# Perception. Rules of Perceptual Organization Gestalt Psychologists The whole is more than the sum of its parts Closure Even if there are gaps in a picture.

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Perception

Rules of Perceptual Organization Gestalt Psychologists The whole is more than the sum of its parts Closure Even if there are gaps in a picture we will see the object

Rules of Perceptual Organization Figure Ground Perception The perception of figures against a background What we see as the figure and the background shape our perception

Rules of Perceptual Organization Proximity Objects that are close to one another are paired together for no reason other then their closeness Similarity Objects that are similar to one another are grouped together

Rules of Perceptual Organization Continuity Objects are viewed as continuing pattern rather then broken apart segments Common Fate Objects moving together belong together

Perception of Movement To perceive an object is moving you must view it relative to another object Examples Earth’s movement Movement of a car

Stroboscopic Motion Movements that are not actually in motion are moving Flip book Movie

Depth Perception The distance away from you Perceived through monocular and binocular cues

Depth Perception – Monocular Cues Need one eye to be perceived Creating the illusion of three dimensions Paintings Perspective Objects in the distance appear smaller Parallel lines appear to get closer together

Depth Perception – Monocular Cues Clearness The clearer an object the closer it appears to be Overlapping Objects that are partially covered are perceived to be further away

Depth Perception – Monocular Cues Shading Highlighted areas are perceived as being closer to you Texture Gradient Objects that are closer have more and varied texture

Depth Perception- Monocular Cues Motion Parallax The tendency of objects to move forward or backwards depending on their distance  Example: as you drive in your car  Moon moves forward  Trees move backwards

Depth Perception – Binocular Cues Requires both eyes for perception Retinal disparity Seeing double of your finger as you bring it towards you An image of the finger is projected onto each retina Serves as a cue for depth within a few feet

Depth Perception – Binocular Cues Convergence Feeling of tension in eye muscles Feeling of convergence is greater as an object gets closer

Perceptual Constancies Created by experience Size Constancy The tendency to perceive object as being one size regardless of how far away they are

Perceptual Constancies Color Constancy Perceiving an object as remaining the same color even through different exposure to light Brightness Constancy Tendency to perceive an object as being equally as bright even when the light around it changes

Perceptual Constancies Shape Constancy Perception that an object has the same shape regardless of the angle at which you view it

Visual Illusions Muller – Lyer illusion We perceive the lines as corners of a building Our brain reasons the corner of the room must be larger because it is further away

Visual Illusion Ponzo illusion Converging lines strike us as receding into the distance The rule of size constancy comes into play

http://educ.jmu.edu/~johns2ja/illusion/illusio n.htm#mcdpool

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