2Learning objectives Conducting effective needs analysis Planning a course including best practice use of textbook packagesDeveloping best practice teaching skills (interactive approaches, techniques and methodologies)Classroom management, procedures and techniques (effective group work, giving feedback)Adapting, developing and creating materialsAssessment and evaluation techniques
3Methodology Hands-on practical tasks Interactive workshops Peer teaching and peer presentationsSelf-guided learning and researchReflectionDevelopment of best practice skills
5Needs analysis What is it? Why do we do it? (if we do it!) What types of needs analysis exist?What do you use?What should be included?Split into small groups and allow them to discuss this. Note responses down on whiteboard
6Needs analysis involves doing some kind of activity with a learner in order to find out what their learning needs are. A good understanding of learner needs can contribute to successful course planning. On the first day with a new group the teacher gives the proposed syllabus aims for the course, and asks learners to prioritise them in relation to the contexts that they will need to use language in.In the classroom Needs analysis is part of building learner awareness and autonomy. Asking learners what they feel they need to practise is a good initial step. As well as providing data, it can encourage them to start thinking about their learning and taking responsibility for it.Facilitate discussion on this
7What are the benefits of needs analyses? Helps gain a detailed knowledge about the learnersCan be motivational for learnersEncourages him/her to take responsibility for learningHelps adjust their expectationsHelps the teacher prepare relevant sessions and think about where to focus key objectivesElicit first
8What problems can there be with a NA? School/college/syllabus and learner needs differDifferent learners have different needs“I don’t have time to do detailed needs analysis!”What are the solutions to the above?Whole group discussion
9Some questionsWhat is the difference between a needs analysis and a placement test?Should all needs analyses be the same?What happens after the needs analysis has been completed?Discuss
10Needs analysis - 15 ways1. Fill in a form or questionnaire This is the most traditional and perhaps most boring way of doing needs analysis. It can be made more interesting by students interviewing each other and filling in the form for their partner (how much help you will need to give them with question forms etc depends on [...]You could elicit first. Or show each slide and get them to predict how the needs analysis will be done.
112. Interviews Especially in 1 to 1 classes, this is the other common way of doing needs analysis. You can make it more interesting by getting students to interview each other in pairs and then mark the interviewers by how much relevant information they got (e.g. giving points for questions they asked that no one else in the class did), or by doing it as a roleplay job interview for a job that uses English, e.g. their own, and getting students to decide who is best for the job.
123. Combine with another lesson This could mean by language point, or by skill (e.g. reading a text about ways of practicing English. If you combine it with ideas on becoming a self-sufficient language learner, you can even do further needs analysis in later lessons in this way, for example if their language wasn’t high enough level to find out much the first time you did needs analysis or if you want to see if their needs and ideas about language learning have changed.
134. Adverbs of frequency Students use often, once a week etc to talk about how often they use English in certain ways and do certain things to improve their English, e.g. I occasionally take part in conference calls in English. This can be a reading and writing task, or speaking and listening with them asking each other in pairs. Due to the easy language (mainly Present Simple), this is good with even low level classes.
145. Predictions/ possibility and probability Students talk about their future needs for English, e.g. as a sentence completion task with “will” or “definitely” in English, next year I might xxxx in English etc. They can then guess how their partner completed their sentences
156. Modals Students fill in the right modal verb for them in sentences such as ____________ read newspapers in English, e.g. can, should, need to or have to. They can then compare in pairs, and see if the verbs their partner has put in are also true for them.
167. Functions review Students match sentences to their functions, e. g 7. Functions review Students match sentences to their functions, e.g. requesting, complaining, apologising, and then talk about how much they need to be able to do those things in English.
178. Ranking Students rank things they need to do in English by how necessary they are and/ or how difficult they are. They can then get together in larger and larger groups and try to agree new ranking together in a pyramid ranking debate.
189. Guess the job Students match descriptions of how and when people need to use English to the names of their jobs. They can then write similar description for themselves (or their partners after interviewing them), then the whole class can try to match the descriptions to the people in the class.
1910. True/false Students mark sentences about English use and studies true or false for them, e.g. need to write more than speak. Variations include giving the sentences orally rather than on the page, or students making sentences that they think the other person will say true for.
2011. Make it true Students change sentences to make them true for themselves and/ or for everyone in their group or the whole class, e.g. changing most s I write are to native English speakers to non-native. If you design the task carefully, this can also be used as practice of specific language points.
