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Making Standards Relevant for Exceptional Students Stan W. Heffner Kathe Shelby Ohio Department of Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Making Standards Relevant for Exceptional Students Stan W. Heffner Kathe Shelby Ohio Department of Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Making Standards Relevant for Exceptional Students Stan W. Heffner Kathe Shelby Ohio Department of Education

2 Topics Learning from Other Countries Standards Revision Developing Model Curricula Teaching 21 st Century Skills A New Generation of Assessments Credit Flexibility


4 Purpose Of International Benchmarking “A highly skilled work force can raise economic growth by about two-thirds of a percentage point every year” Eric Han usek et al. Education And Economic Growth. Education News (Spring 2008) Each additional year of schooling in the adult population raises the economy’s output between 3 to 6 percent Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2006), Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2006. Paris, France. (p. 154) “Even our ‘best and brightest’ cannot compete with the best in the world.” NGA, CCSSO, Achieve paper on state strategies for international benchmarking

5 Myths About International Benchmarking We try to educate more students than other countries Other countries only test their best students The US performs poorly because of: Poverty and other family factors Cultural factors More diversity than other countries Other countries outspend us on education Our best and brightest compare favorably with those in other countries

6 International Benchmarking Use promising practices to create a world-class education system for Ohio Learn from the best in the world

7 International Benchmarking High performing countries Three lenses  Standards  Teacher Effects  Learning conditions What fits best for Ohio? 7 Ohio’s Process

8 Identifying Comparison Countries Countries selected significantly and persistently outscore the US on PISA and TIMSS tests Full Name Subjects Tested Test Takers PISA Program for International Student Assessment Literacy, Math, Science 15-Year-Olds TIMSS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Math, Science 4th and 8th Grades

9 United States Significantly higher Significantly lower Statistical Significance Jim Hall, Center for Public Education

10 We Have More Low-Performing Students Source: PISA 2009

11 We Have Fewer High Performers Source: PISA 2009

12 Our Best Students Lag Behind The mean scores of the top 5% of students in each of the study countries (PISA 2006) United States Korea Hong Kong

13 U.S. ranks 25 th / 32 OECD countries

14 Intended in the State’s Content Standards Top-achieving countries’ intended-topics profile Dr. William Schmidt, of Michigan State University Benchmarking to the Standards of High- Performing Countries More topics per grade More grades to cover a topic

15 Inclusion in Other Countries Percentage of students served in specialized schools or classrooms: Japan: 1% Finland: 7% All other students receive instruction in the regular classroom with their peers Finland provides specialized instruction within the classroom under the supervision of the regular classroom teacher

16 Raising Competency The level of thinking of the teacher is the greatest predictor of the level of thinking of the students in the teacher’s classroom. Michael Fullan PDK Kappan, April, 2000

17 Who Is in Our Classrooms? Teacher Gifted Student 80% of Students with Disabilities


19 Improving School Systems Improving systems employ different interventions depending on where they are located on the continuum from poor to fair to good to great, however… Six interventions occur at all stages of improvement : Revising curriculum and standards Reviewing reward and remunerations structure Building technical skills of teachers and principals Assessing student learning Utilizing student data to guide delivery Establishing policy documents and laws Mourshed, M., Chijioke, C., & Barber, M. (2010). How the world's most improved school systems keep getting better. McKinsey&Company.

20 Common Themes in Comparison Countries Ohio generally aligns with other nations’ standards, but… Other nations provide: Greater focus, rigor, coherence Clearer learning progression

21 Standards Revision Mandated by HB1 Not later than June 30, 2010…the state board of education shall adopt statewide academic standards with emphasis on coherence, focus, and rigor for each of grades kindergarten through twelve in English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. ORC §3301.079(A)(1) 21

22 Stakeholder Engagement 200 Content specific focus groups involving 200 teachers 55 Meeting with 55 professional organizations 800 Over 800 individual responses to online survey 22

23 What Did We Hear? Too many standards Not easily managed No time to teach in depth Some need clarity Technical corrections 23

24 Stakeholder Needs—June 2009 24 Improvement needed or critical in all areas!

25 Two Development Tracks  Science  Social studies  Mathematics  English language arts 25 Ohio Revised Standards Common Core Standards

26 Examples from the Common Core Domain Cluster Standard Statement Topic Strand

27 Science and Social Studies Format 27 StrandsStrands TopicsTopics Grade Descriptions Content Statements SkillsSkills ThemesThemes

28 Sample Syllabus 28 Content Statements SkillsSkills TopicsTopics Theme/ Course Descriptions

29 Ohio Science Standards Strands:  Earth and space science  Physical science  Life science Skills:  Science inquiry  Applications 29

