Presentation on theme: "“Prosperity and Sustainability of Paddy Fields and Ecosystem” Dr. Rungruang Isarangkura Deputy Ministry, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand."— Presentation transcript:
“Prosperity and Sustainability of Paddy Fields and Ecosystem” Dr. Rungruang Isarangkura Deputy Ministry, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Thailand
Context: “Food Security and Poverty Alleviation” and “Sustainable Water Use”
Ideas: 1. A Knowledge based society, Farmers’ need to adapt themselves. 2. Trends in Thai agriculture. 3. Changes in paddy farming in Thailand. 4. Flexibility to changes in irrigated and rainfed areas. rainfed areas.
Adaptation Why Stronger competition in trade. Higher pressure from low-labor cost countries. Toward greater free trade global policy.
Adaptation (Cont.) How Knowledge based Technology/innovation Costs of production Quality Time and delivery
Trends in Thailand Agriculture 1. Farm population demography More of the above 60 years of age. Young adults do not return to agriculture. Agricultural sector could be weaker.
Trend in Thailand Agriculture (cont.) 2. Farm income Greater percentage of non-farm income. Increasing number of part-time farmers. Difficult to expect (predict) productivity improvement from part-time farmers.
Trend in Thailand Agriculture (cont.) 3. Farm Size Greater, more people leaving farms.
Trend in Thailand Agriculture (Cont.) 4. Farming Systems Clearer distinctions in three (3) different farming systems.
First a) Small holders. (majority of farms). b) Small plot of land, less than 20 rai (3.2 hectares) c) Family labor. (2-3 persons) d) Agriculture New Theory within the framework of sufficiency economy. (The King’s advice) e) For home consumption and local markets. f) Community leaders are playing active role in spreading this concept and practices. g) Emphasis is on learning process for self reliance.
Second a) Large plantations. b) Capital intensive. c) Fully mechanized. d) Employ professional managers and Staff. e) Partly produce their own raw materials. f) Partly contract farming. g) Trend is to produce their own raw materials in greater proportions because of 1. quality standard 2. reliable supply
Third a) Medium-size farms. b) Full time farmers. c) Emphasis on technology/innovation. i. costs of production. ii. quality control (export quality).
Third (cont.) Example: I. Evaporative Cooling System for livestock. II. Evaporative greenhouse for vegetables. III. Close system from shrimp culture. IV. Sprinkle irrigation system for orchards. e) Increasing number of this type of farm. f) Farm income is comparable to non-farm sector.
Changes in paddy farming in Thailand Northeast farmers Poorest region. Least advanced in agriculture. Producing the best rice for export. Buying glutinous rice for consumption. Well known for organic rice.
Southern farmers Produce for home consumption. Native varieties. Northern and Central Known for their white rice. Emphasis is on land use intensity and productivity improvement. improvement. Trends Fragrant Rice Organic rice
Flexibility to Changes in irrigated and Rain fed Areas In general, farmers in irrigated areas should have higher farm income than farmers in rainfed areas. In general, farmers in irrigated areas have less flexibility to change in farming system than rainfed areas depending on irrigation system management.
(Cont.) Degree of flexibility to change is important to improving income of the farmers. Many farmers in rainfed areas have better income than their counterparts in irrigated areas simply because of ability to change their production to be in line with the changes in market requirements.
Concluding Remarks 1. For farmers to survive, they must be competitive. 2. To be competitive, they must adjust their farming system to be consistent with current market requirements. 3. To be supportive to farmers adapting to changing demand, appropriate technology and flexible irrigation system are critical. 4. Ability of farmers to be self reliance will lead to sustainability of development.