2112. Presentations Students give a presentation about their own needs for English, past and present use of English and English studies. To make sure everyone is listening, other students must ask questions at the end and/ or must refer to what other people said when they do their own presentations, e.g. unlike Gulshan, I almost never answer the telephone in English. This is good if they need to study presentation skills.
2213. Things in common Students try to find (ten) things that are the same for both of them in their use and needs for English, e.g. we both read English s everyday14. Needs analysis meeting Run the needs analysis as a meeting with agenda and action minutes15. Syllabus negotiation Students negotiate to decide how much time will be spent on certain topics and skills in the course. This is especially useful before or after doing the language of negotiations.
23Review of the 15 waysWhich of these would be most relevant for your target group/s?Why?Which are you least likely to use?How does needs analysis help the teacher?Really get them to think about this and the purpose of needs analysis - yes they may be restricted to a school or college syllabus that they didn’t write but they can still get an awful lot from conducting good needs analysis
24Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about conducting a needs analysis?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
26Course planning How do you go about planning a course? Are you tied to a specific syllabus?Are you expected to only use a course book? If so, how do you plan your course?This might be an interesting discussion!
27Using some course book materials, I 'cut and paste' or 'edit down' a reading comprehension, images and exercises, for example, to something that is relevant and useful for the group in question, making sure to reference when I got the material from;If I've got an adequate amount of time to prepare, depending on the aims of the lesson, I prepare something from scratch, or at least something more creative that includes drawing, language games, video, or song.When those aren't possible, I then take the easy route and just use the bookGet teachers to discuss in groups
28Can you help this teacher? Hi everyone! I've been a teacher of English for over 10 years now, but you know what? Every year, as I start classes again, I feel like reinventing myself... and honestly, this year, I don't know where to start! I have so many ideas in my head that I feel overwhelmed. I teach all kinds of groups: kids, teens and adults. So, I want to do loads of things but at the same time I feel stuck. It's like I want to do so many things with such different age groups... it's a mess! I feel "messy".Ask them to come up with a solution in groups and feed back. Compare the solutions with the suggestion on the next slide. All suggestions that make sense should be validated - there is no right or wrong way and teachers have to work out what works best for them individually and at their teaching institutions and any constraints they may have
29A good solution?So I always first work out the course dates and make a sort of mini calendar. Then I usually count up how many lessons focusing on different skills I want to include. E.g. 15 weeks x 2 hours .. 7x listening 7x speaking, 8x reading, 8x writing lessons. Then I look through my resources; first I look through activities that I've already done with other classes and which worked really well, then I move on to new resources and see if there's anything new, and not too similar to something I already have. Once I've "short-listed" activities/materials, I go back through and see if there are any that have the same kind of overall topic, and then group them according to these topics, e.g. crime, relationships, world of work, . Then I pick out, for example, some reading/writing/listening/speaking activities that have the same overall topic as a base, and plan to do these in one week. And so I go on until my calendar is full! Et voila - a nicely varied course plan.Get teachers to comment on this
30Discuss with a partner How you go about planning your course How you use the government text book materialsWhat works/what doesn’t
31Text book resources Teacher’s book Student book Activities Learner worksheetsLet’s look at some examplesYou will need to have the government text book resources to hand that teachers are currently using or required to use
32Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about planning a course effectively?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
34Work with a partner A teacher who engages with his/her students. Clarity of aims.Variety of pace.Variety of activities.Variety of skills.Variety of focus.Logical staging/flow.Lively teaching style.Students get lots of practice (the teacher doesn't!)Meaning of new language is checked and clarified.Get them to rank in order of importance. The answer is of course a balance of all of these but it’s fun to get them to rank first!34
35Lesson AimsIt is essential to have clear aims to show you have a clear organised lesson planOn your plan you have three different types of aims – what are they?Main aims + stage aims + personal aimsWhere do you get your personal aims from?Use some of the lesson plans from the British Council resources to get teachers to examine lesson plan aims35
36There are two main types of lessons Skills – Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening.Systems – Lexis and GrammarIt’s your responsibility to make sure that you teach a range of different lessonsWork with a partner and brainstorm some aims for a skills lesson and a systems lesson.36
37Writing aims Aims need to be clear and simple They need to be for the students – not for the teachersTo present / To practice / To personalise / To revise/extend / To practice listening for gist / To practice reading for specific information / To develop accuracy/fluency / To write a letter (of complaint)How do teachers decide what the aims of the lesson are? Do they even decide this? Emphasize how important this is - it’s what you want students to get out of the lesson!37
