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Teacher Training Programme Topic Area 2. Learning objectives Conducting effective needs analysis Planning a course including best practice use of textbook.

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Presentation on theme: "Teacher Training Programme Topic Area 2. Learning objectives Conducting effective needs analysis Planning a course including best practice use of textbook."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teacher Training Programme Topic Area 2

2 Learning objectives Conducting effective needs analysis Planning a course including best practice use of textbook packages Developing best practice teaching skills (interactive approaches, techniques and methodologies) Classroom management, procedures and techniques (effective group work, giving feedback) Adapting, developing and creating materials Assessment and evaluation techniques

3 Methodology Hands-on practical tasks Interactive workshops Peer teaching and peer presentations Self-guided learning and research Reflection Development of best practice skills

4 Needs Analysis Session 13

5 Needs analysis What is it? Why do we do it? (if we do it!) What types of needs analysis exist? What do you use? What should be included?

6 Needs analysis involves doing some kind of activity with a learner in order to find out what their learning needs are. A good understanding of learner needs can contribute to successful course planning. On the first day with a new group the teacher gives the proposed syllabus aims for the course, and asks learners to prioritise them in relation to the contexts that they will need to use language in. In the classroom Needs analysis is part of building learner awareness and autonomy. Asking learners what they feel they need to practise is a good initial step. As well as providing data, it can encourage them to start thinking about their learning and taking responsibility for it.

7 What are the benefits of needs analyses? Helps gain a detailed knowledge about the learners Can be motivational for learners Encourages him/her to take responsibility for learning Helps adjust their expectations Helps the teacher prepare relevant sessions and think about where to focus key objectives

8 What problems can there be with a NA? School/college/syllabus and learner needs differ Different learners have different needs “I don’t have time to do detailed needs analysis!” What are the solutions to the above?

9 Some questions What is the difference between a needs analysis and a placement test? Should all needs analyses be the same? What happens after the needs analysis has been completed?

10 Needs analysis - 15 ways 1. Fill in a form or questionnaire This is the most traditional and perhaps most boring way of doing needs analysis. It can be made more interesting by students interviewing each other and filling in the form for their partner (how much help you will need to give them with question forms etc depends on [...]

11 2. Interviews Especially in 1 to 1 classes, this is the other common way of doing needs analysis. You can make it more interesting by getting students to interview each other in pairs and then mark the interviewers by how much relevant information they got (e.g. giving points for questions they asked that no one else in the class did), or by doing it as a roleplay job interview for a job that uses English, e.g. their own, and getting students to decide who is best for the job.

12 3. Combine with another lesson This could mean by language point, or by skill (e.g. reading a text about ways of practicing English. If you combine it with ideas on becoming a self-sufficient language learner, you can even do further needs analysis in later lessons in this way, for example if their language wasn ’ t high enough level to find out much the first time you did needs analysis or if you want to see if their needs and ideas about language learning have changed.

13 4. Adverbs of frequency Students use often, once a week etc to talk about how often they use English in certain ways and do certain things to improve their English, e.g. I occasionally take part in conference calls in English. This can be a reading and writing task, or speaking and listening with them asking each other in pairs. Due to the easy language (mainly Present Simple), this is good with even low level classes.

14 5. Predictions/ possibility and probability Students talk about their future needs for English, e.g. as a sentence completion task with “ will ” or “ definitely ” in English, next year I might xxxx in English etc. They can then guess how their partner completed their sentences

15 6. Modals Students fill in the right modal verb for them in sentences such as ____________ read newspapers in English, e.g. can, should, need to or have to. They can then compare in pairs, and see if the verbs their partner has put in are also true for them.

16 7. Functions review Students match sentences to their functions, e.g. requesting, complaining, apologising, and then talk about how much they need to be able to do those things in English.

17 8. Ranking Students rank things they need to do in English by how necessary they are and/ or how difficult they are. They can then get together in larger and larger groups and try to agree new ranking together in a pyramid ranking debate.

18 9. Guess the job Students match descriptions of how and when people need to use English to the names of their jobs. They can then write similar description for themselves (or their partners after interviewing them), then the whole class can try to match the descriptions to the people in the class.

