NEXT Section 1 Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
NEXT Invasions of Western Europe Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms Effects of Constant Invasions and Warfare Germanic invaders overrun western Roman Empire400s Trade and government disrupted; people abandon cities Beginning of Middle Ages(500 – 1000) The Decline of Learning Thus the DARK AGES SECTION 1 Loss of a Common Language German language changes Latin; dialects develop
NEXT Germanic Kingdoms Emerge SECTION 1 Years of Upheaval Between 400 and 600 Germanic kingdoms Continual wars change borders Church est. order and security The Concept of Government Changes Government = family ties and loyalty Communities governed by unwritten rules/traditions Loyalty to chieftans Continued...
NEXT continued Germanic Kingdoms Emerge SECTION 1 Clovis Rules the Franks Rules Franks Converts to Christianity in 496 Unites Franks into one kingdom with Church’s help by 511
NEXT Germans Adopt Christianity SECTION 1 How the Church Spread Frankish rulers convert Germanic peoples to Christianity Missionaries travel to convert Germanic and Celtic groups Monasteries, Convents, and Manuscripts Church builds monasteries and convents Monks establish schools, preserve learning through libraries Continued... Image
NEXT continued Germans Adopt Christianity SECTION 1 Papal Power Expands Under Gregory I In 590, Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great, becomes pope Under Gregory, Church becomes secular—a political power Pope’s palace becomes center of Roman government Uses Church money to raise armies, care for poor, negotiate treaties
NEXT An Empire Evolves SECTION 1 Europe’s Kingdoms Franks - control largest/strongest kingdoms Charles Martel Emerges Defeats Muslims from Spain at Tours in 732; becomes a Christian hero Son, Pepin, begins Carolingian Dynasty— family that ruled 751–987 Image
NEXT Charlemagne Becomes Emperor SECTION 1 From Pepin to Charlemagne Pepin dies in 768, leaves kingdom to two sons; in 771 one son dies Second son, Charlemagne (Charles the Great), rules kingdom Charlemagne Extends Frankish Rule Charlemagne’s armies reunite western Europe, spread Christianity Pope crowns Charlemagne emperor; gives him title, “Roman Emperor” Germanic power, Church, heritage of Roman Empire now joined together (UNIFICATION OF POWER) Continued...
NEXT continued Charlemagne Becomes Emperor SECTION 1 Charlemagne Leads a Revival Charlemagne limits nobles’ power Encourages learning and creates monastic schools WHAT TYPE OF EDUCATION IS COMMON AT THIS TIME? Charlemagne’s Heirs Charlemagne dies in 814his son Louis the Pious (heir) Louis’s three grandsons fight for control of empire Lothair, Charles the Bald, Louis the German In 843 they divide empire into three kingdoms; sign Treaty of Verdun Interactive
NEXT Feudalism, a political and economic system based on land-holding and protective alliances, emerges in Europe. Section 2 Feudalism in Europe
NEXT A New Social Order: Feudalism Feudalism Structures Society Feudalism - based on land control A lord (landowner) gives fiefs (land grants) in exchange for services Vassals—people who receive fiefs—become powerful landholders SECTION 2 The Feudal Pyramid King at the top Served by nobles Served by knights Peasants at bottom (most people) Knights—horsemen—defend their lord’s land in exchange for fiefs Continued... Chart
NEXT Social Classes Are Well Defined Medieval feudal system classifies people into three social groups -those who fight: nobles and knights -those who pray: monks, nuns, leaders of the Church -those who work: peasants Social class –inherited (usually) Most peasants are serfs—bound to land Not slaves, but what they produce belongs to their lord continued A New Social Order: Feudalism SECTION 2 Image
NEXT Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism The Lord’s Estate Manor Serfs/free peasants maintain the lord’s estate, give grain The lord provides housing, farmland, protection SECTION 2 A Self-Contained World Manors cover a few square miles of land, are largely self-sufficient Continued...