38Decide if the following are main/stage aims. Rewrite them if necessary To revise and orally practice the past simple - affirmative and Wh- question formsTo present a reading textTo make the lesson more student-centredTo check understandingTo present and practice (in speaking & writing) a lexical set relating to trials: judge/jury/barrister/ bail/ on parole/ to convict/ to sentenceTo teach questionsTo give controlled oral practiceTo do a roleplayTo finish the lesson in a nice wayTo drill the studentsTo give practice in listening to extract specific informationTo give the students a written recordTo get to the coffee breakGet them to do this in pairs/small groups38
39Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about the ingredients of good lesson plans?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
41Rank these in order of importance: Factors related to the general situation include:Learners’ needs.Learners’ preferred learning styles.Issues of learner training/independence, and learners’ views on this.Class dynamics and energy levels.Availability of space.Relevance to the learners’ socio-cultural background.Learners’ previous language learning experience and corresponding expectations relating to activity types and teacher/learner roles.Do individually and then compare with partner
42Now rank these ones: Factors related to the lesson include: Lesson aims and anticipated problems.Time available.The need for a balance of input, practice and skills work.The need for a balance of activities and interaction patterns.The amount and type of language generated.Ease or difficulty of instructions.
43What do we need to consider when we are adapting materials? SOME IDEASActivity Type:Aims:Topic:Group ProfileMaterials:Setting up:Procedure:Timing:Language:Roles:Level:Elicit first and write up and then show this slide. You could then collectively take something from text book and apply these
44How do you create and adapt materials? Tell your partners about some of your best ideasSplit into small groups and discussSelect best idea and present backGet them to share with partners, then small groups, select best one and present back and why
46What is authentic material? in language teaching, the use of materials that were not originally developed for pedagogical purposes, such as the use of magazines, newspapers, advertisements, news reports, or songsDictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics (Richards, J. and Schmidt, R. Longman 2002)Elicit first before showing this definition46
47Why should we use it? Motivating Empowers non-natives “It’s the way it’s said”Authentic material has authentic language, authentic language naturally will contain the most frequent language itemsIt is the repeated exposure to frequent items that leads to “noticing”Elicit first as a brainstorm47
48What is Noticing?Noticing is when a student focuses on a piece of languageThe focus can help them learn it48
49In a receptive skill task when do we promote noticing In the scanning ….orSpecific information stageIn a speaking class it’s when we go back from fluency to focusing on languageDoes it work in the gist stage?49
50How are learners exposed to language in/outside the class? Inside the ClassroomTextbook(occasional computer lab, brought-in article, song, video, etc.)Outside the ClassroomTV (Sony Entertainment Television, The Warner Channel, The Universal Channel, etc.)MoviesInternetMusicAsk teachers to give you examples based on their students. These are just ideas50
51And what about time? Inside the Classroom Textbook (occasional computer lab, brought-in article, song, video, etc.)TOTAL: 3 hrs per weekOutside the Classroom (estimate)TV – 7 hrs p.w.Movies – 1.5 hrs p.w.Internet – 2 hrs p.w.Music – 2 hrs p.w.TOTAL: 12.5 hours per weekThis is quite an interesting slide to show! Again, it’s an example but probably pretty realistic for most learners and the younger the learner perhaps even more51
52What does that tell you?Teach skills and strategies that will help sts develop outside the classElicit first!Then ask them how much they actually do this… It will make a huge difference to their language teaching and the rate their students learn if they did this much more52
54Focus In class Focus is rich Amount of input poor Outside class Focus is poorAmount of input richA comparison54
55So….Get students noticing authentic material inside the classroom so that they make the most of it outside the classroomTeach them the skills inside to use outsideHelp them with their confidence inside to help them with confidence and so exposure outsideGet them to work in small groups to come up with ideas of how they could actually do this more55
57Problems Students at low levels can’t use authentic materials? Finding materialsExtra work for teacher?Typical problems with using authentic materials57
58Competition 1 minute With a partner Brainstorm as many types of authentic material you can think of58
59Ideas for working with authentic materials MoviesMusicArticlesSkype research“Live Listening”ProjectsAs homework get them to find authentic material and create a simple task around it to peer teach59
60Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about using authentic materials?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
61Practical tools - best practice Session 17 MethodologiesPractical tools - best practiceSession 17
62Learning Languages 1. What’s the best way to learn a foreign language? 2. How did you learn your mother tongue?Discuss In pairs
63The Lexical ApproachAsk if they know what this is
64Question from teacherIn a month I am starting an English course with 2 groups of adults working in a big firm. I have already some ideas how to deal with the advanced level, but I am totally frightened about the beginners. I have no idea what to start with, how to create a syllabus, should grammar be explained deductively or inductively. I would be very grateful for some specific information or any kind of help.Get teachers to decide on a solution
65What would your answer be? Get them to discuss this in small groups
66Answer from Scott Thornbury First of all, your students don’t need grammar, they need words. A lot of words and fast. It’s now widely accepted that language learning – whether naturalistic or instructed – is powered, initially, by vocabulary: the steady accumulation of lexical items, including multi-word units (also called lexical phrases or chunks).Get their comments on this
67Can you find a mistake?Do you understand the message?