19 10. True/false Students mark sentences about English use and studies true or false for them, e.g. need to write more than speak. Variations include giving the sentences orally rather than on the page, or students making sentences that they think the other person will say true for.

20 11. Make it true Students change sentences to make them true for themselves and/ or for everyone in their group or the whole class, e.g. changing most s I write are to native English speakers to non-native. If you design the task carefully, this can also be used as practice of specific language points.

21 12. Presentations Students give a presentation about their own needs for English, past and present use of English and English studies. To make sure everyone is listening, other students must ask questions at the end and/ or must refer to what other people said when they do their own presentations, e.g. unlike Gulshan, I almost never answer the telephone in English. This is good if they need to study presentation skills.

22 13. Things in common Students try to find (ten) things that are the same for both of them in their use and needs for English, e.g. we both read English s everyday 14. Needs analysis meeting Run the needs analysis as a meeting with agenda and action minutes 15. Syllabus negotiation Students negotiate to decide how much time will be spent on certain topics and skills in the course. This is especially useful before or after doing the language of negotiations.

23 Review of the 15 ways Which of these would be most relevant for your target group/s? Why? Which are you least likely to use? How does needs analysis help the teacher?

24 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about conducting a needs analysis? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

25 Course Planning Session 14

26 Course planning How do you go about planning a course? Are you tied to a specific syllabus? Are you expected to only use a course book? If so, how do you plan your course?

27 1)Using some course book materials, I 'cut and paste' or 'edit down' a reading comprehension, images and exercises, for example, to something that is relevant and useful for the group in question, making sure to reference when I got the material from; 2)If I've got an adequate amount of time to prepare, depending on the aims of the lesson, I prepare something from scratch, or at least something more creative that includes drawing, language games, video, or song. 3)When those aren't possible, I then take the easy route and just use the book

28 Can you help this teacher? Hi everyone! I've been a teacher of English for over 10 years now, but you know what? Every year, as I start classes again, I feel like reinventing myself... and honestly, this year, I don't know where to start! I have so many ideas in my head that I feel overwhelmed. I teach all kinds of groups: kids, teens and adults. So, I want to do loads of things but at the same time I feel stuck. It's like I want to do so many things with such different age groups... it's a mess! I feel "messy".

29 A good solution? So I always first work out the course dates and make a sort of mini calendar. Then I usually count up how many lessons focusing on different skills I want to include. E.g. 15 weeks x 2 hours.. 7x listening 7x speaking, 8x reading, 8x writing lessons. Then I look through my resources; first I look through activities that I've already done with other classes and which worked really well, then I move on to new resources and see if there's anything new, and not too similar to something I already have. Once I've "short-listed" activities/materials, I go back through and see if there are any that have the same kind of overall topic, and then group them according to these topics, e.g. crime, relationships, world of work,. Then I pick out, for example, some reading/writing/listening/speaking activities that have the same overall topic as a base, and plan to do these in one week. And so I go on until my calendar is full! Et voil a - a nicely varied course plan.

30 Discuss with a partner How you go about planning your course How you use the government text book materials What works/what doesn’t

31 Text book resources Teacher’s book Student book Activities Learner worksheets Let’s look at some examples

32 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about planning a course effectively? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

33 What makes a good lesson? Session 15

34 Work with a partner A teacher who engages with his/her students. Clarity of aims. Variety of pace. Variety of activities. Variety of skills. Variety of focus. Logical staging/flow. Lively teaching style. Students get lots of practice (the teacher doesn't!) Meaning of new language is checked and clarified.

35 Lesson Aims It is essential to have clear aims to show you have a clear organised lesson plan On your plan you have three different types of aims – what are they? Main aims + stage aims + personal aims Where do you get your personal aims from?

36 There are two main types of lessons Skills – Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening. Systems – Lexis and Grammar It’s your responsibility to make sure that you teach a range of different lessons Work with a partner and brainstorm some aims for a skills lesson and a systems lesson.

