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Halaman 1 Matakuliah: J0084 / Introduction to Management and Business Tahun: 2007 Versi: 1 / 3 Pertemuan 06 (Sixth Meting) Planning Tools and Techniques.

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Presentation on theme: "Halaman 1 Matakuliah: J0084 / Introduction to Management and Business Tahun: 2007 Versi: 1 / 3 Pertemuan 06 (Sixth Meting) Planning Tools and Techniques."— Presentation transcript:

1 Halaman 1 Matakuliah: J0084 / Introduction to Management and Business Tahun: 2007 Versi: 1 / 3 Pertemuan 06 (Sixth Meting) Planning Tools and Techniques

2 Halaman 2 Learning Outcome Student should be able to show the use of planning tools and techniques which are needed by the organization -> C3

3 Halaman 3 Learning Outline Techniques for Assessing the Environment Techniques for Allocating Resources Contemporary Planning Techniques

4 Halaman 4 1. Techniques for Assessing the Environment a. Environmental Scanning It’s the screening of large amounts of information to anticipate and interpret changes in the environment 1) Competitor Intelligence It’s a process by which organization gather information about their competitors. Who are they? What are they doing? How will what they’re doing affect us? 2) Global Scanning

5 Halaman 5 b. Forecasting 1) Forecasting Techniques a) Quantitative forecasting applies a set of mathematical rules to a series of past data to predict outcomes b) Qualitative forecasting, in contrast, uses the judgment and opinions of knowledgeable individuals to predict outcomes

6 Halaman 6 2) Forecasting Effectiveness a) Forecasting techniques are most accurate when the environment is not rapidly changing b) Use simple forecasting methods c) Use rolling forecasts that look 12 to 18 months ahead, instead of using a single, static forecast d) Don’t assume that you can accurately identify turning points in a trend e) Remember that forecasting is a managerial skill and as such can be practiced and improved

7 Halaman 7 c. Benchmarking Benchmarking is the search for the best practices among competitors or non competitors that lead to their superior performance Steps in Bench marking Best practices Form a benchmarking planning team Gather internal and external data Analyze data to identify performance gaps Prepare and implement action plan Identify:  What is to be benchmarked  Comparative organizations  Data Collection methods

8 Halaman 8 2. Techniques for Allocating Resources a. Budgeting Variable Budget Takes into account the cost that vary with volume Fixed Budget Assumes fixed level of sales production OR Revenue Budget Project future sales Cash Budget Forecasts cash on hand and how much will be needed Expense Budget Lists primary activities and allocates dollar amount to each Profit Budget Combines revenue and expense budget of various units to determine each unit’s profit contribution

9 Halaman 9 b. Scheduling 1) Gantt Charts Copyedit manuscript Design sample pages Draw artwork Print first pages Print final pages Design cover 1 Month 432 Actual progress GoalsReporting Date Activity

10 Halaman 10 2) Load Charts Annie Antonio Kim Maurice Dave Penny EditorsMonth Work scheduled

11 Halaman 11 3) PERT Network Analysis a) Event b) Activities c) Slack time d) Critical path

12 Halaman 12 EventDescriptionExpected time (week) Preceding event AApprove design and get permit10None BDig subterranean6A CErect frame and siding14B DConstruct floor6C EInstall windows3C FPut on roof3C GInstall internal wiring5D, E, F HInstall elevator5G IPut in floor covering and paneling 4D JPut in doors and interior decorate trim 3I, H KTurn over to building management group 1J

13 Halaman 13 Start ACB G E D F I J HK A PERT Network for constructing an office building A-B-C-D-I-J-K (44 weeks) A-B-C-D-G-H-J-K (50 weeks) A-B-C-E-G-H-J-K (47 weeks) A-B-C-F-G-H-J-K (47 weeks) 5 5 Calculation the length of time that each path of activities will take:

14 Halaman 14 c. Break Even Analysis TFC BE = P - VC BE = Break Even Point P= Price TFC= Total Fixed Cost VC= Variable Cost Note:

15 Halaman 15 Break even analysis Los s Area Total Revenue Break Even Point Total Cost s Profit Area Variable Costs Output (in thousands) Revenue/Cost ($) Fixed Costs

16 Halaman 16 d. Linear programming Production Data for Cinnamon-Scented Products Department Potpourri Bags Scented Candles Monthly Production Capacity (in hours) Manufacturing24 1,200 Assembly Profit per unit$ 10$ 18 Numbers of Hours Required (per unit) 2P + 4S < 1,200 2P + 2S < 900

17 Halaman 17 Graphical Solution to Linear Programming Problem Quantity of Scented Candles F ED B A C Feasibility Region Quantity of Potpourri Bags

18 Halaman Contemporary Planning Techniques a. Project Management Define Objectives Identify Activities and resources Establish sequences Establish time for activities Compare with objectives Determine Project completion date Determine additional resources requirement Project Planning Process

19 Halaman 19 b. Scenario Planning 1) Identify potential unexpected events 2) Determine if any of these events would have early indicators 3) Set up an information gathering system to identify early indicators 4) Have appropriate responses (plans) in place if these unexpected events occur Preparing for Unexpected Events

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