68Knowing words is the key to understanding and being understood Knowing words is the key to understanding and being understood. The bulk of learning a new language consists of learning new words. Grammatical knowledge does not make for great proficiency in a language.Vermeer (1992)Could generate some interesting discussion, especially for those traditional approach teachers who consider grammar to be the key to everything!
69- Michael Lewis, The Lexical Approach The basis of language is lexis. It has been, and remains, the central misunderstanding of language teaching to assume that grammar is the basis of language and that mastery of the grammatical system is a prerequisite for effective communication.- Michael Lewis, The Lexical ApproachShould generate an interesting discussion! If this is v new to them, get them to do research on this in their own time and make ample use of the extra British Council resources
70grammar / vocabulary dichotomy current definition of vocabulary too narrow
71word association vacation family clothes nature Get them to brainstorm words associated with these - they will come up with a lot! This is an example of using the lexical approach with learners
72Think of two sentences for these words: magnifying glass job Again, example of the lexical approach in practice and something they can try with their learners
73This is an example of a traditional approach This is an example of a traditional approach. Get them to do this - this exercise probably will take much longer and is limiting a only focuses on this set of vocab
74grammar / vocabulary dichotomy current definition of vocabulary too narrow“lexis”wordscollocationsexpressions“chunks”
78We think of verbs like see, give, keep, as having each basic meaning; we would probably expect those meanings to be the commonest. However, the (corpus) database tells us that see is the commonest in uses like I see, you see, give in uses like give a speech, and keep in uses like keep warm.(John Sinclair, Editor-in-Chief, Collins Birmingham University International Language Database – ‘Cobuild’)This is interesting. Get them to come up with some other examples too
79egg(s) milk bread cheese collocation a glass of _____ spoiled stale freshwheatskimscrambledslicedspiltGet them to try this
80Doing more with what you know addressfaceairbeachbridgecoinnursevoice
81Most intermediate students would improve dramatically if they spent less time trying to perfect their grammar and learn new, rare words, and instead simply learned to use the words they already know in the huge number of collocations of which these words are parts.(Lewis 2000)Another good discussion!
82Doing more with what you know addressfaceairbeachbridgecoinnursevoicedatetownworkhandshapeseasontimeit
83stored as one Are you out of your _____ ? What took you so _____ ? Long time no _____ !I’ve had the time of my ____ .
84It’s on the tip of my tongue… I’m all for it.Beats me.That hit the spot.Give me a break.I’m onto you.Funny you should say that…
85REGISTER-BASED MODEL FOR SYLLABUS INCLUSION SLANGINFORMALNEUTRALHow are you doing?What's up?How are you?How's it going?MARKEDUNIVERSALLY UNDERSTOODRISK SOUNDING AWKWARDLOW RISK
86Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about using the lexical approach?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
88What is a task?“Tasks are always activities where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.” Willis 1996
89Task Based LearningTBL framework provides opportunities for learners to improve their language by comparing with a fluent model.It also incorporates thinking from the Lexical Approach ( Lewis), particularly in the use of texts for learners to “notice “ chunks of language .Unlike PPP, learners are not expected to immediately produce this ‘new’ language but they are encouraged to be aware of how it works and perhaps try it out.This may be new to teachers, if so, you can explain more or if some are familiar with TBL get them to explain it
90Other 3 stage lessons ARC TTT Test Teach Test Task Teach Task This should be to refresh
91TEST Teach TestStudents do an activity to see what language they can produce e.g. a gap fill exercise or a role play.Task should promote the natural use of the chosen target language.Teacher monitors to see how well they perform, noting problems with language, pron etc
92Test TEACH test‘Fine tuning ’ of some of the language they know, perhaps via WB error correctionInput from the teacher (perhaps via a tape of native speakers doing the same task) to extend and develop the language area.Check and controlled practice of ‘new ‘ language, perhaps with emphasis on pronunciation.