37 Writing aims Aims need to be clear and simple They need to be for the students – not for the teachers To present / To practice / Topersonalise / To revise/extend / To practice listening for gist / To practice reading for specific information / To develop accuracy/fluency / To write a letter (of complaint)

38 Decide if the following are main/stage aims. Rewrite them if necessary To revise and orally practice the past simple - affirmative and Wh- question forms To present a reading text To make the lesson more student-centred To check understanding To present and practice (in speaking & writing) a lexical set relating to trials: judge/jury/barrister/ bail/ on parole/ to convict/ to sentence To teach questions To give controlled oral practice To do a roleplay To finish the lesson in a nice way To drill the students To give practice in listening to extract specific information To give the students a written record To get to the coffee break

39 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about the ingredients of good lesson plans? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

40 Materials Design Session 16

41 Rank these in order of importance: Factors related to the general situation include: Learners’ needs. Learners’ preferred learning styles. Issues of learner training/independence, and learners’ views on this. Class dynamics and energy levels. Availability of space. Relevance to the learners’ socio-cultural background. Learners’ previous language learning experience and corresponding expectations relating to activity types and teacher/learner roles.

42 Now rank these ones: Factors related to the lesson include: Lesson aims and anticipated problems. Time available. The need for a balance of input, practice and skills work. The need for a balance of activities and interaction patterns. The amount and type of language generated. Ease or difficulty of instructions.

43 What do we need to consider when we are adapting materials? SOME IDEAS Activity Type: Aims: Topic: Group Profile Materials: Setting up: Procedure: Timing: Language: Roles: Level:

44 How do you create and adapt materials? Tell your partners about some of your best ideas Split into small groups and discuss Select best idea and present back

45 Authentic Materials Session 16

46 What is authentic material? in language teaching, the use of materials that were not originally developed for pedagogical purposes, such as the use of magazines, newspapers, advertisements, news reports, or songs Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics (Richards, J. and Schmidt, R. Longman 2002)

47 Why should we use it? Motivating Empowers non-natives “It’s the way it’s said” Authentic material has authentic language, authentic language naturally will contain the most frequent language items It is the repeated exposure to frequent items that leads to “noticing”

48 What is Noticing? Noticing is when a student focuses on a piece of language The focus can help them learn it

49 In a receptive skill task when do we promote noticing In the scanning ….or Specific information stage In a speaking class it’s when we go back from fluency to focusing on language Does it work in the gist stage?

50 How are learners exposed to language in/outside the class? Inside the Classroom Textbook (occasional computer lab, brought-in article, song, video, etc.) Outside the Classroom TV (Sony Entertainment Television, The Warner Channel, The Universal Channel, etc.) Movies Internet Music

51 And what about time? Inside the Classroom Textbook (occasional computer lab, brought-in article, song, video, etc.) TOTAL: 3 hrs per week Outside the Classroom (estimate) TV – 7 hrs p.w. Movies – 1.5 hrs p.w. Internet – 2 hrs p.w. Music – 2 hrs p.w. TOTAL: 12.5 hours per week

52 What does that tell you? Teach skills and strategies that will help sts develop outside the class

53 What’s best?

54 Focus In class Focus is rich Amount of input poor Outside class Focus is poor Amount of input rich

55 So…. Get students noticing authentic material inside the classroom so that they make the most of it outside the classroom Teach them the skills inside to use outside Help them with their confidence inside to help them with confidence and so exposure outside

56 What does this tell you?

57 Problems Students at low levels can’t use authentic materials? Finding materials Extra work for teacher?

58 Competition 1 minute With a partner Brainstorm as many types of authentic material you can think of

59 Ideas for working with authentic materials Movies Music Articles Skype research “Live Listening” Projects

60 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about using authentic materials? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

61 Methodologies Practical tools - best practice Session 17

62 Learning Languages 1. What’s the best way to learn a foreign language? 2. How did you learn your mother tongue?

63 The Lexical Approach

64 Question from teacher In a month I am starting an English course with 2 groups of adults working in a big firm. I have already some ideas how to deal with the advanced level, but I am totally frightened about the beginners. I have no idea what to start with, how to create a syllabus, should grammar be explained deductively or inductively. I would be very grateful for some specific information or any kind of help.