30 Ohio Social Studies Standards Strands:  History  Geography Skills:  Historical thinking  Spatial thinking  Civic participation 30  Government  Economics  Economic decision making  Financial literacy

31 Mathematics Common Core Describes the work of mathematically proficient students: Descriptions of Mathematical Practice Examples: reasoning, problem-solving Standards Include:  Concepts  Skills 31

32 English Common Core English Language Arts  Reading  Writing Standards Include: college and career readiness  Knowledge and skills leading to college and career readiness  Progressions of learning  Progressions of learning across the grades Literacy Standards  History/Social Studies  Science  Technical Subjects 32  Speaking and Listening  Language

33 33 Standards Implementation Timeline

34 Discussion Questions What opportunities do you see for the revised standards impacting the education of exceptional students? Changes in classroom practices Teacher professional development Local curriculum revision Race to the Top activities In your role, what can you do to seize upon these opportunities?


36 Why a Model Curriculum? …the state board shall adopt a model curriculum…The model curriculum shall be aligned with the standards, to ensure that the academic content and skills specified for each grade level are taught to students, and shall demonstrate vertical articulation and emphasize coherence, focus, and rigor. ORC §3301.079(B) 36

37 One Piece of an Integrated Whole 37

38 What is the Model Curriculum? Web-based tool, aligned to the standards, that: Presents information specific to the content area by grade level, grade band and course Provides curricular and instructional guidance Includes instructional strategies and resources Informs assessment development 38

39 Model Curriculum 39 Content Elaborations Expectations for Learning Content Specific Sections Content Elaborations Expectations for Learning Content Specific Sections Common Core and State Standards Instructional Strategies and Resources

40 Public Feedback All components of the model curriculum Online November 2010-January 2011 Educators and non-educators across the state 40

41 Model Curriculum Components Content Elaboration  Applies to all content areas.  In-depth information about “what” should be taught Expectations for Learning  Recommendations for how students may be assessed  Applies only to science and social studies 41

42 Model Curriculum Components Instructional Strategies and Resources  Guidance and support for instructional, curricular and assessment design  Applies to all content areas. Content Specific Sections  Address elements specific to a subject area, such as  Misconceptions (science and mathematics)  Enduring Understandings (English language arts and social studies) 42

43 Understanding Common Misconceptions

44 Model Curriculum Example 44 Inquiry-based Twenty-first Century Skills Global Connections

45 Model Curriculum Template 45 Instructional Strategies and Resources Content Specific Sections Expectations for Learning Content Elaborations

46 Meeting the Needs of All Learners

47 The Role of Technology Writing has moved from a paper-and- pen to a technologically-driven activity. Technologies are recognized as having the potential both to support writing and the teaching of writing and to provide new venues for writing itself. (National Commission of Writing, 2003; National Writing Project, 2006; National Council of Teachers of English, 2004)

48 Technologies in Education Instructional Technologies Used to increase student’s performance through adding skills to the student’s own skill base Compensatory Technologies Provide a means to complete a task such that, without the technology, a student would not be able to complete the task at the expected level of performance Increase performance without necessarily increasing the skill base of the student

49 Technology for Differentiation: Writing Use planning and organization technology as an adjunct to, or in tandem with, process-based instruction in writing. Match students’ strengths and weaknesses with tools by their planning and organization features. Use electronic outlining tools and draft templates, that are genre-specific, contain embedded content prompts and procedure cues. Directly instruct the student in how to use the tool and how to apply the tool to their writing tasks.

50 Differentiating Instruction You Tube Video Goes here (I hope)  Reading  Writing

51 Special Education & Related Services General Curriculum Expanded Curricula Knowledge and Skills No Accommodations or Modifications AccommodationsModificationsAlternate

52 Group Activity Identify what you need to see in the model curriculum to help you instruct exceptional children Share how you have used universal design in your classroom planning and instruction Discuss how you have successfully used technology to teach students with a range of skills and abilities

53 State Board to Adopt Model Curriculum March 2011 Review Committees Meet June-September 2010 Public Input November 2010-January 2011 Feedback Integrated January 2011 Final Draft Released February 2011 Regional Teacher Teams Meet Summer 2010 Standards Adopted June 2010 Model Curriculum Timeline 53


55 Why 21st Century Skills? Our students will be competing in a new global economy

56 What Skills Are Required? Five types of tasks:  Routine Manual  Non-Routine Manual  Routine Cognitive  Non-Routine Analytic  Non-Routine Interactive

57 Non-Routine Interactive Non-Routine Analytic Routine Cognitive Routine Manual Non-Routine Manual What Skills Are Required?