93Test Teach TESTStudents do the same activity again or a similar one using the ‘new ‘ language.Teacher monitors and helps with accuracy.
94TTT analysisStudents aren’t unnecessarily taught language they are already clear on.Students often perceive this model as more usefulGives teacher clearer indication of which areas to fine tune and inputThird stage helps provide useful practice and accuracy work.More difficult to predict language contentRequires good language awareness and flexibility from the teacher to spot and respond to student problems.Not all students have the same problems revealed in the diagnostic stageIf new, get them to try this out and peer teach it and prepare something to demonstrate next session/next day if time permits
95TBL vs TTT TTT is language based TBL is communication based TTT – often turns into TTPGet them to tell you the difference between the two
96Types of TBL task Listing Ordering and sorting Comparing Problem solvingSharing personal experiencesCreative tasksFramework for Task Based Learning : Jane Willis 1996 (Longman )
98Sorting out PPP problems without a doctor input / establish lang presentationcontrolled practice ( class)very controlled controlled(drilling)controlled practice ( pairs) practiceless controlled practiceelicited dialoguesnarrativesinfo gapsfurther practice productiondiscourse chains etcfree(r) practicerole plays etc
99PPP-ing Can be applied to any systems lesson Allows some variety – but not muchFocuses on an accuracy base
101ARC The T presents information about an item of language The sts then work on oral practice of these itemsThe sts do a written exercise to practise these itemsThe sts are given the opportunity to use these items along with other language they know, in communicative activities.Again, get them to try this out, if time permits
102ARC AnalysisThe T reviews the vocab from the previous class by getting sts in pairs and checking each other´s understanding.The T elicits what sts know about adverbs of frequency.The T then extends the sts knowledge by giving further examples.The T gets sts to rank the adverbs of frequency in pairs and feeds back to the B.The sts then mingle in the class and try to discover the daily routine of as many sts as possible.An example which you could demonstrate with them to drive home the concept
103What’s the problem here? The teacher explained at length, and at random, a number of different grammar points for the whole of the lesson.The teacher was not prepared and decided only once he was in the class to go through the workbook to revise what sts had been doing for the previous week - exercise 1,2,3….A teacher at the end of semester wants to liven things up, so he sets a range of communicative activities and then gets the sts to write an essay.Let teachers tell you
104Which of the following are essential? Exposure to comprehensible input both spoken and written languageOpportunity to use language to do things, i.e. exchange meaningsAssistance of someone to help correct accuracy mistakesMotivation to learnCan we rank these in order of importance?
105TBL Lesson Plan Have a look at the following plan and analyse it Is it effective?Are all of the elements of ARC there?What style of class is it?Use one of the British Council lesson plan examples here
106Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about task types?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?