65 What would your answer be?

66 Answer from Scott Thornbury First of all, your students don’t need grammar, they need words. A lot of words and fast. It’s now widely accepted that language learning – whether naturalistic or instructed – is powered, initially, by vocabulary: the steady accumulation of lexical items, including multi- word units (also called lexical phrases or chunks).

67 Can you find a mistake? Do you understand the message?

68 Knowing words is the key to understanding and being understood. The bulk of learning a new language consists of learning new words. Grammatical knowledge does not make for great proficiency in a language. Vermeer (1992)

69 The basis of language is lexis. It has been, and remains, the central misunderstanding of language teaching to assume that grammar is the basis of language and that mastery of the grammatical system is a prerequisite for effective communication. - Michael Lewis, The Lexical Approach

70 grammar / vocabulary dichotomy current definition of vocabulary too narrow

71 word association vacation family clothes nature

72 Think of two sentences for these words: magnifying glass job

73

74 grammar / vocabulary dichotomy current definition of vocabulary too narrow “ lexis ” words collocations expressions “ chunks ”

75 vocabulary and memory

76 shrug rewind brush look up your shoulders a tape your teeth / your hair a word / a friend

77 close near far distant friend miss fetched relative close near far distant miss friend relative fetched

78 We think of verbs like see, give, keep, as having each basic meaning; we would probably expect those meanings to be the commonest. However, the (corpus) database tells us that see is the commonest in uses like I see, you see, give in uses like give a speech, and keep in uses like keep warm. (John Sinclair, Editor-in-Chief, Collins Birmingham University International Language Database – ‘Cobuild’)

79 collocation egg(s) milk bread cheese a glass of _____ spoiled stale fresh wheat skim scrambled sliced spilt

80 Doing more with what you know address face air beach bridge coin nurse voice

81 Most intermediate students would improve dramatically if they spent less time trying to perfect their grammar and learn new, rare words, and instead simply learned to use the words they already know in the huge number of collocations of which these words are parts. (Lewis 2000)

82 Doing more with what you know address face air beach bridge coin nurse voice date town work hand shape season time it

83 stored as one Are you out of your _____ ? What took you so _____ ? Long time no _____ ! I’ve had the time of my ____.

84 It’s on the tip of my tongue… I’m all for it. Beats me. That hit the spot. Give me a break. I’m onto you. Funny you should say that…

85 REGISTER-BASED MODEL FOR SYLLABUS INCLUSION NEUTRAL INFORMAL SLANG UNIVERSALLY UNDERSTOOD MARKED LOW RISK RISK SOUNDING AWKWARD

86 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about using the lexical approach? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

87 Task Types Session 18

88 What is a task? “Tasks are always activities where the target language is used by the learner for a communicative purpose (goal) in order to achieve an outcome.” Willis 1996

89 Task Based Learning TBL framework provides opportunities for learners to improve their language by comparing with a fluent model. It also incorporates thinking from the Lexical Approach ( Lewis), particularly in the use of texts for learners to “notice “ chunks of language. Unlike PPP, learners are not expected to immediately produce this ‘new’ language but they are encouraged to be aware of how it works and perhaps try it out.

90 Other 3 stage lessons ARC TTT –Test Teach Test –Task Teach Task

91 TEST Teach Test Students do an activity to see what language they can produce e.g. a gap fill exercise or a role play. Task should promote the natural use of the chosen target language. Teacher monitors to see how well they perform, noting problems with language, pron etc

92 Test TEACH test ‘Fine tuning ’ of some of the language they know, perhaps via WB error correction Input from the teacher (perhaps via a tape of native speakers doing the same task) to extend and develop the language area. Check and controlled practice of ‘new ‘ language, perhaps with emphasis on pronunciation.

93 Test Teach TEST Students do the same activity again or a similar one using the ‘new ‘ language. Teacher monitors and helps with accuracy.

