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The Philosophy of Warring States China. A Ridiculously Brief History Xia 夏 (2205-1766 B.C.E.)‏ Shang 商 (1751-1122 B.C.E.)‏ Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏

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Presentation on theme: "The Philosophy of Warring States China. A Ridiculously Brief History Xia 夏 (2205-1766 B.C.E.)‏ Shang 商 (1751-1122 B.C.E.)‏ Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Philosophy of Warring States China

2 A Ridiculously Brief History Xia 夏 (2205-1766 B.C.E.)‏ Shang 商 (1751-1122 B.C.E.)‏ Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏ Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏ Qin 秦 (221-206 B.C.E.)‏ Former Han 漢 (206 B.C.E. -9)‏

3 A Ridiculously Brief History Xia 夏 (2205-1766 B.C.E.)‏ May not have existed (so far there's no archaeological evidence)‏ Traditional histories say that its last ruler, King Jie 桀, was an evil tyrant Shang 商 (1751-1122 B.C.E.)‏ Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏

4 A Ridiculously Brief History Xia 夏 (2205-1766 B.C.E.)‏ Shang 商 (1751-1122 B.C.E.)‏ Has been partially corroborated by archaeological evidence (oracle bones)‏ Can trace it back to about 1250 B.C.E. Traditional histories say that its last ruler, King Zhow 紂, was an evil tyrant Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏

5

6 A Ridiculously Brief History Shang 商 (1751-1122 B.C.E.)‏ Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏ Traditional histories say that King Wen 文 (“The Cultured King”) tried to reform evil King Zhow through virtuous example But King Wu 武 (“The Martial King”), son of King Wen, defeated King Zhow in battle According to traditional histories, King Zhow had lost the “Mandate of Heaven” due to his immoral conduct, and it was granted to the Zhou instead Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏

7 A Ridiculously Brief History Western Zhou 西周 (1122-770 B.C.E.)‏ Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏ For reasons involving concubines (of course), the king is killed and the Zhou capital sacked The Zhou capital is moved East (hence the name)‏ The traditional Zhou rulers begin to lose their real power The Zhou begins to decline The Eastern Zhou dynasty is traditionally split into two periods Qin 秦 ( 221-206 B.C.E.)‏

8 Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou dynasty's decline The time of Confucius (551-479) – we'll come back to him later. Try to contain your excitement. Warring States Period ( 403-221 B.C.E.)‏

9 Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou dynasty's decline The time of Confucius (551-479) – we'll come back to him later. Try to contain your excitement. Warring States Period ( 403-221 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou kings officially recognise the partitioning of the state of Jin This inspires the rulers of formal vassal states to start usurping power for themselves Essentially, everything goes to Hell and countless people die horribly

10 Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou dynasty's decline The time of Confucius (551-479) – we'll come back to him later. Try to contain your excitement. Warring States Period ( 403-221 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou kings officially recognise the partitioning of the state of Jin This inspires the rulers of formal vassal states to start usurping power for themselves Essentially, everything goes to Hell and countless people die horribly But on the bright side: awesome philosophy!

11 Eastern Zhou Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou dynasty's decline The time of Confucius (551-479) – we'll come back to him later. Try to contain your excitement. Warring States Period ( 403-221 B.C.E.)‏ The Zhou kings officially recognise the partitioning of the state of Jin This inspires the rulers of formal vassal states to start usurping power for themselves Essentially, everything goes to Hell and countless people die horribly But on the bright side: awesome philosophy! So, it was definitely worth it

12 A Ridiculously Brief History Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏ Qin 秦 (221-206 B.C.E.)‏ During the Warring States period, the number of states grew smaller and smaller Eventually, the state of Qin was victorious and united China Thus, he is often called the “First Emperor” Former Han 漢 (206 B.C.E. -9)‏

13 A Ridiculously Brief History Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏ Qin 秦 (221-206 B.C.E.)‏ During the Warring States period, the number of states grew smaller and smaller Eventually, the state of Qin was victorious and united China Thus, he is often called the “First Emperor” His tomb is guarded by the famous “Terracotta Army” Former Han 漢 (206 B.C.E. -9)‏

