Purpose Of International Benchmarking “A highly skilled work force can raise economic growth by about two-thirds of a percentage point every year” Eric Han usek et al. Education And Economic Growth. Education News (Spring 2008) Each additional year of schooling in the adult population raises the economy’s output between 3 to 6 percent Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2006), Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2006. Paris, France. (p. 154) “Even our ‘best and brightest’ cannot compete with the best in the world.” NGA, CCSSO, Achieve paper on state strategies for international benchmarking
Myths About International Benchmarking We try to educate more students than other countries Other countries only test their best students The US performs poorly because of: Poverty and other family factors Cultural factors More diversity than other countries Other countries outspend us on education Our best and brightest compare favorably with those in other countries
International Benchmarking Use promising practices to create a world-class education system for Ohio Learn from the best in the world
International Benchmarking High performing countries Three lenses Standards Teacher Effects Learning conditions What fits best for Ohio? 7 Ohio’s Process
Identifying Comparison Countries Countries selected significantly and persistently outscore the US on PISA and TIMSS tests Full Name Subjects Tested Test Takers PISA Program for International Student Assessment Literacy, Math, Science 15-Year-Olds TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Math, Science 4th and 8th Grades
United States Significantly higher Significantly lower Statistical Significance Jim Hall, Center for Public Education
We Have More Low-Performing Students Source: PISA 2009
We Have Fewer High Performers Source: PISA 2009
Our Best Students Lag Behind The mean scores of the top 5% of students in each of the study countries (PISA 2006) United States Korea Hong Kong
Intended in the State’s Content Standards Top-achieving countries’ intended-topics profile Dr. William Schmidt, of Michigan State University Benchmarking to the Standards of High- Performing Countries More topics per grade More grades to cover a topic
Inclusion in Other Countries Percentage of students served in specialized schools or classrooms: Japan: 1% Finland: 7% All other students receive instruction in the regular classroom with their peers Finland provides specialized instruction within the classroom under the supervision of the regular classroom teacher
Raising Competency The level of thinking of the teacher is the greatest predictor of the level of thinking of the students in the teacher’s classroom. Michael Fullan PDK Kappan, April, 2000
Who Is in Our Classrooms? Teacher Gifted Student 80% of Students with Disabilities
Improving School Systems Improving systems employ different interventions depending on where they are located on the continuum from poor to fair to good to great, however… Six interventions occur at all stages of improvement : Revising curriculum and standards Reviewing reward and remunerations structure Building technical skills of teachers and principals Assessing student learning Utilizing student data to guide delivery Establishing policy documents and laws Mourshed, M., Chijioke, C., & Barber, M. (2010). How the world's most improved school systems keep getting better. McKinsey&Company.
Common Themes in Comparison Countries Ohio generally aligns with other nations’ standards, but… Other nations provide: Greater focus, rigor, coherence Clearer learning progression
Standards Revision Mandated by HB1 Not later than June 30, 2010…the state board of education shall adopt statewide academic standards with emphasis on coherence, focus, and rigor for each of grades kindergarten through twelve in English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. ORC §3301.079(A)(1) 21
Stakeholder Engagement 200 Content specific focus groups involving 200 teachers 55 Meeting with 55 professional organizations 800 Over 800 individual responses to online survey 22
What Did We Hear? Too many standards Not easily managed No time to teach in depth Some need clarity Technical corrections 23
Stakeholder Needs—June 2009 24 Improvement needed or critical in all areas!
Two Development Tracks Science Social studies Mathematics English language arts 25 Ohio Revised Standards Common Core Standards
Examples from the Common Core Domain Cluster Standard Statement Topic Strand
Science and Social Studies Format 27 StrandsStrands TopicsTopics Grade Descriptions Content Statements SkillsSkills ThemesThemes
Ohio Science Standards Strands: Earth and space science Physical science Life science Skills: Science inquiry Applications 29
Ohio Social Studies Standards Strands: History Geography Skills: Historical thinking Spatial thinking Civic participation 30 Government Economics Economic decision making Financial literacy
Mathematics Common Core Describes the work of mathematically proficient students: Descriptions of Mathematical Practice Examples: reasoning, problem-solving Standards Include: Concepts Skills 31
English Common Core English Language Arts Reading Writing Standards Include: college and career readiness Knowledge and skills leading to college and career readiness Progressions of learning Progressions of learning across the grades Literacy Standards History/Social Studies Science Technical Subjects 32 Speaking and Listening Language
Discussion Questions What opportunities do you see for the revised standards impacting the education of exceptional students? Changes in classroom practices Teacher professional development Local curriculum revision Race to the Top activities In your role, what can you do to seize upon these opportunities?
