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Chapter 1 Establishing a Framework for Business Communication Business Communication, 14e Lehman and DuFrene.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Establishing a Framework for Business Communication Business Communication, 14e Lehman and DuFrene."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Establishing a Framework for Business Communication Business Communication, 14e Lehman and DuFrene

2 Objectives 1. Define communication and describe the main purpose for communication in business 2. Explain the communication process model and the ultimate objective of the communication process 3. Identify the five levels of communication 4. Discuss how information flows in an organization (formally any informally, and downward, upward, and horizontally) 5. Explain how legal and ethical constraints act as a strategic force to influence the process of business communication

3 Objectives 6. Explain how diversity challenges act as a strategic force to influence the process of business communication 7. Explain how changing technology acts as strategic force to influence the process of business communication 8. Explain how team environment acts as a strategic force to influence the process of business communication

4 Purposes of Communication What is Communication?  The process of exchanging information and meaning between or among individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, and behavior.

5 Purposes of Communication People communicate for three basic purposes  Inform  Persuade  Entertain

6 Purposes of Communication Managers spend approximately 60 to 80 percent of their time involved in some form of communication, including  Attending meetings, writing reports  Presenting information to groups  Coordinating work  Evaluating/counseling employees  Promotion

7 Communication Process Model Chapter 1

8 The Communications Process Reasons for communication breakdowns at the encoding stage. The sender uses:  Words not in the receiver's vocabulary  Ambiguous, nonspecific ideas that distort the message  Nonverbal signals that contradict the verbal message  Expressions such as “uh” or grammatical errors, mannerisms, or dress that distract the receiver

9 The Communications Process Reasons for communication breakdowns at the decoding stage:  The sender inadequately encodes the message (i.e. sends ambiguous ideas or uses contradicting nonverbal signals)  The receiver is intimidated by the position or authority of the sender  The topic is perceived to be too difficult to understand  The receiver is unreceptive to new and different ideas

10 The Communications Process The receiver encodes a message to clarify any misunderstandings—feedback  Feedback may be verbal or nonverbal Interferences or barriers  Differences in educational level, experience, culture,...  Physical interferences  Supervisors that are too rushed or insecure to allow subordinates to ask questions or offer suggestions

11 Sender Selects Appropriate Channel And Transmit Message Two-way, face-to-face  Informal conversations Two-way, not face, too, face  Telephone conversations, online chat One-way, not face-to-face  Written documents such as letters, memos, reports, etc.

12 Communication Channels Chapter 1

13 Receiver Decodes Message The receiver is the destination of the message The receiver’s task is to interpret the sender’s message (decoding the message)

14 Receiver Encodes the Message Feedback-when the receiver responds to the sender’s message  May be verbal or nonverbal  “Could you clarify?”  “Yes I understand.”

15 Interferences Hinder the Process Differences in educational level, experience, and culture Physical interferences in the channel such as noisy environment, interruptions, etc. Mental distractions such as preoccupation with other matters and developing a response rather than listening

16 Communicating within Organizations Organizational structure-the overall design of an organization Developed to meet the company’s specific needs and enhance its ability to accomplish goals

17 Communicating within Organizations Organizational communication  Concerned with the movement of information within the company structure Chief Executive Officer VP of information technology VP of operationsVP of finance

18 Levels of Communication Internal messages-intended for recipients within the organization External messages-directed to recipients outside the organization

19 Levels of Communication Chapter 1 Intrapersonal Group Public Organizational Interpersonal

20 Levels of Communication Five levels 1. Interpersonal communication  individuals process information based on their own experience  Takes place in the individual’s mind (self-talk)  May be positive and constructive, or negative destructive

21 Levels of Communication 2. Interpersonal communication  To people are involved in the process  Their goals are (1) accomplish the task that confronts them (2) feel better about themselves due to interaction – Sometimes called task of goals or maintenance goals

22 Levels of Communication 3. Group communication  Among more than two people  Combined efforts of a number of people to result in greater output