14 Terricotta Army

15 A Ridiculously Brief History Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏ Qin 秦 (221-206 B.C.E.)‏ During the Warring States period, the number of states grew smaller and smaller Eventually, the state of Qin was victorious and united China Thus, he is often called the “First Emperor” His tomb is guarded by the famous “Terracotta Army” He was awesome Former Han 漢 (206 B.C.E. -9)‏

16 A Ridiculously Brief History Eastern Zhou 東周 (770-221 B.C.E.)‏ Qin 秦 (221-206 B.C.E.)‏ During the Warring States period, the number of states grew smaller and smaller Eventually, the state of Qin was victorious and united China Thus, he is often called the “First Emperor” His tomb is guarded by the famous “Terracotta Army” He was awesome Oh, except he outlawed all rival philosophies, burned their books, slaughtered and buried philosophers alive Former Han 漢 (206 B.C.E. -9)‏

17 A Ridiculously Brief History Qin 秦 (221-206 B.C.E.)‏ Former Han 漢 (206 B.C.E. -9)‏ A form of Confucianism is made the orthodox philosophy/religion of China This is combined with a form of Legalism This would essentially form the basis of the Chinese government for the next 2000 years

18 On to the philosophers....

19 Who am I skipping? Laozi (Lao-tzu) 老子 and the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching)‏ Mozi (Mo-tzu) 墨子 The School of Logicians Mencius 孟子 Xunzi (Hsun-tzu) 荀子 And more

20 Confucianism 儒家 Confucius Name: Kongzi or Kongfuzi 孔子 551-479 B.C.E. “Confucius said of the Ji Family, “They have eight rows of dancers performing in their courtyard. If they can condone this, what are they not capable of?” Analects III:1 (transl. E Slingerland)‏ Take THAT, Ji Family!

21 Confucius in the West

22 In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, China was likely the most economically successful nation on Earth It was also in many ways the most politically sophisticated

23 Confucius in the West In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, China was likely the most economically successful nation on Earth It was also in many ways the most politically sophisticated Viewed by many Europeans as an enlightened nation ruled by philosopher kings Confucius was used by Voltaire and other Enlightenment thinkers as an example of rational morality

24 Confucius in the West In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, China was likely the most economically successful nation on Earth It was also in many ways the most politically sophisticated Viewed by many Europeans as an enlightened nation ruled by philosopher kings Confucius was used by Voltaire and other Enlightenment thinkers as an example of rational morality Later on, Hegel and Weber would criticise Confucianism There was one thing the Enlightenment thinkers had in common with Hegel and Weber

25 Confucius in the West In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, China was likely the most economically successful nation on Earth It was also in many ways the most politically sophisticated Viewed by many Europeans as an enlightened nation ruled by philosopher kings Confucius was used by Voltaire and other Enlightenment thinkers as an example of rational morality Later on, Hegel and Weber would criticise Confucianism There was one thing the Enlightenment thinkers had in common with Hegel and Weber None of them really knew much of anything about Confucianism

26 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time

27 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time Unaware of how highly ritualised human behaviour is  Or how much clearer and stricter it was until very recently

28 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time Unaware of how highly ritualised human behaviour is  Or how much clearer and stricter it was until very recently The book written by his students, “The Analects of Confucius” (Lun Yu 論語 ) is unclear without commentary (remember the eight rows of dancers?)‏

29 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time Unaware of how highly ritualised human behaviour is  Or how much clearer and stricter it was until very recently The book written by his students, “The Analects of Confucius” (Lun Yu 論語 ) is unclear without commentary (remember the eight rows of dancers?)‏ The modern, “Western” secular, liberal view of morality is focused on the individual

30 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time Unaware of how highly ritualised human behaviour is  Or how much clearer and stricter it was until very recently The book written by his students, “The Analects of Confucius” (Lun Yu 論語 ) is unclear without commentary (remember the eight rows of dancers?)‏ The modern, “Western” secular, liberal view of morality is focused on the individual  Confucianism believes that people are inescapably part of a social network of relations with the family at its core

31 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time Unaware of how highly ritualised human behaviour is  Or how much clearer and stricter it was until very recently The book written by his students, “The Analects of Confucius” (Lun Yu 論語 ) is unclear without commentary (remember the eight rows of dancers?)‏ The modern, “Western” secular, liberal view of morality is focused on the individual  Confucianism believes that people are inescapably part of a social network of relations with the family at its core  People develop their morality by learning how to care for their family, and then extending that feeling to others