Why a Model Curriculum? …the state board shall adopt a model curriculum…The model curriculum shall be aligned with the standards, to ensure that the academic content and skills specified for each grade level are taught to students, and shall demonstrate vertical articulation and emphasize coherence, focus, and rigor. ORC §3301.079(B) 36
What is the Model Curriculum? Web-based tool, aligned to the standards, that: Presents information specific to the content area by grade level, grade band and course Provides curricular and instructional guidance Includes instructional strategies and resources Informs assessment development 38
Model Curriculum 39 Content Elaborations Expectations for Learning Content Specific Sections Content Elaborations Expectations for Learning Content Specific Sections Common Core and State Standards Instructional Strategies and Resources
Public Feedback All components of the model curriculum Online November 2010-January 2011 Educators and non-educators across the state 40
Model Curriculum Components Content Elaboration Applies to all content areas. In-depth information about “what” should be taught Expectations for Learning Recommendations for how students may be assessed Applies only to science and social studies 41
Model Curriculum Components Instructional Strategies and Resources Guidance and support for instructional, curricular and assessment design Applies to all content areas. Content Specific Sections Address elements specific to a subject area, such as Misconceptions (science and mathematics) Enduring Understandings (English language arts and social studies) 42
The Role of Technology Writing has moved from a paper-and- pen to a technologically-driven activity. Technologies are recognized as having the potential both to support writing and the teaching of writing and to provide new venues for writing itself. (National Commission of Writing, 2003; National Writing Project, 2006; National Council of Teachers of English, 2004)
Technologies in Education Instructional Technologies Used to increase student’s performance through adding skills to the student’s own skill base Compensatory Technologies Provide a means to complete a task such that, without the technology, a student would not be able to complete the task at the expected level of performance Increase performance without necessarily increasing the skill base of the student
Technology for Differentiation: Writing Use planning and organization technology as an adjunct to, or in tandem with, process-based instruction in writing. Match students’ strengths and weaknesses with tools by their planning and organization features. Use electronic outlining tools and draft templates, that are genre-specific, contain embedded content prompts and procedure cues. Directly instruct the student in how to use the tool and how to apply the tool to their writing tasks.
Differentiating Instruction You Tube Video Goes here (I hope) Reading Writing
Special Education & Related Services General Curriculum Expanded Curricula Knowledge and Skills No Accommodations or Modifications AccommodationsModificationsAlternate
Group Activity Identify what you need to see in the model curriculum to help you instruct exceptional children Share how you have used universal design in your classroom planning and instruction Discuss how you have successfully used technology to teach students with a range of skills and abilities
State Board to Adopt Model Curriculum March 2011 Review Committees Meet June-September 2010 Public Input November 2010-January 2011 Feedback Integrated January 2011 Final Draft Released February 2011 Regional Teacher Teams Meet Summer 2010 Standards Adopted June 2010 Model Curriculum Timeline 53
Why 21st Century Skills? Our students will be competing in a new global economy
What Skills Are Required? Five types of tasks: Routine Manual Non-Routine Manual Routine Cognitive Non-Routine Analytic Non-Routine Interactive
Non-Routine Interactive Non-Routine Analytic Routine Cognitive Routine Manual Non-Routine Manual What Skills Are Required?