NEXT The Harshness of Manor Life Peasants pay taxes Taille – Tax in goods Corvee – Tax in labor Tithe—a church tax—is equal to one-tenth of a peasant’s income ROUGH LIFE (Poor diet, illness, malnutrition life expectancy 35 Serfs generally accept their lives as part of God’s plan continued Manors: The Economic Side of Feudalism SECTION 2 Image
Section 3 The Age of Chivalry The code of chivalry for knights glorifies combat and romantic love. NEXT
Knights: Warriors on Horseback The Age of Chivalry The Technology of Warfare Changes Leather saddle and stirrups enable knights to handle heavy weapons In 700s, mounted knights become most important part of an army SECTION 3 The Warrior’s Role in Feudal Society By 1000s, western Europe is a battleground of warring nobles Feudal lords raise private armies of knights Knights rewarded with land; provides income needed for weapons Knights’ other activities help train them for combat
NEXT Knighthood and the Code of Chivalry The Code of Chivalry chivalry—a set of ideals on how to act They are to protect weak and poor; serve feudal lord, God, chosen lady Interactive Image SECTION 3
NEXT The Literature of Chivalry Love Poems and Songs Knights’ duties to ladies are as important as those to their lords Troubadours—traveling poet-musicians—write and sing short verses SECTION 3
NEXT Women’s Role in Feudal Society Status of Women According to the Church/society, women are inferior Noblewomen Can inherit land, defend castle, send knights to war on lord’s request Usually confined to home or convent Peasant Women Most labor in home/field, bear children, provide for family Poor, powerless, SECTION 3
NEXT Section 4 The Power of the Church Church leaders and political leaders compete for power and authority.
NEXT The Far-Reaching Authority of the Church The Power of the Church The Structure of the Church Power within Church is organized by status; pope is supreme authority Religion as a Unifying Force Religion important in Middle Ages; shared beliefs bond people Clergy administers the sacraments—rites to achieve salvation Village church is place of worship and celebration SECTION 4 Continued... Image
NEXT The Law of the Church The Church has system of justice to guide people’s conduct expected to obey canon law Popes have power over political leaders through threat of -excommunication -interdiction—denial ofsacraments and services Kings and emperors expected to obey pope’s commands continued The Far-Reaching Authority of the Church SECTION 4
NEXT The Church and the Holy Roman Empire SECTION 4 Signs of Future Conflicts Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire is the strongest European power until about 1100 Map
NEXT The Emperor Clashes with the Pope Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII bans lay investiture—kings appointing Church officials Henry IV orders pope to resign; Gregory VIII excommunicates Henry. (they make up) PROBLEM STILL CONTINUES SECTION 4 Concordat of Worms Compromise: pope appoints bishops, emperor can veto appointment
NEXT Section 1 Church Reform and the Crusades EQ: How did the Crusades effect both Muslims and Christians? CHAPTER 14
NEXT The Age of Faith Church Reform and the Crusades Spiritual Revival 900s – Church power restored Problems in the Church Some Church officials marry simony—selling religious offices Reformers believe only the Church should appoint bishops (investiture) SECTION 1 Continued... Image
NEXT continued The Age of Faith SECTION 1 Reform and Church Organization 1100s, popes reorganize Church like kingdom diplomats travel throughout Europe Church collects tithes to help New Religious Orders Dominican and Franciscan orders vow poverty; travel and preach to the poor Image
NEXT Cathedrals—Cities of God SECTION 1 Early Cathedrals Romanesque thick walls and pillars, small windows, round arches A New Style of Church Architecture Gothic around 1100 large, tall windows for more light; pointed arches Stained glass windows (bibles of the poor) Image
NEXT The Crusades SECTION 1 The Beginning of the Crusades 1093, Byzantine emperor asks for help Pope Urban II issues a call for a Crusade—a “holy war” Goals of the Crusades reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity send away knights who cause trouble Younger sons hope to earn land/glory Merchants join to gain wealth HOW DO YOU THINK THEY WOULD GAIN WEALTH FROM THE CRUSADES? Continued... Interactive