32 Why is Confucius difficult to understand today? Context of Chinese history and culture of his time Unaware of how highly ritualised human behaviour is  Or how much clearer and stricter it was until very recently The book written by his students, “The Analects of Confucius” (Lun Yu 論語 ) is unclear without commentary (remember the eight rows of dancers?)‏ The modern, “Western” secular, liberal view of morality is focused on the individual  Confucianism believes that people are inescapably part of a social network of relations with the family at its core  People develop their morality by learning how to care for their family, and then extending that feeling to others  I would argue this is a more accurate view of human nature

33 The Philosophy of Confucius Confucius never wrote a book He didn't seem interested in establishing a unique philosophical system He appears to have been at least sceptical about the supernatural  Seems to imply spirits do not exist  Has a clear focus on the here and now

34 Xunzi (Hsün-tzu) 荀子 300-230 B.C.E. “You pray for rain and it rains. Why? For no particular reason, I say. It is just as though you had not prayed for rain and it rained anyway.” Xunzi – A Discussion of Heaven (transl. B Watson)‏

35 The Philosophy of Confucius Confucius never wrote a book He didn't seem interested in establishing a unique philosophical system He appears to have been at least sceptical about the supernatural So what did he believe?

36 The Philosophy of Confucius Confucius never wrote a book He didn't seem interested in establishing a unique philosophical system He appears to have been at least sceptical about the supernatural So what did he believe? Virtue Ethics: self-cultivation A return to the heyday of the Zhou

37 The Virtue Ethics of Confucius Emphasis on character rather than consequence

38 The Virtue Ethics of Confucius Emphasis on character rather than consequence A strict and conservative view of ritual propriety  A person cultivates his character by means of the rites  But the rites must be performed with genuine emotions behind them  Confucius probably believed that the rites of the Zhou had some kind of cosmological significance: they were revealed by Heaven (Tian 天 )‏

39 The Virtue Ethics of Confucius Emphasis on character rather than consequence A strict and conservative view of ritual propriety  A person cultivates his character by means of the rites  But the rites must be performed with genuine emotions behind them  Confucius probably believed that the rites of the Zhou had some kind of cosmological significance: they were revealed by Heaven (Tian 天 )‏ Self-cultivation is a life-long journey

40 The Virtue Ethics of Confucius Emphasis on character rather than consequence A strict and conservative view of ritual propriety  A person cultivates his character by means of the rites  But the rites must be performed with genuine emotions behind them  Confucius probably believed that the rites of the Zhou had some kind of cosmological significance: they were revealed by Heaven (Tian 天 )‏ Self-cultivation is a life-long journey He taught his disciples primarily through example  He had 72 disciples, according to tradition  He taught each one differently based on their individual flaws and strengths  His greatest student was Yan Hui 顔回 who died at a young age

41 Return to the Zhou Confucius lived during the Spring and Summer period, as the Zhou was declining, but before the Warring States period began

42 Return to the Zhou Confucius lived during the Spring and Summer period, as the Zhou was declining, but before the Warring States period began He believed society would be better ordered and better run if Zhou culture returned and a true king ruled over the world For him, a true king would care about the common people, would employ worthy ministers (preferably Confucius or his disciples) and would follow the rites of Zhou

43 Return to the Zhou Confucius lived during the Spring and Summer period, as the Zhou was declining, but before the Warring States period began He believed society would be better ordered and better run if Zhou culture returned and a true king ruled over the world For him, a true king would care about the common people, would employ worthy ministers (preferably Confucius or his disciples) and would follow the rites of Zhou For him, following the rites of Zhou not only helped individuals cultivate themselves, but also provided a framework where people in the government would know how to act and not rise above their station unless they were morally worthy

44 Return to the Zhou Confucius lived during the Spring and Summer period, as the Zhou was declining, but before the Warring States period began He believed society would be better ordered and better run if Zhou culture returned and a true king ruled over the world For him, a true king would care about the common people, would employ worthy ministers (preferably Confucius or his disciples) and would follow the rites of Zhou For him, following the rites of Zhou not only helped individuals cultivate themselves, but also provided a framework where people in the government would know how to act and not rise above their station unless they were morally worthy This takes us back to the strange quote at the beginning....