58 The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to: automate digitize and outsource

59 What skills are most important for job success? when hiring a high school graduate? Work Ethic80% Collaboration75% Good Communication70% Social Responsibility63% Critical Thinking & Problem Solving 58% Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2006). “Workforce Survey: Are They Really Ready to Work.” Skills Needed for the 21 st Century

60 Of recently-hired high school students, what were their deficiencies? Written Communication81% Leadership73% Work Ethic70% Critical Thinking & Problem Solving 70% Self-Direction58% Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2006). “Workforce Survey: Are They Really Ready to Work.” Skills Needed for the 21 st Century

61 What skills and content areas will grow in importance in the next five years? Critical Thinking78% Information Technology77% Health & Wellness76% Collaboration74% Innovation74% Personal Financial Responsibility72% Source: Partnership for 21 st Century Skills. (2006). “Workforce Survey: Are They Really Ready to Work.” Skills Needed for the 21 st Century

62 Source: PISA 2000, 2003, 2006 30th 25th 20th 15th 10th 5th 1st 20002003 OECD Ranking Math Science Reading Problem Solving 24 th 18 th 24 th 14 th 18 th 15 th 29 th 35th 200620002003 20002003 2006 35 th 2003 Why 21 st Century Skills?

63 Source: The Christian Science Monitor (2009). Finding a Common Vocabulary


65 21 st Century Skills

66 Ohio’s Education Reform §3301.079( A)(1)b §3301.07 9(A)(1)c §3301.079 (A)(1)d §3313.60(9) §3301.0712 (3-4) 21 st Century Skills

67 Interdisciplinary Themes  Global Awareness  Financial and Entrepreneurial Literacy  Civic Literacy  Health Literacy

68 Learning and Innovation Skills Critical Thinking Communication Research Problem Solving/Design Collaboration Meta-cognition Creativity Innovation

69 Information, Media and Technology Skills Information Literacy Media Literacy Information, Communications and Technology Literacy

70 Life and Career Skills Leadership & Responsibility Productivity & Accountability Flexibility & Adaptability Initiative & Self-Direction Social & Cross-Cultural Skills

71 21 st Century Skills ThemeFramework Partnership for 21st Century Skills HB1 Computer Literacy XX Health/Wellness Literacy XX Financial Literacy/ Entrepreneurship XX World Language X Fine Arts X Global Awareness XX Civic Literacy X Ohio’s Reform Model

72 Standards Format Highlights Skills The Physical Setting The Living Environment Themes Earth and Space Science Physical Science Life Science Science Inquiry and Applications Observation s of The Environment This theme focuses on helping students develop the skills for systematic discovery to understand the science of the physical world around them in greater depth by using scientific inquiry. P Observations of physical properties of both living and nonliving things in local surroundings. This includes water, the sun, rocks and soil, human-made materials, and living organisms. This is to encourage students to examine their environment, its similarities and its differences. During the years of PreK to 4 th grade, all students must develop the ability to: observe and ask questions about the natural environment, plan and conduct simple investigations, employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses, use appropriate mathematics with data to construct reasonable explanations, communicate about observations, investigations and explanations, review and ask questions about the observations and explanations of others. Observations of Earth & Sky Observations of nonliving things Observation of living things K Living and nonliving things have specific physical properties. These physical properties can change. Physical properties can be used to sort and classify living and nonliving things. The physical properties of air and water are presented as they apply to weather. Liquids and solids are introduced as preparation for learning about states of matter. Daily and seasonal changes Physical properties of everyday materials Observations of living things vs. nonliving things 1 Energy comes from many sources and is needed for living and nonliving things to function. The sun is a primary energy source. Energy can also be obtained from food, batteries, electricity, fossil fuels, flowing water, wind, etc. Sun, energy, and weather Sources of energy Basic needs of living things

73 Skills Relate to Content Interconnections within Systems This theme focuses on helping students recognize the components of various systems and then investigate dynamic and sustainable relationships within systems using scientific inquiry. Science Inquiry and Application During the years of grades 5-8 all students must use the following scientific processes to construct their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:  Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations;  Design and conduct a scientific investigation;  Use appropriate mathematics, tools and techniques to gather data and information;  Analyze and interpret data;  Develop descriptions, models, explanations and predictions;  Think critically and logically to connect evidence and explanations;  Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predications; and  Communicate scientific procedures and explanations. Strands Strand Connections: Cycles on Earth, such as those occurring in ecosystems, in the solar system, and in the movement of light and sound result in describable patterns. Speed is a measurement of movement that is related to force and weight. The transfer of energy drives changes in systems, including ecosystems and physical systems. SBOE Draft Document April 2010Page 13 of 25

74 Discussion Question From the 21 st Century Skills handout, your group is to: Select one set of skilIs Brainstorm ways that they can be integrated into the teaching of content


76 Developing New Assessments 76

77 Ready for College and Career? OGT CCR

78 Why Students Drop Out A gradual process of disengagement 47% of dropouts report that classes were not interesting 81% lack opportunities for “real world learning,” and see little connection between school and getting a good job Exceptional students are not immune from dropping out!

