaborated appropriately. The consideration of these peculiarities may help to overcome market failure by establishing a specific eco- innovation policy and to avoid a ‘technology bias’ through a broader understanding of innovation. Finally, perspectives for a specific contribution of ecological economics to eco-innovation research are drawn. It is argued that methodological pluralism as established in ecological economics would be very beneficial for eco-innovation research. A theoretical framework integrating elements from both neoclassical and evolutionary approaches should be pursued in order to consider the complexity of factors influencing innovation decisions as well as the specific role of regulatory instruments. And the experience gathered in ecological economics integrating ecological, social and economic aspects of sustainable development is highly useful for opening up innovation research to social and institutional changes. Diunduh dari: ………. 11/1/2013

144 Redefining innovation — eco-innovation research and the contribution from ecological economics Klaus Rennings Ecological Economics. Volume 32, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 319–332Volume 32, Issue 2 Preventive environmental technologies. Source: Hohmeyer and Koschel (1995). Diunduh dari: ………. 11/1/2013

145 Redefining innovation — eco-innovation research and the contribution from ecological economics Klaus Rennings Ecological Economics. Volume 32, Issue 2, February 2000, Pages 319–332Volume 32, Issue 2 Determinants of eco-innovations. *OCH=Occupational Safety and Health. Diunduh dari: ………. 11/1/2013

146 Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance Beatriz Fernández-Muñiz, José Manuel Montes-Peón, Camilo José Vázquez- Ordás. Safety Science. Volume 47, Issue 7, August 2009, Pages 980–991Volume 47, Issue 7 Occupational accidents severely deteriorate human capital, and hence negatively affect the productivity and competitiveness of countries. But despite this, we still observe a scarcity of preventive practices, an unsatisfactory management commitment and an absence of safety culture among Spanish firms. The result is evident in firms’ high accident rates. This situation is a consequence of the general belief among firms that investing in safety is a cost, and hence has negative repercussions for their competitiveness. The current work aims to identify good practices in safety management, and analyse the effect of these practices on a set of indicators of organisational performance. For this, we first carry out an exhaustive literature review, and then formulate a series of hypotheses. We then test the proposed model on a sample of 455 Spanish firms. Our findings show that safety management has a positive influence on safety performance, competitiveness performance, and economic- financial performance. Hence they provide evidence of the compatibility between worker protection and corporate competitiveness. Diunduh dari: ………. 13/1/2013

147 Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance Beatriz Fernández-Muñiz, José Manuel Montes-Peón, Camilo José Vázquez- Ordás. Safety Science. Volume 47, Issue 7, August 2009, Pages 980–991Volume 47, Issue 7 Economic effects of health and safety at company level. Diunduh dari: ………. 13/1/2013

148 Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance Beatriz Fernández-Muñiz, José Manuel Montes-Peón, Camilo José Vázquez- Ordás. Safety Science. Volume 47, Issue 7, August 2009, Pages 980–991Volume 47, Issue 7 Occupational safety management system measurement scale (third-order confirmatory factor model). Diunduh dari: ………. 13/1/2013

149 Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance Beatriz Fernández-Muñiz, José Manuel Montes-Peón, Camilo José Vázquez- Ordás. Safety Science. Volume 47, Issue 7, August 2009, Pages 980–991Volume 47, Issue 7 Results of estimation of proposed model. Diunduh dari: ………. 13/1/2013


Download ppt "ESA ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT Diabstraksikan oleh: Soemarno, psl-pdklp ppsub Januari 2013."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google