45 What was he prattling on about? Different ranks in society were allowed different numbers of dancers to perform outside the ancestral hall during ceremonies. Only the Son of Heaven was allowed eight rows. Thus the Ji Family was effectively taking on the ritual observances of the Zhou King – in effect claiming the title for themselves Perhaps Confucius was right to be angry: once the vassals finally usurped the traditional positions of the Zhou dukes, it led to 200 years of war and the deaths of countless people Confucius said of the Ji Family, “They have eight rows of dancers performing in their courtyard. If they can condone this, what are they not capable of?”

46 The Most Awesomest Philosopher Zhuangzi (Chuang-tzu)‏ 莊子 4 th Century B.C.E. “There is a beginning. There is a not yet beginning to be a beginning. There is a not yet beginning to be a not yet beginning to be a beginning. There is being. There is nonbeing. There is a not yet beginning to be nonbeing. There is a not yet beginning to be not yet beginning to be nonbeing. Suddenly there is being and nonbeing. But between this being and nonbeing, I don't really know which is being and which is nonbeing. Now I have just said something. But I don't know whether what I have said has really said something or whether it hasn't said something.” Zhuangzi – Discussion on Making Things Equal (transl. B Watson)‏

47 Chinese philosophy on acid What made Zhuangzi unique? Uses hilarious humour, brilliant word-play, satire, is apolitical, has stories about talking trees, talking animals, fish that turn into gigantic birds and on and on.... Uses language and philosophy to deconstruct language and philosophy Pointedly takes the side of the lowest stratum of human society: things and people deemed freakish, lowly or useless

48 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe?

49 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question

50 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question The world is a complicated place, and things in it are always changing. We're always changing, too.

51 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question The world is a complicated place, and things in it are always changing. We're always changing, too. People should all just chill out and stop exhausting themselves trying to pin down moral absolutes

52 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question The world is a complicated place, and things in it are always changing. We're always changing, too. People should all just chill out and stop exhausting themselves trying to pin down moral absolutes As far as we know, even death may not be so bad. In any case, there's no point worrying about it

53 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question The world is a complicated place, and things in it are always changing. We're always changing, too. People should all just chill out and stop exhausting themselves trying to pin down moral absolutes As far as we know, even death may not be so bad. In any case, there's no point worrying about it He argues for a “Great Understanding” which understands the world as a complete whole which contains within it changes and contradictions

54 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question The world is a complicated place, and things in it are always changing. We're always changing, too. People should all just chill out and stop exhausting themselves trying to pin down moral absolutes As far as we know, even death may not be so bad. In any case, there's no point worrying about it He argues for a “Great Understanding” which understands the world as a complete whole which contains within it changes and contradictions His book seems to be “therapeutic” as well as generally philosophical

55 Zhuangzi's philosophy What did Zhuangzi believe? Umm... good question The world is a complicated place, and things in it are always changing. We're always changing, too. People should all just chill out and stop exhausting themselves trying to pin down moral absolutes As far as we know, even death may not be so bad. In any case, there's no point worrying about it He argues for a “Great Understanding” which understands the world as a complete whole which contains within it changes and contradictions His book seems to be “therapeutic” as well as generally philosophical It's probably worth noting that Zhuangzi was the primary influence for the Chan school of Buddhism – what we know today as “Zen”

56 Zhuangzi the Critic He believed that Confucians and Moists – bitter philosophical opponents both suffered from the same problem: they were obsessed with fixed, moral absolutes He took particular relish is making fun of the logicians who tried to use language and logic to define and understand the world “What one calls right the other calls wrong; what one calls wrong the other calls right. But if we want to right their wrongs and wrong their rights, then the best thing to use is clarity.” Zhuangzi – Discussion on Making Things Equal (transl. B Watson)‏

57 Zhuangzi the Critic He believed that Confucians and Moists – bitter philosophical opponents both suffered from the same problem: they were obsessed with fixed, moral absolutes He took particular relish is making fun of the logicians who tried to use language and logic to define and understand the world This takes us back to the quote at the beginning.... “What one calls right the other calls wrong; what one calls wrong the other calls right. But if we want to right their wrongs and wrong their rights, then the best thing to use is clarity.” Zhuangzi – Discussion on Making Things Equal (transl. B Watson)‏