108Classroom preparation Boardwork Lesson plan InstructionsClassroom preparationBoardworkLesson planTeacher stance / positioningTiming / PaceClassroom routineMaterial preparationEye contactVoiceUsing students’ namesPraiseInvolving studentsGeneral professionalismElicit first what are the essentials of good classroom management and then affirm/confirm or fill gaps with this slide
110Work with a partner or 2 from different TP groups Share your ideas about the differences in levels that you experience with your learnersTP = teaching practice groups. You may or may not have these in place. If not, get them to work in groups110
111What other levels are there? Common European FrameworkBasic Speaker (A1, A2)Independent Speaker (B1, B2)Proficient Speaker (C1,C2)LEVELSBeginnerElementaryPre-IntermediateIntermediateUpper IntermediateAdvancedThese may need to be localised or linked to Azerbaijan framework111
112Work your with your partners Match the descriptions with the CEF bandsOr if not CEF, local equivalent112
113What does a level mean? What are the effects for us as teachers? Is it possible to have a group that are exactly at the same level?What are the solutions?Homogenous/hetrogenousEvery group of learners have mixed ability!113
114What are the problems? The materials Timing of activities Groupings of studentsInstructionsError correctionPlanningBrainstorm what the problems are first114
115With your partners… Choose one of the areas and suggest some solutions The materialsTiming of activitiesGroupings of studentsInstructionsError correctionPlanning115
116Materials Give the same materials to all of the students Give different tasksGive extra tasks to those who finish earlyWeaker students could have some help on their handouts e.g. definitions of difficult vocabularySome more ideas116
117Timing of activities Stronger students finish earlier Give them a role of helping weaker studentsGet them to write a short summary of the task or to add some vocab onto a vocab listGive the weaker students a head start e.g. some of the answers or a list to choose fromMake sure all of them get more preparation time117
118Groupings of students Strong + strong with extra tasks Weak + weak + extra helpMixture depending on the activityIt is important to make sure that there is the key word….VARIETY!118
119InstructionsThese are essential for the weaker students to be able to perform the taskSome ideas:Make them very easy/clearGet the stronger sts to repeat the instructionsModel the exercise119
120Error CorrectionEasier to give more correction (more complex) to stronger stsGet stronger sts to help weaker sts with correctionTry to promote peer correction in the classroom e.g. stronger helping weaker120
121Planning Plan flexibly Think about all sts – especially weaker and stronger stsAim for the average stYou can provide extra help for the weaker sts while monitioringPlan for extra tasks for the stronger sts121
122Speaking activities Stronger Have more complex tasks Justify ideas Don’t allow simple vocabPromote peer correctionWeakerPractice time with note takingModel activity well firstLet them hear a strong pair first122
123Listening Add extra tasks – or more complex tasks Include extra tasks on intonation/pronGet to prepare with predicted answersGive them the answers and use as multiple choiceGive them the tapescript the 2nd timeEnsure there is a pair check after the listening123
124Reading Extra reading tasks or more complex Include more discovery of grammar/lexisFull textPart of the textHave definition of difficult wordsFocus on activating schemata – any pics, discussion of topic, title etcShort time limits124
125Writing Longer length More complex task Focus on more complex language ShorterMonitorUse dictionaries etcGive a model first125
126Grammar Mixed ability pairs Explanation for weaker sts More detail for stronger sts e.g. create more examplesMixed ability pairsMore details on handout e.g. help promptsHelp from stronger sts126
127Pronunciation Teach Phonetic Script Practice Work on intonation Linking forms etcTeach Phonetic ScriptPractice127
128AutonomyEncourage them to do work as much as possible outside the classroomGet them to bring ideas into the classroomTeach them skillsShow them how to work with dictionaries, websites, practice books, workbooks etc.Give them some specific tasks to do outside class128
129Summary Be kind Be supportive Encourage group learning All of the previous slides give much to discuss and different techniques - you may want them to try some of these out or demonstrate some yourself so they get a better feel129
130Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about classroom management and mixed ability learners?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes
131Speaking inc. Using Roleplay + S(t)and Simulation Session 20 131
132What’s the difference between roleplay and simulation? Roleplay – the st takes on a roleSimulation the st plays him/herselfWe can use both at the same timeElicit the difference first132
133What are the advantages/disadvantages of using roleplay and simulation? -can be seen as not serioussts may be embarrassedsts may rush and not use appropriate languagemay be difficult for mixed ability classessome students may dominate+allow sts to prepare for real situsfun & motivatinglots of STT v st centredhelpful for error collectionsts can "hide" behind role133
134Some questions… What should the teacher be doing during the roleplay? Should a teacher ever stop a roleplay? If so, when?134
135Some guidelinesMake sure the sts understand the idea of 'roleplay'. Do they know what's going to happen? Do they know what is required of them? Are they comfortable to do that or not?Make sure the context or situation is clear.Do they understand the information on their own card? Allow reading time, dictionary time, thinking time (during which you can go round and help if necessary).Give them time to prepare their ideas before the speaking starts; maybe encourage note taking.135
136And some more… but when the activity starts, encourage them to improvise rather than rely on prepared speeches and notes. The preparation work they have done will inform their roleplay, but could simply get in the way if they over-rely on it. (It may help to take away the cards when the roleplay starts.)set a time limitselect main role of difficult roleplay carefully (ability to listen + clarify points)avoid roleplays that are culturally sensitive or too confrontationalGet teachers to find/design a role play activity incorporating some of these best practice principles136
137Real Speaking exercises What is a real speaking exercise?PersonalisationInformation gapsExample – backs to the boardReal tasks e.g. what gets the money?3 way roleplay137
138Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about using role play and simulation?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes
139(not ‘Accuracy vs Fluency’) Session 21 Accuracy and Fluency(not ‘Accuracy vs Fluency’)Session 21
140Consider the activity you have just done and answer these questions: 1. Was this activity focused on fluency or accuracy? How do you know?2. Was this a controlled or completely free activity?3. How can you deal with accuracy in an activity like this one?Prior to this, give out role play exercise
141In general, when is it best to focus on accuracy as a class? How can you get students to focus on accuracy before getting to a fluency activity?
