Presentation on theme: "Assoc. Prof. Dr Olya Harizanova Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Faculty of Philosophy INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH ON."— Presentation transcript:
Assoc. Prof. Dr Olya Harizanova Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, Faculty of Philosophy firstname.lastname@example.org INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH ON DOCTORAL THESIS – HOW TO FIND AND EVALUATE June 8, 2007 Sozopol
Basic Questions How to locate relevant information in an efficient manner? (where, how) understand and evaluate information? (what, who, when, where) identify information needs? (what, why) use the information to solve a problem, complete a task…? (what, where, how)
Basic steps 1. Define your problem or question. 2. Decide what sources of information you can use (make a list). 3. Locate your sources. 4. Start reading, printing, taking notes. 5. Organize all the data you have and write your paper or complete your assignment. 6. Evaluate how well you did. What could you do differently next time?
Research Project Tips Develop a list of terms or search phrases. Brainstorm in writing many key words and concepts on a single page or card. Keep adding to (or deleting from) this list as you discover related concepts, larger and smaller terms, synonyms, subject headings, and descriptors. Plan your research strategy. Choose Internet search engines based on what you need and the best search engine for the job. Choose specialized resources (articles, books, interviews, etc.) to develop variety and depth of research.
Seven Steps to Find Information 1. Identify your Topic. 2. Find Background Information. 3. Use the Libraries Card Catalogues to Find Books and Periodicals. 4. Use Online Catalogues and Databases to Find Books and Periodical Articles. 5. Using the Internet. 6. Evaluate what you have found: (A) Author; (B) Date of Publication; (C) Title; (D) Intended Audience; (E) Objective Reasoning; (F) Coverage. 7. Use a Standard Format for your Bibliography.
When you use Online Library Catalogues and Databases Use key word searching for a narrow or complex search topic; Use subject searching for a broad subject; Use online databases to locate full-text articles. Write down the citation (author, title, etc.) and the location information.
Which information source should you use? Use a book if you want: in-depth coverage on a particular topic; information written by specialists; information that does not have to be very current; information arranged with an index and a table of contents. Use an encyclopedia if you want: a short general overview to scan for background information; answers to specific factual questions; information written by specialists who know their subject; information that does not have to be very current. Use a magazine or newspaper if you want: information on popular “hot” topics; articles written by professional journalists who have done research; local news and information; very current information; examples of events or people in the news that help make my research clearer.
Which information source should you use? Use the Internet if you want: information that is really hard to find anywhere else; the very latest information on your topic, but you must always check the dates posted; opinions from different people or organizations about your topic; a great variety of information from people, businesses, organizations and even some reference books.
Information Search Strategies First, you need a plan: what, why, where, how. Second, learn more about Search Engine Strategies. For example try: http://searchenginewatch.com/http://searchenginewatch.com/; http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/strat/http://www.searchengineshowdown.com/strat/. Third, library sites are good places to start. For example try: - Internet Public Library (http://www.ipl.org),http://www.ipl.org - The Library of Congress research tools (http://www.loc.gov/rr/tools.html)http://www.loc.gov/rr/tools.html - others.
Evaluating Internet Information 1) Don't be fooled by appearance. 2) Locate guides you trust. 3) Find out who is behind the information. 4) Look for the reason the information was posted. 5) Look for the date the information was created or modified. 6) Try to verify the same information elsewhere.
How to evaluate Internet Resources? Accuracy Does the author cite any sources? Are the sources credible? Can the information be verified in another source? Are there editors or reviewers? Is the information from an electronic journal? Has it been published in a paper format, as a journal article or part of a book?
How to evaluate Internet Resources? Authority Is the author’s name clearly stated? Is there a way to contact the author by mail, phone, or email? Are the author’s credentials listed? Is there a link to the author’s biography, curriculum vitae, or resume? Is the author affiliated with a reputable institution or organization such as a university?
How to evaluate Internet Resources? Viewpoint Does the author promote one particular viewpoint or opinion? Is there evidence of a conflict of interest? Does the author or affiliated organization stand to benefit from promoting one viewpoint over another? Who is the intended audience – experts, the general public, school students, etc.? Does the page contain advertising?
How to evaluate Internet Resources? Currency Look for dates (when the information was created, posted to the web, last revised, date of copyright, etc.). If there is no date given, examine the publication dates of sources cited in the footnotes, reference list, or bibliography. Numerous broken links suggest that the page hasn’t been updated recently.
How to evaluate Internet Resources? Coverage What information is included? Are there links to additional sources? Are they relevant and useful? Are there graphics? Do they support or add to the content of the site or page? Is all of the information available for free or is there a fee for certain information?
If you need help to define your topic When you need a topic: Clusty - Brainstorm topic ideas using result clusters http://clusty.com Social Issues - Browse hot topics and pro/con links http://www.multcolib.org/homework/sochc.html Google Directory - Search this subject tree enhanced by Google results http://www.google.com/dirhp
If you need help to define your topic When you need to understand the scope of your topic: Intute - Investigate annotated academic sites http://www.intute.ac.uk/ INFOMINE - Browse annotated research and educational sites enhanced by second-tier “robot-selected” results http://infomine.ucr.edu/
If you need help to define your topic If you need to investigate alternative or related topics: Grokker - Explore a web of your topic and subtopics (Yahoo results) http://www.grokker.com/ Clusty - Uncover buried sites by choosing a related cluster http://clusty.com/ Ask.com - Select “Expand Your Search” http://www.ask.com/
If you need help to define your topic If you need to refine and narrow your topic: Ask.com - Select "Narrow Your Search" http://www.ask.com/ Clusty - Drill down into a cluster of results http://clusty.com/ SurfWax - Click "Focus" to identify similar, broader, and narrower topic http://www.surfwax.com/
If you need to find quality results Authoritative sites chosen by a subject expert: Librarians' Internet Index - Search the selective database or drill down into the well-organized subject tree http://lii.org/ Virtual LRC - Select a subject category, then search on term or a phrase http://www.virtuallrc.com/ Google Scholar - Find scholarly, peer-reviewed subject-specific results with advanced searchadvanced search http://scholar.google.com/
If you need to do research in a specific discipline Science, engineering and technology: Scirus - Science-specific Web portals, reports, peer-reviewed articles, patents, preprints and journals http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/ Natl. Science Digital Lib. - Science, technology, engineering and math http://nsdl.org/ Intute - Science, engineering and technology http://www.intute.ac.uk/