NEXT continued The Crusades SECTION 1 The First and Second Crusades Pope promise: Death = salvation First Crusade: Christian Success Future Crusades: Christian Failure (for the most part) Continued... The Children’s Crusade 1212 thousands of children die or are enslaved A Spanish Crusade Reconquista—drive Muslims from Spain, 1100 to 1492 Spain has Inquisition—court to suppress heresy; expels non-Christians
NEXT The Effects of the Crusades SECTION 1 The Crusades Change Life Shows power of Church Women who stay home manage affairs Trade expands Later crusades weakens church/noble power & strengthens kings Create lasting bitterness b/t Muslims and Christians
NEXT EQ: What role does technology play in Medieval Europe? Section 2 Changes in Medieval Society
NEXT A Growing Food Supply Changes in Medieval Society Changes in Agriculture Changes in technology result in more food production SECTION 2 Switch to Horsepower Horse collar Moldboard The Three-Field System three-field system More food = More People
NEXT The Guilds Development of Guilds Guilds —organization of people in the same occupation keep prices up,provide security set standards for quality, prices, wages, working conditions Supervise training new members SECTION 2 Chart
NEXT Commercial Revolution Fairs and Trade Commercial Revolution—changes in business and trade Trade fairs are held several times a year in towns Trade routes open to Asia, North Africa, and Byzantine ports SECTION 2 Business and Banking Credit developed to avoid carrying large $$$$ Banking grows Society Changes Economic changes lead to the growth of cities and of paying jobs Chart
NEXT Urban Life Flourishes Growing Urban Population 1000–1150, goes from 30 million to 42 million Most towns are small, but they help drive change SECTION 2 Trade and Towns Grow Together crowded, dirty, full of fire hazards, uncomfortable Serfs can become free by living in a town for a year and a day Merchant Class Shifts the Social Order Towns are taken over by burghers—town merchants
NEXT The Revival of Learning The Muslim Connection Christian scholars read translations of Greek works made by Muslims Crusaders return with Muslim knowledge of navigation, ships, weapons SECTION 2 Scholars and the University Universities form Written works in vernacular—everyday language (not Latin) Aquinas and Medieval Philosophy Thomas Aquinas, mixes Greek and Christian thought scholasticism debates issues to increase knowledge (always under guidance of church doctrine)
Section 3 England and France Develop As the kingdoms of England and France begin to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolve. NEXT
England Absorbs Waves of Invaders Early Invasions Danish Vikings invade 800s Alfred the Great gradually unitedEngland 1016, Vikings & Anglo-Saxons united SECTION 3 The Norman Conquest 1066, invasion by William the Conqueror Becomes king William – 1/5 of land Supporters – 4/5 of land Image England and France Develop
NEXT England’s Evolving Government King and Vassal English rulers’ goal: to control lands in both England and France (Henry II does this) Juries and Common Law Henry creates English common law— unified body of laws Common law forms the basis of law in many English-speaking countries SECTION 3 Continued...
NEXT The Magna Carta In 1215 English nobles force King John to sign Magna Carta (limits king’s power & ensures noble power) English people argue the rights are for all people, not just nobles continued England’s Evolving Government The Model Parliament 1295, Edward I creats 1 st parliament—to discuss taxes, etc… Two houses: House of Lords & Commons SECTION 3
NEXT Capetian Dynasty Rules France The End of the Carolingians Hugh Capet—founds Capetian family rule from 987–1328 SECTION 3 Philip II Expands His Power Philip II—a powerful, rules 1180–1223 Philip expands land controlled Continued... Philip II’s Heirs Louis IX strengthens central government Philip IV questions pope’s power & gives comoners a voice
NEXT Beginnings of Democracy England and France begin A centralized gov created for large territory Common law and court system Commoners included in decision making continued Capetian Dynasty Rules France SECTION 3 Estates-General Participants in the council come from France’s three Estates -First Estate—Church leaders -Second Estate—lords -Third Estate—commoners, landholders, merchants
NEXT Section 4 The Hundred Years’ War and the Plague In the 1300s, Europe was torn apart by religious strife, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years’ War.