58 So, if you thought this quote didn't make any sense earlier... that's because to a large degree it's probably meant as a satire of the logicians But, with Zhuangzi you can never be sure that he didn't have his own point as well.... Did what he said really say something, or did it not say something? “There is a beginning. There is a not yet beginning to be a beginning. There is a not yet beginning to be a not yet beginning to be a beginning. There is being. There is nonbeing. There is a not yet beginning to be nonbeing. There is a not yet beginning to be not yet beginning to be nonbeing. Suddenly there is being and nonbeing. But between this being and nonbeing, I don't really know which is being and which is nonbeing. Now I have just said something. But I don't know whether what I have said has really said something or whether it hasn't said something.” Zhuangzi – Discussion on Making Things Equal (transl. B Watson)‏ Zhuangzi the Critic

59 The Butterfly Story “Once Zhuang Zhou dreamt he was a butterfly, a butterfly flitting and fluttering around, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. He didn't know he was Zhuang Zhou. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, solid and unmistakable Zhuang Zhou. But he didn't know if he was Zhuang Zhou who had dreamt he was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming he was Zhuang Zhou. Between Zhuang Zhou and a butterfly there must be some distinction! This is called the Transformation of Things.” Zhuangzi – Discussion on Making Things Equal (trans. B Watson)‏ This is an extremely famous story. But what does it mean?

60 The Butterfly Story There's no consensus really on any of Zhuangzi's stories This is an extremely famous story. But what does it mean?

61 The Butterfly Story There's no consensus really on any of Zhuangzi's stories But Zhuangzi did believe that living in the world means that we are all part of a constant process of change – the Great Transformation This is an extremely famous story. But what does it mean?

62 The Butterfly Story There's no consensus really on any of Zhuangzi's stories But Zhuangzi did believe that living in the world means that we are all part of a constant process of change – the Great Transformation All we can do is accept and understand who who are are where we exist and deal with that This is an extremely famous story. But what does it mean?

63 The Butterfly Story There's no consensus really on any of Zhuangzi's stories But Zhuangzi did believe that living in the world means that we are all part of a constant process of change – the Great Transformation All we can do is accept and understand who who are are where we exist and deal with that Cook Ding story This is an extremely famous story. But what does it mean?

64 Legalism 法家 Han Feizi 韓非子 280-233 B.C.E. “Once in the past, Marquis Zhao of Han got drunk and fell asleep. The keeper of his royal hat, seeing that the marquis was cold, laid a robe over him. When the marquis awoke, he was pleased and asked his attendants, 'Who covered me with a robe?' 'The keeper of the hat,' they replied. The marquis thereupon punished both the keeper of the royal hat and the keeper of the royal robe.” Hanfeizi – The Two Handles(transl. B Watson)‏

65 Who was Han Feizi? Of the major philosophers, the only member of the ruling aristocracy He was a student of the Confucian scholar, Xunzi His classmate was Li Si, who was later Prime Minister of the state of Qin He lived at the very end of the Warring States period – but died shortly before the state of Qin conquered all of China According to traditional accounts, he had a strong speech impediment and this is why he wrote his philosophy down in a book – rather than trying to get his ideas across in person

66 Han Feizi's Philosophy What did he believe? Han Feizi's book is entirely about statecraft For this reason he has been called the “Machiavelli of Ancient China” He urged rulers to rule from behind the scenes  This was done by having set and clear rules and standards for people to follow  Then, these rules and standards are enforced through the “two handles” of rulership: harsh punishment and generous reward  The king should never allow anyone else to have access to these “two handles”  This way, the king maintains power, but the government runs smoothly and nobody acts beyond their station

67 The Five Punishments

68 Tattoo on the face

69 The Five Punishments Tattoo on the face Cut off a foot

70 The Five Punishments Tattoo on the face Cut off a foot Cut off the nose

71 The Five Punishments Tattoo on the face Cut off a foot Cut off the nose Castration

72 The Five Punishments Tattoo on the face Cut off a foot Cut off the nose Castration Death

73 The Five Punishments Tattoo on the face Cut off a foot Cut off the nose Castration Death (not infrequently of both yourself and your entire family)‏