The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to: automate digitize and outsource
What skills are most important for job success? when hiring a high school graduate? Work Ethic80% Collaboration75% Good Communication70% Social Responsibility63% Critical Thinking & Problem Solving 58% Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2006). “Workforce Survey: Are They Really Ready to Work.” Skills Needed for the 21 st Century
Of recently-hired high school students, what were their deficiencies? Written Communication81% Leadership73% Work Ethic70% Critical Thinking & Problem Solving 70% Self-Direction58% Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2006). “Workforce Survey: Are They Really Ready to Work.” Skills Needed for the 21 st Century
What skills and content areas will grow in importance in the next five years? Critical Thinking78% Information Technology77% Health & Wellness76% Collaboration74% Innovation74% Personal Financial Responsibility72% Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2006). “Workforce Survey: Are They Really Ready to Work.” Skills Needed for the 21 st Century
Ohio’s Education Reform §3301.079( A)(1)b §3301.07 9(A)(1)c §3301.079 (A)(1)d §3313.60(9) §3301.0712 (3-4) 21 st Century Skills
Interdisciplinary Themes Global Awareness Financial and Entrepreneurial Literacy Civic Literacy Health Literacy
Learning and Innovation Skills Critical Thinking Communication Research Problem Solving/Design Collaboration Meta-cognition Creativity Innovation
Information, Media and Technology Skills Information Literacy Media Literacy Information, Communications and Technology Literacy
Life and Career Skills Leadership & Responsibility Productivity & Accountability Flexibility & Adaptability Initiative & Self-Direction Social & Cross-Cultural Skills
21 st Century Skills ThemeFramework Partnership for 21st Century Skills HB1 Computer Literacy XX Health/Wellness Literacy XX Financial Literacy/ Entrepreneurship XX World Language X Fine Arts X Global Awareness XX Civic Literacy X Ohio’s Reform Model
Standards Format Highlights Skills The Physical Setting The Living Environment Themes Earth and Space Science Physical Science Life Science Science Inquiry and Applications Observation s of The Environment This theme focuses on helping students develop the skills for systematic discovery to understand the science of the physical world around them in greater depth by using scientific inquiry. P Observations of physical properties of both living and nonliving things in local surroundings. This includes water, the sun, rocks and soil, human-made materials, and living organisms. This is to encourage students to examine their environment, its similarities and its differences. During the years of PreK to 4 th grade, all students must develop the ability to: observe and ask questions about the natural environment, plan and conduct simple investigations, employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses, use appropriate mathematics with data to construct reasonable explanations, communicate about observations, investigations and explanations, review and ask questions about the observations and explanations of others. Observations of Earth & Sky Observations of nonliving things Observation of living things K Living and nonliving things have specific physical properties. These physical properties can change. Physical properties can be used to sort and classify living and nonliving things. The physical properties of air and water are presented as they apply to weather. Liquids and solids are introduced as preparation for learning about states of matter. Daily and seasonal changes Physical properties of everyday materials Observations of living things vs. nonliving things 1 Energy comes from many sources and is needed for living and nonliving things to function. The sun is a primary energy source. Energy can also be obtained from food, batteries, electricity, fossil fuels, flowing water, wind, etc. Sun, energy, and weather Sources of energy Basic needs of living things
Skills Relate to Content Interconnections within Systems This theme focuses on helping students recognize the components of various systems and then investigate dynamic and sustainable relationships within systems using scientific inquiry. Science Inquiry and Application During the years of grades 5-8 all students must use the following scientific processes to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas: Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations; Design and conduct a scientific investigation; Use appropriate mathematics, tools and techniques to gather data and information; Analyze and interpret data; Develop descriptions, models, explanations and predictions; Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations; Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predications; and Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. Strands Strand Connections: Cycles on Earth, such as those occurring in ecosystems, in the solar system, and in the movement of light and sound result in describable patterns. Speed is a measurement of movement that is related to force and weight. The transfer of energy drives changes in systems, including ecosystems and physical systems. SBOE Draft Document April 2010Page 13 of 25
Discussion Question From the 21 st Century Skills handout, your group is to: Select one set of skilIs Brainstorm ways that they can be integrated into the teaching of content
Why Students Drop Out A gradual process of disengagement 47% of dropouts report that classes were not interesting 81% lack opportunities for “real world learning,” and see little connection between school and getting a good job Exceptional students are not immune from dropping out!
Ohio College Students Needing Remediation 79 Source: Ohio Board of Regents
ELA College and Career Readiness ACT, “A First Look at the Common Core and College and Career Readiness,” 2010, http://act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/FirstLook.pdf.