NEXT A Church Divided The Hundred Years’ War and the Plague Pope and King Collide 1300, Pope Boniface VIII asserts authority over France’s Philip IV Philip has him imprisoned; pope dies soon after Avignon and the Great Schism 1305, French pope is chosen; moves to Avignon 1378, two popes chosen One in Rome One in Avignon Eventually only one SECTION 4 Continued... Image
NEXT Scholars Challenge Church Authority Englishman John Wycliffe argues Jesus is head of the Church, not pope Wycliffe inspires English translation of New Testament Jan Hus—Bohemian professor—teaches that Bible is final authority Hus is excommunicated, tried as a heretic, burned at stake in 1415 continued A Church Divided SECTION 4
NEXT The Bubonic Plague Strikes Origins and Impact of the Plague I1300s, Europe suffers bubonic plague— Begins in Asia spread via over trade routes 1/3 (appx) of Europe’s population dies SECTION 4 Effects of the Plague Town populations fall, trade declines, prices rise Some serfs leave manors for paying work Many Jews blamed and killed; Church suffers weakened stature Chart Interactive
NEXT The Hundred Years’ War England and France Hundred Years’ War—lasts from 1337–1453, between England and France English king Edward III claims French throne War marks the end of medieval society; change in style of warfare SECTION 4 The Longbow Changes Warfare Victory of longbows signals end of reliance on knights Continued... Image Chart
NEXT Joan of Arc Joan of Arc—French peasant girl who believes in visions of saints She leads French army 1430 captured in battle Condemned as a witch and heretic May 30, 1431, burned at the stake continued The Hundred Years’ War SECTION 4 Continued...
NEXT The Impact of the Hundred Years’ War France and England -rise in nationalistic feelings -power of French monarch increases -religious devotion and the code of chivalry crumbles England begins period of turmoil, War of the Roses continued The Hundred Years’ War SECTION 4
NEXT David (1501–1504), Michelangelo. European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300–1600 Two movements, the Renaissance and the Reformation, usher in dramatic social and cultural changes in Europe.
NEXT Section 1 Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance The Italian Renaissance is a rebirth of learning that produces many great works of art and literature.
NEXT Italy’s Advantages Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance The Renaissance Renaissance—an explosion of creativity in art, writing, and thought Started in northern Italy – (Florence) Lasted from 1300–1600 Merchants and the Medici A wealthy merchant class More emphasis on individual achievement Medici family (Banking), controls Florence Looking to Greece and Rome Artists, scholars study “classics” which leads to … Humanism—intellectual movement focused on human achievements SECTION 1 Continued... Map Image
NEXT Classical and Worldly Values SECTION 1 Classics Lead to Humanism Humanism—intellectual movement focused on human achievements Humanists studied classical texts, history, literature, philosophy Worldly Pleasures Renaissance society was secular—worldly Wealthy enjoyed fine food, homes, clothes Continued...
NEXT continued Classical and Worldly Values SECTION 1 Patrons of the Arts Patron—a financial supporter of artists Church leaders spend money on artworks to beautify cities Wealthy merchants also patrons of the arts Continued...
NEXT SECTION 1 The Renaissance Woman Upper-class, educated in classics, charming Expected to inspire art but not create it Image continued Classical and Worldly Values
NEXT The Renaissance Revolutionizes Art SECTION 1 Artistic Styles Change Artists use realistic style copied from classical art, often to portray religious subjects Painters use perspective—a way to show three dimensions on a canvas Realistic Painting and Sculpture Realistic portraits of prominent citizens Sculpture shows natural postures and expressions The biblical David is a favorite subject among sculptors Image Continued...
NEXT continued The Renaissance Revolutionizes Art SECTION 1 Leonardo, Renaissance Man Leonardo da Vinci—painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist Paints one of the best-known portraits in the world: the Mona Lisa Famous religious painting: The Last Supper Image Raphael Advances Realism Raphael Sanzio, famous for his use of perspective Favorite subject: the Madonna and child Famous painting: School of Athens Continued...