94 TTT analysis Students aren’t unnecessarily taught language they are already clear on. Students often perceive this model as more useful Gives teacher clearer indication of which areas to fine tune and input Third stage helps provide useful practice and accuracy work. More difficult to predict language content Requires good language awareness and flexibility from the teacher to spot and respond to student problems. Not all students have the same problems revealed in the diagnostic stage

95 TBL vs TTT TTT is language based TBL is communication based TTT – often turns into TTP

96 Types of TBL task Listing Ordering and sorting Comparing Problem solving Sharing personal experiences Creative tasks Framework for Task Based Learning : Jane Willis 1996 (Longman )

97 Giving vs Guiding

98 Sorting out PPP problems without a doctor input / establish lang presentation controlled practice ( class) very controlled  controlled (drilling) controlled practice ( pairs) practice less controlled practice elicited dialogues narratives info gaps further practice production discourse chains etc free(r) practice role plays etc

99 PPP-ing Can be applied to any systems lesson Allows some variety – but not much Focuses on an accuracy base

100 PPP to ARC Authentic Restrictive Clarification

101 ARC The T presents information about an item of language The sts then work on oral practice of these items The sts do a written exercise to practise these items The sts are given the opportunity to use these items along with other language they know, in communicative activities.

102 ARC Analysis The T reviews the vocab from the previous class by getting sts in pairs and checking each other´s understanding. The T elicits what sts know about adverbs of frequency. The T then extends the sts knowledge by giving further examples. The T gets sts to rank the adverbs of frequency in pairs and feeds back to the B. The sts then mingle in the class and try to discover the daily routine of as many sts as possible.

103 What’s the problem here? The teacher explained at length, and at random, a number of different grammar points for the whole of the lesson. The teacher was not prepared and decided only once he was in the class to go through the workbook to revise what sts had been doing for the previous week - exercise 1,2,3…. A teacher at the end of semester wants to liven things up, so he sets a range of communicative activities and then gets the sts to write an essay.

104 Which of the following are essential? Exposure to comprehensible input both spoken and written language Opportunity to use language to do things, i.e. exchange meanings Assistance of someone to help correct accuracy mistakes Motivation to learn Can we rank these in order of importance?

105 TBL Lesson Plan Have a look at the following plan and analyse it –Is it effective? –Are all of the elements of ARC there? –What style of class is it?

106 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about task types? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes?

107 Classroom Management Session 19

108 Instructions Classroom preparation Boardwork Lesson plan Teacher stance / positioning Timing / Pace Classroom routine Instructions Material preparation Eye contact Voice Using students’ names Praise Involving students General professionalism

109 Different Levels + Mixed Ability

110 Work with a partner or 2 from different TP groups Share your ideas about the differences in levels that you experience with your learners

111 What other levels are there? LEVELS Beginner Elementary Pre-Intermediate Intermediate Upper Intermediate Advanced Common European Framework Basic Speaker (A1, A2) Independent Speaker (B1, B2) Proficient Speaker (C1,C2)

112 Work your with your partners Match the descriptions with the CEF bands

113 What does a level mean? What are the effects for us as teachers? Is it possible to have a group that are exactly at the same level? What are the solutions? Homogenous/hetrogenous

114 What are the problems? The materials Timing of activities Groupings of students Instructions Error correction Planning

115 With your partners… Choose one of the areas and suggest some solutions The materials Timing of activities Groupings of students Instructions Error correction Planning

116 Materials Give the same materials to all of the students Give different tasks Give extra tasks to those who finish early Weaker students could have some help on their handouts e.g. definitions of difficult vocabulary

117 Timing of activities Stronger students finish earlier Give them a role of helping weaker students Get them to write a short summary of the task or to add some vocab onto a vocab list Give the weaker students a head start e.g. some of the answers or a list to choose from Make sure all of them get more preparation time

118 Groupings of students Strong + strong with extra tasks Weak + weak + extra help Mixture depending on the activity It is important to make sure that there is the key word…. VARIETY!