Math College and Career Readiness ACT, “A First Look at the Common Core and College and Career Readiness,” 2010, http://act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/FirstLook.pdf.
Ohio Core Requirements English Language Arts: 4 units Math: 4 units Science: 3 units Social Studies: 3 units Physical Education: ½ unit Health: ½ unit Electives: 5 units Fine Arts: 2 ½ units 82 For the class of 2014:
New Assessment System OGT will be replaced by a three part system: Nationally standardized assessment Series of end-of-course exams Senior project Students will earn a composite score
Summative Assessment = 84 Sum of the Assessments
Common Assessment Elements Both Achieve & SMARTER Balanced consortia have: On-line testing Interim and summative components Item Types Multiple choice Extended response Technology-enhanced Performance assessments High school tests: End-of-course vs. End-of-year Rapid reporting system to inform instruction Teachers involved in developing and scoring tests 85
Accurately Assessing All Learners Alternative Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) Three-state consortium effort based on these premises: Cognitive deficits impact the ability to access and perform assessment tasks Ideal modifications remove barriers without simplifying content Appropriately modified assessments accurately and fairly measure proficiency of students with disabilities who have persistently performed poorly Stoica, W. I. (2010). A multistate approach to development of AA-MAS: Removing disability-imposed barriers to student performance. How can alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards improve student learning and outcomes (p. 7). Denver: American Education Research Association.
Accurately Assessing All Learners AA-MAS project findings: Identification of specific learning barrier patterns Patterns exist among low-achieving students with and without disabilities Specific approaches were analyzed for their impact on students with and without disabilities Findings from other state consortia suggest that students who perform poorly may not have had the opportunity to learn grade level content American Education Research Association. (2010). How can alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards improve student learning and outcomes. Denver: AERA.
Accurately Assessing All Learners Findings from the AA-MAS consortium will inform: Further research under a federal grant The work of the Achieve and the SMARTER Balanced consortia
Comparison Summary and images attributable to Assessment and Performance Management at Educational Testing Services. 1-3 tasks that assess a few “keystone” standards / topics Given at three points during the school year, near the end of quarters Results within 2 weeks to inform instruction and intervention 1-3 tasks that assess a few “keystone” standards / topics Given at three points during the school year, near the end of quarters Results within 2 weeks to inform instruction and intervention Achieve SMARTER Balanced
Comparison Summary and images attributable to Assessment and Performance Management at Educational Testing Services. Includes 40-65 questions per content area A computer adaptive assessment given during final weeks of the school year Multiple item types, scored by computer Re-take option, as locally determined Includes 40-65 questions per content area A computer adaptive assessment given during final weeks of the school year Multiple item types, scored by computer Re-take option, as locally determined SMARTER Balanced Achieve
Performance-Based Assessments Portfolios Written compositions Open-ended problems Works of art Apprenticeships Internships Musical performances Speeches Analysis and interpretation of reading Research projects Task Examples
Performance-Based Assessments Performance Outcomes: The academic knowledge, behaviors, and skills that students are expected to learn and demonstrate in a performance task Common Scoring Rubrics: A set of evaluation criteria nonspecific to a unit of study that are aligned to performance outcomes used to designate appropriate performance targets Components
Performance-Based Assessments Tasks are scored on a common, generalized rubric A single rubric can be applied to all tasks within a single content area Descriptions serve as anchors Scoring
English Language Arts: Inquiry and Communication “College/Career Ready” “College-Level”
English Language Arts: Inquiry and Communication Category Five: Process and Reflection
Performance-Based Assessments Scorer Training Teachers trained to score student work Range-finding conducted Tasks revised based on results
Assessments Field testing: 2012-2013 Standard setting: 2013-2014 New tests begin 2014-2015 99
Preparation for New Standards 100 Tasks for Districts
Implementation Timeline 101 201020112014 State Board Adopts Model Curriculum March, 2011 State Board Adopts Standards June, 2010 Transition Complete June, 2014 20122013 Transition: Teacher development Local curriculum revision Test development 2011 - 2014