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L O A Journées accélérateurs, Roscoff, FRANCE, 9-12 (2005) Laser-plasma accelerators: Status and perspectives Victor Malka LOA, ENSTA – CNRS - École Polytechnique,

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Presentation on theme: "L O A Journées accélérateurs, Roscoff, FRANCE, 9-12 (2005) Laser-plasma accelerators: Status and perspectives Victor Malka LOA, ENSTA – CNRS - École Polytechnique,"— Presentation transcript:

1 L O A Journées accélérateurs, Roscoff, FRANCE, 9-12 (2005) Laser-plasma accelerators: Status and perspectives Victor Malka LOA, ENSTA – CNRS - École Polytechnique, Palaiseau cedex, France Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 1/ /-20MeV 500 pC 6 mrad Gas jet laser Electron beam

2 L O A CARE / FP6 Particle group F. Ewald J. Faure Y. Glinec A. Lifschitz J.J. Santos Laser group F. Burgy B. Mercier J.Ph. Rousseau A.Pukhov, University of Dusseldorf, Germany ELF SPL Collaborators E. Lefebvre, CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, France P. Mora, CPhT, X, CNRS, France Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 2/38

3 L O A E-field max ≈ few 10 MeV /meter (Breakdown) R>R min Synchrotron radiation Classical accelerator limitations LEP at CERN 27 km Circle road 31 km New medium : the plasma Energy = Length = $$$ ≈ PARIS Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 3/38

4 L O A Why is a Plasma useful ? Plasma is an Ionized Medium High Electric Fields epz nE~~ w Superconducting RF-Cavities : E z = 55 MV/m ez nE~ Are Relativistic Plasma waves efficient ? E z = 0.3 GV/m for 1 % Density Perturbation at cc -1 E z = 300 GV/m for 100 % Density Perturbation at cc -1 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 4/38

5 L O A Tajima&Dawson, PRL79 How to excite Relativistic Plasma waves ? The laser wake field  laser ≈ T p / 2 = >Short laser pulse Laser pulse F≈-grad I Electron density perturbation Phase velocity v  epw =v g laser => close to c Analogy with a boat Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 5/38

6 L O A F≈-grad I Train of short resonant pulses Laser envelop modulation    k     k 2 How to excite Relativistic Plasma waves? (ii) The laser beat waves $$$$!  1 -  2 =  p Linear growth : d(t)=1/4a 1 a 2 w p t =>Homogenous plasmas Saturation : relativistic, ion motion Optical demonstration by Thomson scattering : Clayton et al. PRL 1985,Amiranoff et al. PRL 1992,, Dangor et al. Phys. Scrypta 1990 Chen, Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, 2 nd Edition, Vol.1, (1984) Motivations Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 6/38

7 L O A electron Analogy: t 1 t 2 t 3  e >>   >> 1 => E max (MeV)=(  n/n)(n c /n e ) =>L deph. =(=( 0 /2)(n c /n e ) 3/2 E max =2(  n/n)   2 mc 2 L Deph. = p   2 Analogy electron/surfer Motivations Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 7/38

8 L O A Motivations Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 8/38

9 L O A Few MeV gain Laser Injected electrons Few MeV Injected electrons acceleration with laser : Wake field, Beat wave Motivations Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 9/38

10 L O A Electron Acceleration : LBWF Electron spectra indicate an E field of ≈ 0.7 GV/m   = 100,  e = 6,  laser = 40 µm,  e = 40 µm, divergence = 10 mrad Electrons number experiment ,33,43,53,63,73,83,9 Theory Energy (MeV) d = 1,6% LULI/LPNHE/LPGP/LSI/IC Electron gain demonstration Few MeV’s: Kitagawa et al. PRL 1992,Clayton et al. PRL 1993,N. A. Ebrahim et al., J. Appl. Phys.1994, Amiranoff et al. PRL 1995 Motivations Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 10/38

11 L O A How to generate an electron beam? Self-modulated Laser Wakefield Scheme (Andreev et al., Sprangle et al., Antonsen & Mora 1992) c  p enhances Wavebreaking P c (GW) = 17  0 2 /  p 2 Short Pulse Energetic Electrons if then excites Modena et al., Nature 1995 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 11/38

12 L O A Wave breaking : from waves to particles Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 12/38

13 L O A 5-pass Amp. : 200 mJ 8-pass pre-Amp. : 2 mJ Oscillator : 2 nJ, 15 fs Stretcher : 500 pJ, 400 ps After Compression : 1 J, 30 fs, 0.8  m, 10 Hz, m Nd:YAG : 10 J 4-pass, Cryo. cooled Amp. : < 3.5 J, 400 ps Salle Jaune Laser based on CPA technique Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 13/38

14 L O A. z rayon 2 mill. z rayon 2 mill Phase (radians) Density (10 18 cm -3 ) Rayon (mm) Densité de neutre (cm -3 ) The target gas jet Developed at the gas jet’s lab V. Malka et al., RSI (2000) Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 14/38

15 L O A S. Semushin & V. Malka, RSI (2001) Gas Jet Nozzle Design and improvement For laser plasma studies Dcrit mm D exit mm L opt mm Mach exit Next cm x x x x x x x x Dcrit mm D exit mm L opt mm Mach exit Next cm-3 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 15/38

16 L O A E max (MeV) n e (cm -3 ) E max =4  p 2 m e c 2 dn n Tunable electron beam : temperature Electrons are accelerated by epw V. Malka et al., PoP (2001) F/6 INCREASE THE ACCELERATION LENGTH Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 16/38