119 Instructions These are essential for the weaker students to be able to perform the task Some ideas: Make them very easy/clear Get the stronger sts to repeat the instructions Model the exercise

120 Error Correction Easier to give more correction (more complex) to stronger sts Get stronger sts to help weaker sts with correction Try to promote peer correction in the classroom e.g. stronger helping weaker

121 Planning Plan flexibly Think about all sts – especially weaker and stronger sts Aim for the average st You can provide extra help for the weaker sts while monitioring Plan for extra tasks for the stronger sts

122 Speaking activities Stronger Have more complex tasks Justify ideas Don’t allow simple vocab Promote peer correction Weaker Practice time with note taking Model activity well first Let them hear a strong pair first

123 Listening Add extra tasks – or more complex tasks Include extra tasks on intonation/pron Get to prepare with predicted answers Give them the answers and use as multiple choice Give them the tapescript the 2 nd time Ensure there is a pair check after the listening

124 Reading Extra reading tasks or more complex Include more discovery of grammar/lexis Full text Part of the text Have definition of difficult words Focus on activating schemata – any pics, discussion of topic, title etc Short time limits

125 Writing Longer length More complex task Focus on more complex language Shorter Monitor Use dictionaries etc Give a model first

126 Grammar Mixed ability pairs Explanation for weaker sts More detail for stronger sts e.g. create more examples Mixed ability pairs More details on handout e.g. help prompts Help from stronger sts

127 Pronunciation Teach Phonetic Script Practice Work on intonation Linking forms etc Teach Phonetic Script Practice

128 Autonomy Encourage them to do work as much as possible outside the classroom Get them to bring ideas into the classroom Teach them skills Show them how to work with dictionaries, websites, practice books, workbooks etc. Give them some specific tasks to do outside class

129 Summary Be kind Be supportive Encourage group learning

130 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about classroom management and mixed ability learners? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes

131 Speaking inc. Using Roleplay + S(t)and Simulation Session 20

132 What’s the difference between roleplay and simulation? Roleplay – the st takes on a role Simulation the st plays him/herself We can use both at the same time

133 What are the advantages/disadvantages of using roleplay and simulation? + allow sts to prepare for real situs fun & motivating lots of STT v st centred helpful for error collection sts can "hide" behind role - can be seen as not serious sts may be embarrassed sts may rush and not use appropriate language may be difficult for mixed ability classes some students may dominate

134 Some questions… What should the teacher be doing during the roleplay? Should a teacher ever stop a roleplay? If so, when?

135 Some guidelines Make sure the sts understand the idea of 'roleplay'. Do they know what's going to happen? Do they know what is required of them? Are they comfortable to do that or not? Make sure the context or situation is clear. Do they understand the information on their own card? Allow reading time, dictionary time, thinking time (during which you can go round and help if necessary). Give them time to prepare their ideas before the speaking starts; maybe encourage note taking.

136 And some more … but when the activity starts, encourage them to improvise rather than rely on prepared speeches and notes. The preparation work they have done will inform their roleplay, but could simply get in the way if they over-rely on it. (It may help to take away the cards when the roleplay starts.) set a time limit select main role of difficult roleplay carefully (ability to listen + clarify points) avoid roleplays that are culturally sensitive or too confrontational

137 Real Speaking exercises What is a real speaking exercise? Personalisation Information gaps Example – backs to the board Real tasks e.g. what gets the money? 3 way roleplay

138 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about using role play and simulation? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes

139 Accuracy and Fluency (not ‘Accuracy vs Fluency’) Session 21

140 Consider the activity you have just done and answer these questions: 1. Was this activity focused on fluency or accuracy? How do you know? 2. Was this a controlled or completely free activity? 3. How can you deal with accuracy in an activity like this one?

141 In general, when is it best to focus on accuracy as a class? How can you get students to focus on accuracy before getting to a fluency activity?

142 All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players: They have their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts William Shakespeare, ‘As You Like It’

143 Example from a coursebook

144 Suzie: And this is the kitchen. Matt: Mmm, it’s very nice. Suzie: Well, it’s not very big, but there are a lot of cupboards. And there’s a new fridge, and a cooker. That’s new, too. Matt: But what’s in all these cupboards? Well, not a lot. There are some cups, but there aren’t any plates

145 Why might you have someone staying the night at your house? (As a guest!) Decide what the situation is: Who is the guest? What’s (s)he like?

146 The last-line role play Well, it’s not very big. Never mind. Well, not a lot. Mmm, it’s very nice.

147 The one-line role play

148 The no-line role play

149 The ‘wrong’ dialogue A: Hey. B: Hey. A: What do you want? B: Nothing. Wait. Come here. How much is this? A: $35. B: That’s too expensive! A: Well, if you don’t like it, goodbye!