23 Levels of Communication 4. Organizational communication  Groups need organizational support 5. Public communication  Organization reaches out to public to achieve its goals  Utilizes media advertising or web sites

24 Formal Channels Rules procedures, policy created by management to control individual and group behavior Communication Channels Chapter 1 Informal Channels Patterns that emerge as people interact within a formal system to create a satisfying environment

25 Grapevine: An Informal Communication Channel Speedy but inaccurate (rumor mill) Message passes from one to one until it reaches the end of the line No more or less accurate than other communication channels Message distribution is network in nature rather than linear Chapter 1

26 Flow of Info Within an Organization Chapter 1

27 Strategic Forces Influencing Business Communication

28 Chapter 1

29 Legal and Ethical Constraints Personal ethical standards will often influence what they are willing to communicate A system of ethics built on honesty may require that a message provide full disclosure rather than shrouding the truth

30 Legal and Ethical Constraints Six out of ten Americans surveyed admitted that they would probably trade six months’ probation for an illegal $10 million The pressure is felt most strongly among lower-level manager who are the least experienced doing their jobs (new business school graduates)

31 Legal and Ethical Constraints What can you do to prepare for dealing with the pressure to compromise personal values?  Possess or develop a personal belief system on a variety of issues and the courage to practice them  Learn to analyze ethical dilemmas (identify the consequences of your actions) will help you make decisions that conform to your own value system. Do not become a puppet, controlled by the motives of others.  Learn to analyze “the big picture” which includes the price paid for your actions by others as well as yourself

32 Legal and Ethical Constraints The foundation for legal and ethical behavior  Ethics-The principles of right and wrong that guide you in making decisions that consider the impact of your actions  Acting ethically—the ability to do what you feel is right when pressured to do otherwise

33 Legal and Ethical Constraints Situations for possible ethical dilemmas:  A salesperson who travels feels cheated that personal telephone calls are not reimbursed travel expenses and over states car mileage to cover the cost of the calls  To protect his job, a product engineer decides not to question a design flaw in a product that could lead to possible injuries or death in customers  To save money, a supervisor authorizes that a software program be installed on fifty office computers when only one legal copy was actually purchased

34 Legal and Ethical Constraints Causes of illegal and unethical behavior  Excessive emphasis on profits  “Do whatever is necessary to increase the bottom line.”  Justify unethical acts because they are in the “best interest”  Obsession with personal advancement  Expectation of not getting caught  Unethical tone set by top management

35 Legal and Ethical Constraints  Uncertainty about whether an action is wrong  Unwillingness to take a stand for what is right

36 Four Dimensions of Business Behavior Chapter 1

37 Method for Determining A Proposed Advisable Action (Pagano Model) Answer six questions honestly 1. Is the proposed action legal 2. What are the benefits and cost to the people involved 3. Would you want this action to be a universal standard, appropriate for everyone 4. Does this action pass the light-of-day test 5. Does the action passed the Golden Rule test 6. Does the action passed the ventilation test? Ask the opinion of a friend with no investment in the outcome

38 Diversity Challenges Chapter 1 International Gender Intercultural Intergenerational

39 Diversity Challenges as a Strategic Force Differences between the sender and the receiver in areas such as culture, age, gender, and education require a sensitivity on the part of both the sender and receiver so that the intended message is the one that is received

40 Diversity Challenges as a Strategic Force Successful communication must often span barriers of language and almost always requires the consideration of differing world views resulting from societal, religious, or other cultural factors.

41 Diversity Challenges as a Strategic Force Communication Opportunities and Challenges in Diversity  International issues. Worldwide telecommunications and intense international business competition have forced many industries to expand into world markets.  Intercultural issues. Changing demographics in the U.S. are requiring businesses to face ethnic diversity in the workplace. The U.S. is better described as a “mosaic” than a “melting pot”

42 Managing a diverse workforce effectively will require you to communicate with everyone and to help all employees to reach their full potential and contribute to the company’s goals

43 Diversity Challenges as a Strategic Force  Intergenerational issues. The “graying of America” means the older segment of the population is larger today than at any time previously  Choose to continue professional activities  Control a great deal of wealth and resources