74 According to Han Feizi's system, then, the reason these two were punished is because the keeper of the hat acted beyond his station. And the keeper of the robe failed in his duties. “Once in the past, Marquis Zhao of Han got drunk and fell asleep. The keeper of his royal hat, seeing that the marquis was cold, laid a robe over him. When the marquis awoke, he was pleased and asked his attendants, 'Who covered me with a robe?' 'The keeper of the hat,' they replied. The marquis thereupon punished both the keeper of the royal hat and the keeper of the royal robe.” Hanfeizi – The Two Handles(transl. B Watson)‏ Han Feizi's Philosophy

75 Han Feizi was also unique in that he did not believe in adhering to the way of the Ancients: the Xia, Shang and Zhou culture and its legacy

76 Han Feizi's Philosophy Han Feizi was also unique in that he did not believe in adhering to the way of the Ancients: the Xia, Shang and Zhou culture and its legacy  Almost every other philosophy in this period believed that China had a golden age in the past and should try to imitate the ancients to achieve that golden age again  But Han Feizi thought it was stupid to mindlessly ape the past. Even if the way of the Ancients worked in the past, that doesn't guarantee it would work now.

77 Han Feizi's Philosophy Han Feizi was also unique in that he did not believe in adhering to the way of the Ancients: the Xia, Shang and Zhou culture and its legacy  Almost every other philosophy in this period believed that China had a golden age in the past and should try to imitate the ancients to achieve that golden age again  But Han Feizi thought it was stupid to mindlessly ape the past. Even if the way of the Ancients worked in the past, that doesn't guarantee it would work now.  E.g. The man from Song story, and the Letter from Ying story

78 Han Feizi's Philosophy Han Feizi was also unique in that he did not believe in adhering to the way of the Ancients: the Xia, Shang and Zhou culture and its legacy Han Feizi's cynical attitude probably suited the times – much had changed since Confucius was alive  China was in a state of constant warfare  Kings were in constant danger of having their power usurped by ambitious people  Cities and populations had grown  So Han Feizi believed a dispassionate system of legal standards would make the world a better place

79 Han Feizi's Death and Legacy The ruler of the state of Qin was extremely interested in Legalism, and implementation of this philosophy seemed to have made his state flourish He invited Han Feizi to Qin to present his ideas

80 Han Feizi's Death and Legacy The ruler of the state of Qin was extremely interested in Legalism, and implementation of this philosophy seemed to have made his state flourish He invited Han Feizi to Qin to present his ideas However, his former classmate, Li Si, told the ruler that because Han Feizi was part of the aristocracy of the state of Han, he could not be trusted The Qin ruler imprisoned him, and Li Si fooled him into committing suicide

81 Han Feizi's Death and Legacy The ruler of the state of Qin was extremely interested in Legalism, and implementation of this philosophy seemed to have made his state flourish He invited Han Feizi to Qin to present his ideas However, his former classmate, Li Si, told the ruler that because Han Feizi was part of the aristocracy of the state of Han, he could not be trusted The Qin ruler imprisoned him, and Li Si fooled him into committing suicide The Qin ruler later regretting Han Feizi's death. Eventually he would unify China and implement the Legalist system – standardising the governmental system, the written language and many other things In the end, the Chinese government would adhere to a combination of Legalism and Confucianism and would develop an extremely sophisticated centralized bureaucracy

82 Oh, the irony So in other words...

83 Oh, the irony So in other words... Han Feizi, the student of a famous Confucian scholar, would develop a philosophy that urged merciless punishments by rulers to maintain their own power

84 Oh, the irony So in other words... Han Feizi, the student of a famous Confucian scholar, would develop a philosophy that urged merciless punishments by rulers to maintain their own power He later died as a result of being imprisoned by a ruler who was worried about maintaining his own power

85 Oh, the irony So in other words... Han Feizi, the student of a famous Confucian scholar, would develop a philosophy that urged merciless punishments by rulers to maintain their own power He later died as a result of being imprisoned by a ruler who was worried about maintaining his own power That ruler then implemented Han Feizi's philosophy and then proceeded to persecute and kill the Confucians and ban their teachings.

86 The End 終


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