NEXT Renaissance Writers Change Literature SECTION 1 New Trends in Writing vernacular—their native language Self-expression or to portray individuality of the subject Petrarch and Boccaccio Petrarch, humanist and poet; FATHER OF HUMANISM DANTE = DADDY OF VERNACULAR Boccaccio is best known for the Decameron, a series of stories (INSIGHT INTO “DAILY LIFE) Continued...
NEXT continued Renaissance Writers Change Literature SECTION 1 Machievelli Advises Rulers author of political guidebook, The Prince How rulers can gain and keep power
NEXT In the 1400s, the ideas of the Italian Renaissance begin to spread to Northern Europe. Section 2 The Northern Renaissance
NEXT The Northern Renaissance Begins The Northern Renaissance Renaissance Ideas Spread Merchants in northern cities grow wealthy and sponsor artists Humanists interested in social reform based on Judeo-Christian values SECTION 2
NEXT Artistic Ideas Spread SECTION 2 Continued... Renaissance Styles Migrate North Artists, writers move to northern Europe fleeing war in Italy (1494) German Painter Hans Holbein the Younger paints portraits, often of English royalty Image
NEXT Northern Humanists Criticize the Catholic Church, Want to reform society and promote education, particularly for women SECTION 2 Continued... Northern Writers Try to Reform Society
NEXT continued Northern Writers Try to Reform Society Women’s Reforms Christine de Pizan, one of the first women writers She promotes education, equal treatment for boys and girls SECTION 2
NEXT The Elizabethan Age Queen Elizabeth I Renaissance spreads to England in mid-1500s Elizabeth reigns from 1558 to 1603 SECTION 2 William Shakespeare Shakespeare is often regarded as the greatest playwright
NEXT Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas Chinese Invention c. 1045 Bi Sheng (China) invents movabletype SECTION 2 Gutenberg Improves the Printing Process c. 1440 Gutenberg (Germany) develops printing press Printing press allows for quick, cheap book production First book printed - Gutenberg Bible (1455) Image
NEXT The Legacy of the Renaissance Changes in the Arts Art influenced by classical Greece and Rome Realistic portrayals of individuals and nature Art is both secular and religious Writers use vernacular Art praises individual achievement SECTION 2 Continued...
NEXT continued The Legacy of the Renaissance Changes in Society Printing makes information widely available Illiterate people benefit by having books read to them Published accounts of maps and charts lead to more discoveries Published legal proceedings make rights clearer to people Political structures and religious practices are questioned SECTION 2
Section 3 Luther Leads the Reformation Martin Luther’s protest over abuses in the Catholic Church lead to the founding of Protestant churches. NEXT
Causes of the Reformation Church Authority Challenged Thought Rulers Printing press spreads secular ideas Northern merchants resent paying church taxes SECTION 3 Criticisms of the Catholic Church Corrupt leaders, extravagant popes Poorly educated priests Luther Leads the Reformation Continued...
NEXT Early Calls for Reform John Wycliffe and Jan Hus stress Bible’s authority over clergy’s continued Causes of the Reformation SECTION 3
NEXT Luther Challenges the Church The 95 Theses Martin Luther protests Friar Johann Tetzel’s selling of indulgences Indulgence—a pardon releasing a person from penalty for a sin In 1517 Luther posts his 95 Theses attacking “pardon-merchants” Luther’s theses circulate throughout Germany Luther launches the Reformation—a movement for religious reform Reformation rejects pope’s authority SECTION 3 Continued... Image
NEXT Luther’s Teachings People can win salvation by good works and faith Christian teachings must be based on the Bible, not the pope All people with faith are equal, can interpret Bible without priests continued Luther Challenges the Church SECTION 3
NEXT The Response to Luther The Pope’s Threat Pope Leo X issues decree threatening to excommunicate Luther (1520) Luther’s rights of Church membership are taken away Luther refuses to take back his statements and is excommunicated The Emperor’s Opposition Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor He issues Edict of Worms (1521), declaring Luther a heretic Luther and followers begin a separate religious group—Lutherans SECTION 3 Continued...