142William Shakespeare, ‘As You Like It’ All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many partsWilliam Shakespeare, ‘As You Like It’
144Suzie: And this is the kitchen. Matt: Mmm, it’s very nice.Suzie: Well, it’s not very big, but there are a lot of cupboards. And there’s a new fridge, and a cooker. That’s new, too.Matt: But what’s in all these cupboards?Well, not a lot. There are some cups, but there aren’t any plates
145Decide what the situation is: Who is the guest? What’s (s)he like? Why might you have someone staying the night at your house? (As a guest!)Decide what the situation is: Who is the guest? What’s (s)he like?Get them to deduce this
146The last-line role play Well, it’s not very big.Never mind.Well, not a lot.Mmm, it’s very nice.Another technique - what is the role play before these last lines?
152You have until the 16th floor. Oh! New neighbor… I wonder if she’ll have dinner with me.Oh no – another flirt. Who knows… Maybe he’s OK.The ElevatorYou have until the 16th floor.Get teachers to try this. This can often be much more effective than written cue cardsYour mission:Your mission:Show interest without looking too desperate. Leave elevator with a dinner date.Your mission:Your mission:Be interested but don’t make it too easy for him. Make a dinner date if he’s nice.
153Presentation stage (in P-P-P) Role playDiscussionGrammar drill
154Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching accuracy and fluency?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes
156You are going to give feedback next week Do you want to GIVE the feedback?No!What do you need to do?Make the teacher state your feedbackWhy?Get them to think of giving feedback generally (not in terms of language). Imagine they are to give feedback to another teacher about their teaching! You couild also take this session as a giving feedback session about peer teaching. It’s very useful anyway as it also helps with teacher observation156
157Promoting reflective feedback If you get the teacher to come up with the feedback that you want to give them, it will be more memorableHow can you go about doing this?Don’t take them straight to the point you want to get to – get them to take small steps to realisation.157
158Some tips Don’t ask closed questions What’s my favourite question? Why?Because it can promote critical thinkingLeave some silences – thinking time.Don’t be judgemental158
159Recall questions Identifying – What is the name of…? Matching – What is the other (type of)?Listing – Name somethingObserving – What do you do in X situation – what happens?Describing – Describe(what you do )…Defining – What’s your definition of…?159
160Process questionsComparing – what are the similarities (differences) between X and Y?Sequencing – Describe what happenedGrouping – what else is similar to..?160
161Application Questions Searching – What would happen if…?Applying – What would happen if you used this in X situation?Concluding – You have said X what does that say about Y?Forecasting – Now – how do you think X could be used?Inventing – In what other ways could X be used161
163Work in groups of 3Think of a situation – tell your partners about the situationGet them to ask you questions to help you reflect.163
164Ok …. My turnNow you can ask me questions to get me to reflect on my views on training teachers164
165Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about giving and receiving feedback?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes
168Errors can be categorized in 4 main areas: grammarpronunciationmeaningappropriacy168
169Which category are the following: How you come to school?I go always to France for my holidays.I don’t like travelling by sheep.It cost five hundreds dollars.He studies engineering.(TV Interviewer to President). That’s a load of rubbish, mate.She went to the library to buy a book.How many people was at the meeting?I’ve watched television last night.(student in a British bar). Give me a beer.She suggested us to go home.Oh of course! You’re Richard, are you?Do you know what is it?How many money is it?In pairs169
170When a ST makes an error what does the T do? What kind of error has been made? (grammar? Pron? etc)Whether to deal with it? (is it worth correcting?)When to deal with it (now? End of activity? End of class? Next class?)Who will correct it? (teacher? Self? Peer?)Which technique to use?Ask teachers how they tend to normally correct errors in the classroom170
171Ideas of ways to react to errors e.g. My sister love Luke Ignor it – And do you love him to?Correct yourself (repeating and rephrasing) and immediately move on: Oh she loves him? And what about you?Pause/give another chance e.g. Sorry? To see if the st self-corrects when saying it againAsk for correction without indicating where e.g. Is that right? For class/another st to correctSt repeats and T elicits correction non-verbally using fingers, gesture, eyebrows etc - e.g. hold on to the error (third) finger.Some examples. Works better if you can demonstrate171
