yule, Learning Outcomes Mahasiswa dapat menerapkan cooperative principles dalam menganalisa suatu percakapan (C3)
yule, Materi Outline The cooperative principles Hedges
yule, Cooperative principles (1) People involved in a conversation will cooperate with each other The cooperative principles: –Four maxims: Quantity Quality Relation Manner
yule, Cooperative principles (2) The maxims (Grice 1975) A. Quantity – gives as much as needed 1.Make your contribution as informative as is required (for the current purposes of the exchange) 2.Do not make your contribution more informative that is required.
yule, Cooperative principles (3) The maxims (Grice, 1975) B. Quality – speak truthfully 1.Do not say what you believe to be false 2.Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence C. Relation – say things that are relevant
yule, Cooperative principles (4) The maxims (Grice, 1975) D. Manner – say things clearly and briefly 1.Avoid abscurity or expression 2.Avoid ambiguity 3.Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity) 4.Be orderly
yule, Conclusion In order to make a conversation understandable the speaker and hearer should follow the cooperative principles – the four maxims. The four maxims: Quantity Quality Relation Manner