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McColl-Kennedy & Tombs Professor Janet R. McColl-Kennedy University of Queensland AMA SERVSIG Doctoral Consortium 29 June 2006 Acknowledgement – (former.

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Presentation on theme: "McColl-Kennedy & Tombs Professor Janet R. McColl-Kennedy University of Queensland AMA SERVSIG Doctoral Consortium 29 June 2006 Acknowledgement – (former."— Presentation transcript:

1 McColl-Kennedy & Tombs Professor Janet R. McColl-Kennedy University of Queensland AMA SERVSIG Doctoral Consortium 29 June 2006 Acknowledgement – (former PhD student) Dr Alastair Tombs UQ BUSINESS SCHOOL Thesis development

2 Getting a topic passion sustainable significant topic (first in field) wow factor sell it to advisor or advisor sells it to candidate can I work with this person/team? pragmatic (doable in the 3-4 years) positioning – publishing, examiners

3 How will the thesis be examined? sustained ability to carry out a program of research sustained ability to carry out a program of research significance (original findings) significance (original findings) demonstrates that candidate can undertake independent research demonstrates that candidate can undertake independent research effectively communicate findings effectively communicate findings publishable publishable

4 Work habits don’t procrastinate – 3 years is not a lot of time don’t procrastinate – 3 years is not a lot of time “go to work” – 9am-6pm “go to work” – 9am-6pm set realistic writing targets (milestones) set realistic writing targets (milestones) daily …what I will do today? daily …what I will do today? monthly monthly annual annual Plan to make several presentations Plan to make several presentations AMA Frontiers AMA Frontiers AMA Summer/Winter/EMAC/ANZMAC AMA Summer/Winter/EMAC/ANZMAC departmental seminars departmental seminars small group – other Phds small group – other Phds

5 Coping strategies dealing with the red pen dealing with the red pen Phd blues – highs and lows Phd blues – highs and lows seeing the supervisor seeing the supervisor social support group social support group

6 Confirmation document significance significance research design research design research program (research questions, objectives, hypotheses, methods) research program (research questions, objectives, hypotheses, methods) gaps in the literature gaps in the literature literature review literature review studies 1,2,3 studies 1,2,3 contributions (theoretical & practical) contributions (theoretical & practical) glossary glossary

7 Positioning the research research question(s) research question(s) related literatures related literatures read widely and deeply read widely and deeply what are the key gaps in the literature? what are the key gaps in the literature? where does my work fit in? where does my work fit in? table of key literature table of key literature key themes/theories key themes/theories 5-6 key papers 5-6 key papers

8 Overall summary of literature search SERVICE OUTCOMES Satisfaction Service quality Repeat purchase Loyalty WOMService recovery CONSUMER INTERACTION Customer – Customer Customer – Employee Customer - Setting CUSTOMER RESPONSES SERVICE EXPERIENCES ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPTS OF PERSON- ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ATMOSPHERICS Ambient Factors Design Factors Social Factors RELATIONSHIP MARKETING Co-opting customers Part-time marketers Imaginary Organisations ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Approach / Avoidance SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Social facilitation

9 CitationSampleEnvironmentMethodConclusions Colour Bellizzi, Crowley and Hasty (1983) 125 AdultsFurniture storeLaboratory experiment Photographic slide simulations Warm and cool colours created different emotional responses. Customers view red retail environments as more negative and unpleasant than blue. Bellizzi, & Hite (1992)70 Adult women 107 Students Televisions shown with different colour backgrounds Furniture stores Laboratory experiments Photographic slide simulations Study based on PAD affect measures and approach- avoidance behaviours. More positive retail outcomes occurred in blue environments than red. Music Smith and Curnow (1966) 1100 Supermarket shoppers Retail store Field experiment Time in store reduced with loud music but level of sales did not. Milliman (1982)216 ShoppersSupermarketField experiment The tempo of background music influenced the pace at which customers shopped. Slow tempo music slowed customers down but resulted in increased volume of sales. Hui, Dubé and Chebat (1997) 116 StudentsBank branch - waiting for service. Laboratory experiment Video simulation The positive impact of music on approach behaviours is mediated by an emotional evaluation of the environment and the emotional response to waiting. Pleasurable music produced longer perceived waiting times. Lighting Areni and Kim (1994)171 ShoppersWine storeField experiment The investigation found that brighter in-store lighting influenced shoppers to examine and handle more of the merchandise in the store Summers and Hebert (2001) 2367 CustomersHardware store Apparel store Field experiment Confirmed Areni and Kims (1994) results. Increased levels of lighting will produce arousal and pleasure and increase the approach behaviours of customers. Summary table of literature Atmospherics in service environments

10 Theoretical Underpinning: Previous Models   The servicescape (Bitner 1992) Environmental stimuli Atmospherics Employee responses Customer responses Employee behaviours Customer behaviours Physical features Specifically excludes the social aspects Approach - avoidance Cognitive Emotional Physiological Moderators Literature review - example

11  Approach – Avoidance Theory (Mehrabian and Russell 1974; Donovan and Rossiter 1984).  Draws from the SOR paradigm  People respond to the environment through either approach or avoidance behaviours (Mehrabian and Russell 1974). Employee responses Customer Affect Employee behaviours Customer Behaviours Environmental stimuli Atmospherics Theoretical Underpinning: Previous Models

12  Social Facilitation Theory (Platania and Moran, 2001; Zajonc, 1965)  The mere presence (or absence) of others in the environment will have an effect on human behaviour. Employee responses Customer responses Employee behaviours Customer behaviours Environmental stimuli Audience Theoretical Underpinning: Previous Models

