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Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 15: Military Terms another lesson in terms which come from “idiomatic” sources, in this case from the military fifth column –“enemy sympathizers within a city under siege who work as spies and saboteurs for the fall of the city” –from the Spanish Civil War ( ), as General Emilio Mola led four army columns against Madrid, he remarked that there was a “fifth column” already inside the city. alert –from Italian all’erta (“to the tower”; erta = “tower”) ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 15: Military Terms curfew –from French couvre feu (“to cover the fire”) –in the Middle Ages, it was customary to hide all fires and extinguish all lights in a city by a certain hour of the night to make it harder for the enemy to aim their artillery foment –from Latin fomentum (“a warm bath or application”) –> “promote growth, foster” > “stimulate rebellion” subjugate –literally, “under the yoke”; cf. conjugal –from the Roman custom of making prisoners of war walk under a yoke as a demonstration of their passage into slavery ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 15: Military Terms tattoo –“drum signal alerting soldiers that it’s time for them to return to their barracks” –from Dutch taptoe (“tap shut,” i.e. close the bars) –n.b. tattoo (skin-markings) is a homonym, from a Polynesian term salvo –“simultaneous discharge of guns from ship to ship, often used as a form of greeting” –from Italian salva (“hello”) –n.b. another salvo (“saving grace, reservation, out-clause”) later, “excuse, quibbling evasion” from Medieval Latin salvo jure (“with the right reserved”) ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 15: Military Terms also know these examples from Ayers, pp harbor (“safe shelter”) harbinger (“precursor, forerunner”) harry (“harass, torment”) salary (“fixed payment, regular compensation”) interval (“the space between things”) subsidy (“grant given as a means of assistance”) trophy (“prize”) ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 15: Military Terms also know these examples from Ayers, pp pioneer (“first explorer, early settler”) squire (“attendant; to escort”) free-lance (“not under contract”) boulevard (“wide road”) slogan (“catch phrase”) ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 16: Terms from the Arts chiaroscuro: “use of light-dark contrast in painting” –from Italian, literally “light-dark” dilettante: “ an untalented person who affects to be an artist” –from Italian dilettare, “to delight in” originally, “an admirer (of the arts)” i.e. one who dabbles in the arts but has no real skill an example of degeneration, cf. amateur connoisseur: “an expert in the arts” –from French connôitre (“to understand”) –n.b. the implication that “understanding” the arts makes a person more competent than “admiring” them very left-brained! ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 16: Terms from the Arts do-re-mi (fa-so-la-ti-do) –from the musical scale as outlined in a Medieval hymn –later, DO replaced UT (for clearer pronunciation) DO = corruption of IOhannes –SA > TE (SAncTE), to distinguish it from SO and TE > TI, again for a clearer pronunciation UT queant laxis RE sonare fibris MI ra gestorum FA muli tuorum SO lve polluti LA bii reatum SA ncte IO hannes SO they can SI ng with strings relaxed the WO nders of your deeds, your SE rvants, EX onerate the accused of LI ps unclean, HO ly JO hn ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 16: Terms from the Arts pastiche: “miscellaneous collection of pieces of art” –“potpourri” –from Italian pasticcio (“pie made of various ingredients, paste”) originally from Greek pastê (“barley broth”) cf. Italian pasta (“flour paste”); also, pastry gargoyle: “grotesque statue, used as a waterspout on churches” –from French gargouiller (“to gargle”) because when water runs out of gargoyles, they appear to be gargling thus, gargle and gargoyle are doublets! ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 16: Terms from the Arts also know these examples from Ayers, pp miniature (“small”) –from minium (“red ink”), often in small pictures in Medieval mss. –connected to minimum/minus through Folk Etymology grotesque (“bizarre, hideously distorted”) –from Italian “p.t. to grottoes,” i.e. where ancient art was found antic (“prank, caper”) –again, from Italian antico (“ancient”), from the postures seen in ancient art maudlin (“over-sentimental, teary”) –from the typical depiction of Mary Magdalene in artwork colossal (“huge, enormous”) ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
Latin and Greek Elements in English Lesson 16: Terms from the Arts also know these examples from Ayers, pp story (“level of a building”) –from the custom of depicting various stages of a narrative on each level of a building flamboyant (“showy”) –literally “flaming,” from the frequent use of flame-like patterns in Gothic architecture attic (“top floor of a building”) character (“distinctive nature”) ©2013 Mark Damen. Used with permission of Author.
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