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Communicating Effectively David Yukelson Chapter 8 “ I wish my coach was a little clearer with me. I wish I knew where I stood with her. I wish she believed.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicating Effectively David Yukelson Chapter 8 “ I wish my coach was a little clearer with me. I wish I knew where I stood with her. I wish she believed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicating Effectively David Yukelson Chapter 8 “ I wish my coach was a little clearer with me. I wish I knew where I stood with her. I wish she believed in me more. Right now, I feel like I’m working really hard but nothing ever seems to be good enough. Anytime I go into my coach’s office to talk, things get turned around and I’m always on the defensive. I wish the communication between us was better and more open.” Penn State University Student Athlete Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

2 Communication Ability to express one’s thoughts, feelings, and needs effectively, and reciprocally Multidimensional Central to good communication: understanding the thoughts, feelings, and needs of others Goal is to connect in a meaningful way Critical to the success of any team or organization and its members Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

3 Communication Communication involves sending, receiving (encoding), and interpreting (decoding) messages through a variety of sensory modalities Messages can be: Verbal (written or spoken) Nonverbal (facial expressions, body language, body positioning, and symbolic gestures and signals) Distinguished by content and emotion Content and context interact to produce meaning Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

4 Communication WHAT you say is as important as HOW you say it! Tone of voice, facial expressions, body posture/spatial distance, and eye contact are some of the nonverbal cues that influence communication I think you are doing a great job! Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

5 Communication in Sport Much of what goes on in sport revolves around communication A key part of this is listening Mutual sharing leads to mutual understanding Team members must communicate openly and honestly with one another about the efficiency of group functioning and the quality of interpersonal relationships Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6 Coach as Communicator Coaches who are good communicators: Have credibility with their athletes Trustworthy Respected AND respectful Establish open lines of communication Honest, fair, sincere, consistent, understanding Accept individuals for who they are Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

7 Coach as Communicator (cont.) Coaches who are good communicators: Explain, clarify, and individualize instruction individually Different athletes need different supports Observe athletes’ performances analytically Allows them to help athletes improve by providing clear and constructive feedback in a non- threatening manner Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

8 Communication and Groups Communication directly affects group solidarity, collective efficacy, and team performance Teams must communicate easily and efficiently with one another Coaches and athletes talk openly about interpersonal and task-related issues that affect them directly, and everyone works together to develop a positive group atmosphere/team culture Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

9 Communication and Groups (cont.) Interpersonal problems on teams usually stem from poor communication Often the result of misunderstanding or miscommunication of feelings Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

10 Group Misunderstandings Types of misunderstandings : 1.A difference of opinion resolvable by common sense 2.A clash of personalities in the group 3.A conflict of task or social roles among group members 4.A struggle for power between one or more individuals 5.A breakdown of communication between the leader and the group or among members of the group itself Henschen and Miner (1989) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

11 Group Misunderstandings (cont.) Misunderstandings can also result from: Inaccessibility Inattentiveness Lack of assertiveness Misperceiving someone’s motives, intentions, or behavior People fear being ridiculed or rejected for their thoughts Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

12 Team Communication Dynamics 3 different communication configurations Coach–Team Athlete–Athlete Coach–Athlete Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

13 Coach–Team Communications Group synergy and team chemistry are keys Group synergy means sharing a vision of what could be if everyone puts his or her skills and resources together to achieve team goals Comes from coaches Important to obtain consensus and commitment from the team Coach should solicit input from team members Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

14 Coach–Team Communications (cont.) To achieve strong communication, a coach may find the following communication principles useful: 1.Impart 2.Inspire 3.Monitor 4.Clarify 5.Reinforce Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15 Coach–Athlete Communications Coaches should build a psychological and social environment conducive to goal achievement and team success Get to know athletes as unique individuals Find out their strengths, talents, interests, needs Be open, honest, and up-front with athletes Provide evaluative feedback Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16 Coach–Athlete Communications (cont.) Up to both parties to make communication stronger! Recognize individual differences communication styles - do not assume everyone interprets info in the same ways Reduce uncertainty; clarify expectations and be supportive Focus on being positive and consistent Develop empathy skills Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17 Athlete-Athlete Communication Teammates must establish and maintain harmonious working relationships with each other Coaches should make a point to start the season off with disclosure/mutual sharing team-building activities Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

18 Athlete-Athlete Communication (cont.) Athletic teams are like families…tension, frustration, and conflict is inevitable Underlying issues revolve around Misunderstanding Insensitivity Distrust Betrayal Athletes feeling unheard Intercultural misunderstandings rooted in race, class, ethnicity, etc. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

19 Ways to Improve Athlete-Athlete Communication Make sure everyone pulling in the same direction (team comes first) Listen to others, they will listen to you! Learn how to give and receive constructive feedback Learn better tolerance Avoid backstabbing and gossiping Keep confrontations private Recognize that not all conflicts can be resolved, but most managed more effectively if both parties communicate Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

20 Listening Is Important! 3 Levels of Listening 1.Arrogant listening – listeners more interested in what they have to say as opposed to what the other person is saying 2.Superficial or inattentive listening – listeners tune out quickly once they think they have enough information to decipher what the speaker’s intent is 3.Active listening – listener is attuned, connected, engaged; tries to understand what the other person has to say Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

21 Active Listening The preferred mode of listening Posture indicates active involvement Listen for what it is the person is really trying to say (both verbally and nonverbally) Clarify to ensure your understanding is correct Provide a summarizing statement that pulls everything together in a respectful empathetic way Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

22 Active Listening (cont.) A tool for improving non-verbal techniques necessary for active listening is the SOLER Technique: S quare and face the person O pen posture L ean toward person E ye contact R elaxed body Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

23 Reflective Listening Powerful method for demonstrating active listening Reflective listening skills: Questioning Clarifying Encouraging Paraphrasing Reflecting Empathetic understanding Summarizing Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

24 Empathy Skills of listening are not always sufficient to provide quality relationships with people. Empathy A special kind of mindfulness and understanding Trying to understand and feel what the other person is experiencing from their own perspective Walk in their shoes Empathetic listeners reflect what they hear Restate ideas in their own words Ask good questions Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

25 Assertiveness Training: Need for Expression Assertiveness is the honest and straight-forward expression of a person’s thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in a socially appropriate way that does not violate or infringe on the rights of others It is a learned social skill and must be practiced! Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

26 Challenges being Assertive Reasons people have trouble being assertive: Social consequences Lack of awareness/assertive skills Lack of confidence Vulnerability Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

27 Assertiveness Training DESC formula (Greenberg, 1990) 1.Describe…the situation as you see it 2.Express…your feelings regarding the other person’s behavior or the situation you have just described 3.Specify…what changes you would like to see take place 4.Consequences…what will happen Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

28 Resolving Team Conflicts “Four Olves” invOlve resOlve absOlve evOlve Make the group the target of change Talk about team culture and commitment required for the team to work Communicate honestly and directly in a respectful manner Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

29 Sport Psychologist - Skilled Helper A skilled sport psychologist has strong communication skills: Ability to develop rapport Skilled interviewer Adept at listening Good at probing Genuineness Openness Warmth Empathetic Creative and skillful Trustworthiness Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


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