13 Employee responses Customer responses Employee behaviours Customer behaviours Environmental stimuli Place Occasion Theoretical Underpinning: Previous Models  Behaviour Setting Theory (Barker 1968; Cassidy 1997)  The Behaviour Setting is one aspect of the environment that determines the individual and interpersonal behaviour of those within it.  Basic unit of the environment - Place or occasion specific

14  Affective Events Theory (Weiss and Cropanzano 1996) Environmental features will influence the individuals affective state by facilitating or creating affective events Employee responses Customer Affect Employee behaviours Customer behaviours Environmental stimuli Affective Events Theoretical Underpinning: Previous Models Dispositions

15 Repurchase Intentions Organisational Goals Customer Goals Customer Affect Susceptibility to emotional contagion Awareness of the emotions of others Elements of the Social Servicescape Customer’s Affective Responses Customer’s Cognitive Responses Purchase Occasion Social Density Displayed emotions of others Main Effects Interaction Effects Development of a new conceptual framework: SOCIAL SERVICESCAPE

16 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Services Marketing Atmospherics Environmental psychology Social Psychology INITIAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK STUDY 1 RESEARCH APPROACHMETHODS QualitativeObservation Analytic InductionBehavioural Mapping STUDY 3 RESEARCH RESEARCH APPROACHMETHODS QuantitativeExperimentation Deductive2x2x3 Factorial FINAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK CONTRIBUTION TO THEORY ADJUSTED THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Research Design STUDY 2 RESEARCH APPROACHMETHODS QualitativeFocus Groups Analytic Induction

17 Research Method DataSample Size ObjectivesHypothesesAnalyses Study 1 ObservationQual..25 sessionsObjectives 1 - To conduct an exploratory study to gain an in-depth insight into the actual behaviour that occurs in social servicescapes by observing and describing the experiences of actual customers. 2 – To clarify purchase occasion in a café setting, which can be used in Study 2. Behavioural mapping Manual Thematic Breakdown Study 2 Focus GroupsQual.4 focus groups of 8-10 Objectives 1 - To explore what customers feel about the presence of other customers in a service setting using their own experiences (in terms of shared and personal purchase occasions). 3 - To provide a clearer understanding of the constructs of “purchase occasion” “social density” and “displayed emotions of others” that will be used in Study Refine the behavioural model of the social servicescape (refer Figure 4). Manual Thematic Breakdown Study 3 Pre Study Panel of Experts Qual / Quant 10Objectives 1 - To test the face validity of the scenarios (eg shared or personal purchase occasions). Hypotheses: Main effects – Situation on customer emotions H1a – H1b – H2a – H2b – H3 – Main Effects – Customer emotion on repurchase intentions H4 – Interaction Effects – Social Density and Displayed emotions H5a - H5b – Interaction effects – customer’s susceptibility to emotional contagion H6a – Interaction effects – Customer’s awareness of the emotions of others H6b – Multi-variate analysis of Variance Pilot Study (Study 3a) Experimental Design Quant100Objectives 1 - To undertake manipulation checks of written versions of the scripts to be later used in producing video scenarios for the main study. 2 - To test the reliability and validity of the scales used to measure the constructs Main Study (Study 3b) Experimental Design Quant response groups x min 25 respondents Objectives 1 - To verify the direction and intensity of the relationship between the constructs of the behavioural model of social servicescapes. Research program

18 Write, write, write, write, write… chunks of writing chunks of writing it can’t be perfect first time (a sculpture!) it can’t be perfect first time (a sculpture!) drafts - but practice makes perfect drafts - but practice makes perfect templates templates The aim of this chapter/paper is to ….. The aim of this chapter/paper is to ….. What we are going to do? (aims and objectives) What we are going to do? (aims and objectives) How we went about it? (method – sample, approach, instrument) How we went about it? (method – sample, approach, instrument) What did we find? (findings) What did we find? (findings) What does it mean? (discussion theoretical and practical significance, limitations, need for further research,) What does it mean? (discussion theoretical and practical significance, limitations, need for further research,) References – must be perfect! endnote References – must be perfect! endnote

19 Write, revise, re-write, revise, re-write… many drafts many drafts drafts help to sharpen the focus and argument drafts help to sharpen the focus and argument the first draft is about getting the ideas on paper so that you as the writer can reflect on your thoughts and arguments the first draft is about getting the ideas on paper so that you as the writer can reflect on your thoughts and arguments leave some time in between drafts leave some time in between drafts working drafts should be shown to others for comment Does it make sense? What is not clear? Does it link well together? working drafts should be shown to others for comment Does it make sense? What is not clear? Does it link well together? circle of friends circle of friends

20 Templates Sample chapter Introduction Introduction The previous chapter…. However, …. Therefore, this current chapter…. The previous chapter…. However, …. Therefore, this current chapter…. Objectives Objectives The aim of this chapter is to ….. The aim of this chapter is to ….. Research Method (design, sample, analyses etc) Research Method (design, sample, analyses etc) Results (findings, links to other research) Results (findings, links to other research) Conclusion Conclusion Summarize and signal what the reader should expect next Summarize and signal what the reader should expect next

21 Remember it’s a journey – at first it seems a long journey and I’ve got plenty of time it’s a journey – at first it seems a long journey and I’ve got plenty of time Stages Stages Optimistic Optimistic I’m never going to make it I’m never going to make it Can’t wait to finish Can’t wait to finish keep it in perspective – it’s a PhD not a Nobel prize! keep it in perspective – it’s a PhD not a Nobel prize! be thorough be thorough keep focused keep focused be persistent – test of perseverance be persistent – test of perseverance That’s POST DOC! That’s POST DOC!


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