44 Diversity Challenges as a Strategic Force  Gender Issues. Females have entered the job market in great numbers.  Issues concerning sex discrimination  Sexual harassment and a hostile working environments

45 Diversity Challenges Cultural and Communication  Culture is learned by people over time  Components of culture are interrelated. In the U.S., pursuit of happiness = the pursuit of property  Culture is shared  Subcultures-cultures within cultures. Share some traits that derive from the main culture The culture of a people is the product of their living experiences within their own society

46 Diversity Challenges Culture and Communication (cont.)  Culture provides standards for behavior  Provides a feeling of identity  Provides a feeling of being a part of something larger than themselves Problems arise because people assume their cultural norms are right and their patterns of behavior are universally valued

47 Diversity Challenges Barriers to Intercultural Communication  Stereotypes  Forming a mental picture of the main characteristics of another group  To view another person as a representative of a class of people rather than an individual

48 Diversity Challenges Barriers to Intercultural Communication  Chronemics  The study of how a culture perceives time and its use  U.S.—”Time is money!”  North Americans & Europeans—Concerned with punctuality

49 Diversity Challenges Barriers to Intercultural Communication (cont.)  Personal space requirements  Proxemics—Study of cultural space – Large offices for higher status—not job requirements – Personal space is used for communication

50 Diversity Challenges Barriers to Intercultural Communication (cont.)  Body language  Kinesics – Nodding of heads – Feet on the floor

51 Barriers to Intercultural Communication Ethnocentrism Stereotypes Interpretation of time Personal space requirements Body language Translation limitations Lack of language training Chapter 1

52 Impacts of Technology Data collection and analysis Clearer and more effective messages Distance overcome Legal and ethical issues Chapter 1

53 Data Collection And Analysis Two advantages of electronic communication 1. Electronic searches of organizational databases and electronic networks can be done in a fraction of the time of manual searches of printed sources 2. Vast amounts of information available allow researchers to develop better solutions to problems

54 Data Collection And Analysis Databases offer these advantages  Data organization-ability to organize large amounts of data  Data integrity-assurance that data is accurate and complete  Data security assurance that data is secure

55 Tools for Shaping Clearer And More Effective Messages Documents that took days to produce during b.c. (before computers) can be created in hours or less Word processing software  Expedites production of a document  Improve quality

56 Tools for Shaping Clearer And More Effective Messages Collaborative software  Assist groups in writing collaboratively  Authors work on documents at the same time Graphics software  Surpasses word processing by using typography and design elements

57 Tools for Shaping Clearer And More Effective Messages Presentation software  Allow speakers to develop dynamic multimedia presentation visuals which combine texts, graphics, animation, sound, and video Web publishing tools  Facilitate the creation of web pages for posting to the Internet

58 Communicating Quickly and Efficiently over Long Distances Electronic mail or e-mail Instant messaging Voicemail Facsimile or fax Telecommuting Cellular telephone Electronic conferencing

59 Legal and Ethical Implications of Technology Issues of ownership  Copyright of documents transmitted over the Internet  Issues of access  Threats to individual privacy

60 Purposes of Group Communication Achievement or Task Purpose —To serve on a decision- making or problem-solving group —To get the job done Maintenance or Social Purpose — To assist in the betterment of individual members from a behavioral point of view — To develop group morale Chapter 1

61 A Way to Remain Competitive in a Global Market A Way to Remain Competitive in a Global Market Team Environment Organization of the Future Small group with complementary skills working together for a common purpose Chapter 1

62 Synergy Chapter 1 The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.

63 Benefits of Work Teams Make workers happier by causing them to feel they are shaping their jobs Increase efficiency by eliminating layers of managers passing down orders and monitoring performance Enable a company to draw on the skills and imagination of the whole work force Chapter 1

64 Important Team Skills Problem solving and goal setting Conflict resolution Distributed leadership skills Commitment to evaluate the group process Ability to understand needs of co-workers Effective communication skills Ability to deal with barriers Chapter 1


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