172etc - e.g. hold on to the error (third) finger. St repeats and T elicits correction non-verbally using fingers, gesture, eyebrowsetc - e.g. hold on to the error (third) finger.Identify error and elicit correct form through exemplification e.g. I love, you love, she…?Echo with changed stress: She love Luke?Ask a one word question e.g. Tense? Past?Try to work with the humour e.g. The doctor gave her a recipe? T: “Oh did she make a nice cake?” – be careful with this!Draw a timeline on the board172
173Repeat up to the error to elicit correction Your sister …… Draw gaps on the board to show the number of words and highlight the missing word e.g _ _ _?_ _Identify the error and elicit Not she love but she …Write error down for analysis/correction (on board or paper) for self, PW or class to identify and correctDelayed written feedback173
174What are the problems?Students are working in pairs. The activity is designed to provide practice in a particular structure. Although they have already looked at the form and meaning of this, a student is still avoiding its use.A student is telling a story to the whole class. He consistently (and accurately) uses the infinitive form of verbs, effectively speaking without tenses. The story was unplanned and does not fulfil any objective predetermined by the teacher.Students are working in pairs, preparing a roleplay. It is clear that several students are confusing the pronouns 'he' and 'she'.Students are discussing a topic which interests them in small groups. One student is struggling to express what he wants to say but cannot make himself clear and is becoming frustrated. You know what he wants to say.One student says something to the class and everyone appears to understand. However, you suspect that they have understood something different from what was intended and the student who is speaking has not realised this.Split into groups and get them to apply one or more of the techniques (you may want to replicate the techniques in a handout for ease)174
175Find a partnerShare some typical errors that you have encountered with your studentsHow have you tended to deal with these in the past?How would you deal with them now?What are your favourite error correction methods?175
176Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about correcting errors with my students?What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes
178What types of testing exist? Achievement/attainment testsProgress testsDiagnostic testProficiencyPlacement testsElicit first and then show slide
179Achievement testsKnown syllabus and concerns the future I.e. University degree examinations
180Progress tests Classroom test to test material learnt in class Should be motivating for students!
181Diagnostic tests Concerns the past May or may not be based on a syllabus ie entry test
182Proficiency testsRelates to future - use of language to undertake a non-language task i.e Cambridge Proficiency Test or TOEFL
183Placement testsSorts new students into teaching groups so that they are approximately the same level when they start
184Your situation Discuss with a partner: Types of testing most common in your teaching environmentThe challenges this poses for you
185Formative assessment What is it? Discuss examples of how you conduct formative assessment with your learners
186Examples of formative assessment ▪A language teacher asks students to choose the best expression or statement from a selection; if all choose correctly she moves on; if only some do she may initiate a class discussion; if most answer incorrectly then she may review this area▪A teacher asks her students to write down, in a brainstorm activity, all they know about how to give a presentation so that she can discover what students already knew about the area of presentations she is intending to teach▪A supervisor looks at the previous year's student test results to help plan teacher workshops in the summer vacation to address areas of weakness in student performance[Get teachers to work in small groups and design some formative assessments - you may want to give them outside class research time for this
187Summative assessment What is it? Discuss examples of how you conduct summative assessment with your learners
188Characteristics of summative assessment Assesses level of learning in certain period of time.Uses well defined evaluation designs (i.e. fixed time and content).Provides descriptive analysis (i.e. in order to give a grade, all the activities done throughout the year are taken into account).It is positive, tending to stress what students can do rather than what they cannot.Split teachers into small groups and get them to discuss what kinds of summative assessments they are required to conduct. It would be good if you have some actual examples of summative assessment so you can discuss any challenges these may represent for their teaching