NEXT The Peasants’ Revolt Inspired by Reformation, German peasants seek end to serfdom (1524) Princes crush revolt; about 100,000 people die continued The Response to Luther SECTION 3 Germany at War Some princes side with Luther, become known as Protestants Charles V fails to return rebellious princes to Catholic Church Peace of Augsburg (1555)—each prince can decide religion of his state
NEXT England Becomes Protestant Henry VIII Wants a Son Henry has only daughter, needs male heir to rule England Henry wants a divorce; Pope refuses to annul— set aside—his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon The Reformation Parliament Parliament passes laws ending pope’s power in England Henry remarries, becomes official head of England’s Church Thomas More refuses to go against Catholic Church and is beheaded SECTION 3 Continued... Image
NEXT Consequences of Henry’s Changes Henry has six wives and three children Religious turmoil follows Henry’s death (1547) Protestantism under King Edward, then Catholicism under Queen Mary continued England Becomes Protestant SECTION 3 Elizabeth Restores Protestantism Henry’s second daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, forms Anglican Church Anglican Church is acceptable to moderate Catholics and Protestants Continued...
NEXT Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges Some Protestants and Catholics oppose Elizabeth Phillip II, Catholic King of Spain, threatens England Elizabeth’s need for money brings conflict with Parliament SECTION 3 continued England Becomes Protestant
NEXT Section 4 The Reformation Continues As Protestant reformers divide over beliefs, the Catholic Church makes reforms.
NEXT Calvin Continues the Reformation The Reformation Continues Religious Reform in Switzerland Swiss priest Huldrych Zwingli calls for Church reforms (1520) War breaks out between Catholics, Protestants; Zwingli killed (1531) Calvin Formalizes Protestant Ideas John Calvin writes Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536): -we are sinful by nature and cannot earn salvation -God chooses who will be saved— predestination Calvinism—religion based on Calvin’s teachings SECTION 4 Continued...
NEXT Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland Calvin says ideal government is theocracy—rule by religious leaders Geneva becomes a strict Protestant theocracy led by Calvin continued Calvin Continues the Reformation SECTION 4 Calvinism Spreads John Knox brings Calvinism to Scotland, followers are Presbyterians Church governed by laymen called presbyters, or elders Calvin’s followers in France called Huguenots Catholics massacre Huguenots in Paris (1572) Image
NEXT Other Protestant Reformers The Anabaptists Anabaptists believe in separation of church and state, oppose wars Forerunners of Mennonites and Amish SECTION 4 Woman’s Role in the Reformation Marguerite of Navarre protected Calvin in France Katrina Zell also protects reformers Katherina von Bora, Luther’s wife, promotes equality in marriage
NEXT The Catholic Reformation A Counter Reformation Catholic Reformation—seeks to reform Catholic Church from within SECTION 4 Ignatius of Loyola Leading Catholic reformer Calls for meditation, prayer, and study Pope creates Jesuits Jesuits follow Ignatius, start schools, convert non- Christians Continued...
NEXT Reforming Popes Pope Paul III and Pope Paul IV lead reforms Council of Trent -Church’s interpretation of Bible is final -Christians need faith and good works for salvation -Bible and Church traditions equally important -Indulgences are valid expressions of faith Use Inquisition to seek out heresy Paul IV issues Index of Forbidden Books (1559); books burned continued The Catholic Reformation SECTION 4 Image
NEXT The Legacy of the Reformation Religious and Social Effects of the Reformation Catholic Church - unified; Protestant - growth Both push education Status of women does not improve SECTION 4 Political Effects of the Reformation Catholic Church’s power lessens Power of monarchs and states grow Late 18th century sees a new intellectual movement—the Enlightenment Interactive