17 L O A Interaction chamber (inside) Laser beam electron beam 50 cm Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 17/38

18 L O A Summary of FLWF previous results Experiments/3D PIC simulations Emittance is indeed comparable with todays Accelerators Electron Energy (MeV)  n (  mm mrad) E e - = ~ 55 MeV = ~ 3  mm mrad nn S. Fritzler et al., PRL 04 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 18/38

19 L O A SMLWF : Multiple e - bunches / FLWF Single e - bunch V. Malka, Europhysics news, April 2004 (Ps/fs) Electron bunches laser Electric field Ps Electron bunch laser Electron density perturbation n e /n 0 -1 Electric field 0 fs Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 19/38

20 L O A Quasi-Monoenergetic Electron Beams In homogenous plasma : virtual or real? E, MeV t=350 t=450 t=550 t=650 t=750 t= N e / MeV Time evolution of electron spectrum monoenergetic electron beam VLPL A.Pukhov & J.Meyer-ter-Vehn, Appl. Phys. B, 74, p.355 (2002) One stage LPA Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 20/38

21 L O A Experimental Setup : single shot measurement Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 21/38

22 L O A 2.0 x cm -3 Divergence = 6 mrad Spatial quality improvements 6.0 x cm x cm x cm x cm x cm -3 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 22/38

23 L O A From Mono to maxwellian spectra : the bubble regime : optimum when c  L  p V. Malka, et al., PoP 2005 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 23/38

24 L O A Charge in [ ] MeV : (500 ±200) pC Energy distribution improvements: The Bubble regime PIC Experiment Divergence = 6 mrad J. Faure et al., in Nature 30 septembre 2004 Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 24/38

25 L O A Some Applications... X-rays:diffraction medicine  -rays:radiography Medicine Radiotherapy Proton-therapy PET Accelerator Physics Chemistry Radiolysis Electrons and Protons generated by Laser-Plasma Interactions + X ray Larmor X ray laser Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 25/38

26 L O A GeV acceleration in two-stages GeV Laser Plasma channel TW ~50 fs Nozzle Gas-Jet Laser 170±20 MeV 30 fs 10 mrad 1 J 10 TW 30 fs Pulse guiding condition : Δn>1/πr e r c 2 Weak nonlinear effects  more control : a 0 ~ 1-2 High quality beams : L b <λ p  n 0 <10 18 cm -3 rcrc ΔnΔn n0n0 Density profile Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 26/38

27 L O A GeV in low plasma density in plasma channel V. Malka et al., to be published in Royal Society and Phil. Trans. GeV in low plasma density in plasma channel n 0 = cm -3, 11 J TW r c =40 μm, Δn=2 n 0 L channel =4 cm 8 cm 12 cm dN/dE(a.u.) Energy (MeV) Electron bunch Electric field Electron bunch Electric field Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 27/38

28 L O A On the ultra short duration benefit fs radiolysis : H 2 O (e - s, OH., H 2 O 2, H 3 O +, H 2, H. ) e-e- Very important for: Biology Ionising radiations effects B. Brozek-Pluska et al., Radiation and Chemistry, 72, (2005) **Ar. Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 28/38

29 L O A In collaboration with L. Le-Dain, S. Darbon from CEA Mourainvilier and DAM Material science:  -ray radiography High resolution radiography of dense object with a low divergence, point-like electron source Glinec et al., PRL 94 p (2005) Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 29/38

30 L O A  -radiography results A-A' cut 20mm Cut of the object in 3D Spherical hollow object in tungsten with sinusoidal structures etched on the inner part. Measured Calculated Source size estimation : 450 um Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 30/38

31 L O A Medical application : Radiotherapy VHE ELECTRONS Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 31/38

32 L O A Radiation Therapy Depth in tissue Photon dose Photon beams are commonly used for radiation therapy tumor Photon beam Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 32/38

33 L O A VHE Radiation Therapy Depth in tissue VHE dose l Reduced dose in save cells l Deep traitement l Good lateral contrast tumor VHE Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 33/38

34 L O A Dose deposition profile in water Glinec et al., Accepted to Med. Phys. In collaboration with DKFZ (Germany) Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 34/38

35 L O A Laser plasma acceleration has demonstrated Energy gains of 1 MeV to 200 MeV E-fields of 1 GV/m to 1000 GV/m Good e-beam quality : Emittance < 3  mm.mrad charge at high energy Quasi monoenergetic Laser plasma accelerators advantages Provide e-beam with new parameters : short Provide e-beam with new parameters : high current Provide e-beam with new parameters : Collimated Compact and low cost The laser plasma accelerators status ゝ ゝ ゝ ゝ ゝ ゝ ゝ ゝ ゝ Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 35/38

36 L O A Laser plasma accelerator: enhance stability electron sources up to ≈ 1 GeV (nC, <1 ps): Guiding or PW class laser systems Single Stage (Pukhov, Mori) (200TW) Generate a tunable e-beam applications of these electron sources Compact XFEL Perspectives Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 36/38

37 L O A Next Step: GeV electron beams (1 stage) L T  1.0cm L dp  1.3cm  E  1.5GeV After 5 Z r / 7.5 mm Total charge = 1.1 nC Energy (MeV) f(E) (a.u.) w 0  20  m  30fs a 0  4  0.8  m P  200TW n p  1.5  cm  3 P P c  10 * Gordienko et al, PoP 2005, UCLA group Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 37/38

38 L O A A revolution is coming…one of the most evolving field in Science, a wonderful tool for academic formation Thanks for your attention ! Journées accélérateurs, SFP, Roscoff 05 FRANCE 38/38


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