79 Ohio College Students Needing Remediation 79 Source: Ohio Board of Regents

80 ELA College and Career Readiness ACT, “A First Look at the Common Core and College and Career Readiness,” 2010,

81 Math College and Career Readiness ACT, “A First Look at the Common Core and College and Career Readiness,” 2010,

82 Ohio Core Requirements English Language Arts: 4 units Math: 4 units Science: 3 units Social Studies: 3 units Physical Education: ½ unit Health: ½ unit Electives: 5 units Fine Arts: 2 ½ units 82 For the class of 2014:

83 New Assessment System OGT will be replaced by a three part system: Nationally standardized assessment Series of end-of-course exams Senior project Students will earn a composite score

84 Summative Assessment = 84 Sum of the Assessments

85 Common Assessment Elements Both Achieve & SMARTER Balanced consortia have: On-line testing Interim and summative components Item Types Multiple choice Extended response Technology-enhanced Performance assessments High school tests: End-of-course vs. End-of-year Rapid reporting system to inform instruction Teachers involved in developing and scoring tests 85

86 Accurately Assessing All Learners Alternative Assessment based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) Three-state consortium effort based on these premises: Cognitive deficits impact the ability to access and perform assessment tasks Ideal modifications remove barriers without simplifying content Appropriately modified assessments accurately and fairly measure proficiency of students with disabilities who have persistently performed poorly Stoica, W. I. (2010). A multistate approach to development of AA-MAS: Removing disability-imposed barriers to student performance. How can alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards improve student learning and outcomes (p. 7). Denver: American Education Research Association.

87 Accurately Assessing All Learners AA-MAS project findings: Identification of specific learning barrier patterns Patterns exist among low-achieving students with and without disabilities Specific approaches were analyzed for their impact on students with and without disabilities Findings from other state consortia suggest that students who perform poorly may not have had the opportunity to learn grade level content American Education Research Association. (2010). How can alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards improve student learning and outcomes. Denver: AERA.

88 Accurately Assessing All Learners Findings from the AA-MAS consortium will inform: Further research under a federal grant The work of the Achieve and the SMARTER Balanced consortia

89 SMARTER Balanced Chart

90 Achieve Partnership Chart

91 Comparison Summary and images attributable to Assessment and Performance Management at Educational Testing Services.  1-3 tasks that assess a few “keystone” standards / topics  Given at three points during the school year, near the end of quarters  Results within 2 weeks to inform instruction and intervention  1-3 tasks that assess a few “keystone” standards / topics  Given at three points during the school year, near the end of quarters  Results within 2 weeks to inform instruction and intervention Achieve SMARTER Balanced

92 Comparison Summary and images attributable to Assessment and Performance Management at Educational Testing Services.  Includes 40-65 questions per content area  A computer adaptive assessment given during final weeks of the school year  Multiple item types, scored by computer  Re-take option, as locally determined  Includes 40-65 questions per content area  A computer adaptive assessment given during final weeks of the school year  Multiple item types, scored by computer  Re-take option, as locally determined SMARTER Balanced Achieve

93 Performance-Based Assessments Portfolios Written compositions Open-ended problems Works of art Apprenticeships Internships Musical performances Speeches Analysis and interpretation of reading Research projects Task Examples

94 Performance-Based Assessments Performance Outcomes: The academic knowledge, behaviors, and skills that students are expected to learn and demonstrate in a performance task Common Scoring Rubrics: A set of evaluation criteria nonspecific to a unit of study that are aligned to performance outcomes used to designate appropriate performance targets Components

95 Performance-Based Assessments Tasks are scored on a common, generalized rubric  A single rubric can be applied to all tasks within a single content area  Descriptions serve as anchors Scoring

96 English Language Arts: Inquiry and Communication “College/Career Ready” “College-Level”

97 English Language Arts: Inquiry and Communication Category Five: Process and Reflection

98 Performance-Based Assessments Scorer Training  Teachers trained to score student work  Range-finding conducted  Tasks revised based on results

99 Assessments Field testing: 2012-2013 Standard setting: 2013-2014 New tests begin 2014-2015 99

100 Preparation for New Standards 100 Tasks for Districts

101 Implementation Timeline 101 201020112014 State Board Adopts Model Curriculum March, 2011 State Board Adopts Standards June, 2010 Transition Complete June, 2014 20122013 Transition: Teacher development Local curriculum revision Test development 2011 - 2014

102 Questions ?

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