150 The ‘Adjacency Pair’

151

152 Oh! New neighbor … I wonder if she ’ ll have dinner with me. Oh no – another flirt. Who knows… Maybe he ’ s OK. Your mission: Your mission: Show interest without looking too desperate. Leave elevator with a dinner date. Your mission: Be interested but don ’ t make it too easy for him. Make a dinner date if he ’ s nice.

153 Presentation stage (in P-P-P) Role play Discussion Grammar drill

154 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about teaching accuracy and fluency? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes

155 Giving effective Feedback - Questioning Session 22

156 You are going to give feedback next week Do you want to GIVE the feedback? No! What do you need to do? Make the teacher state your feedback Why?

157 Promoting reflective feedback If you get the teacher to come up with the feedback that you want to give them, it will be more memorable How can you go about doing this? Don’t take them straight to the point you want to get to – get them to take small steps to realisation.

158 Some tips Don’t ask closed questions What’s my favourite question? Why? Because it can promote critical thinking Leave some silences – thinking time. Don’t be judgemental

159 Recall questions Identifying – What is the name of…? Matching – What is the other (type of)? Listing – Name something Observing – What do you do in X situation – what happens? Describing – Describe(what you do )… Defining – What’s your definition of…?

160 Process questions Comparing – what are the similarities (differences) between X and Y? Sequencing – Describe what happened Grouping – what else is similar to..?

161 Application Questions Searching – What would happen if…? Applying – What would happen if you used this in X situation? Concluding – You have said X what does that say about Y? Forecasting – Now – how do you think X could be used? Inventing – In what other ways could X be used

162 Other varieties Theorising Examples Judging Imagining

163 Work in groups of 3 Think of a situation – tell your partners about the situation Get them to ask you questions to help you reflect.

164 Ok …. My turn Now you can ask me questions to get me to reflect on my views on training teachers

165 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about giving and receiving feedback? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes

166 Error Correction Session 23

167 What’s wrong?

168 Errors can be categorized in 4 main areas: grammar pronunciation meaning appropriacy

169 Which category are the following: How you come to school? I go always to France for my holidays. I don’t like travelling by sheep. It cost five hundreds dollars. He studies engineering. (TV Interviewer to President). That’s a load of rubbish, mate. She went to the library to buy a book. How many people was at the meeting? I’ve watched television last night. (student in a British bar). Give me a beer. She suggested us to go home. Oh of course! You’re Richard, are you? Do you know what is it? How many money is it?

170 When a ST makes an error what does the T do? What kind of error has been made? (grammar? Pron? etc) Whether to deal with it? (is it worth correcting?) When to deal with it (now? End of activity? End of class? Next class?) Who will correct it? (teacher? Self? Peer?) Which technique to use?

171 Ideas of ways to react to errors e.g. My sister love Luke Ignor it – And do you love him to? Correct yourself (repeating and rephrasing) and immediately move on: Oh she loves him? And what about you? Pause/give another chance e.g. Sorry? To see if the st self-corrects when saying it again Ask for correction without indicating where e.g. Is that right? For class/another st to correct St repeats and T elicits correction non-verbally using fingers, gesture, eyebrows etc - e.g. hold on to the error (third) finger.

172 St repeats and T elicits correction non-verbally using fingers, gesture, eyebrows etc - e.g. hold on to the error (third) finger. Identify error and elicit correct form through exemplification e.g. I love, you love, she…? Echo with changed stress: She love Luke? Ask a one word question e.g. Tense? Past? Try to work with the humour e.g. The doctor gave her a recipe? T: “Oh did she make a nice cake?” – be careful with this! Draw a timeline on the board

173 Repeat up to the error to elicit correction Your sister …… Draw gaps on the board to show the number of words and highlight the missing word e.g _ _ _?_ _ Identify the error and elicit Not she love but she … Write error down for analysis/correction (on board or paper) for self, PW or class to identify and correct Delayed written feedback

174 What are the problems? Students are working in pairs. The activity is designed to provide practice in a particular structure. Although they have already looked at the form and meaning of this, a student is still avoiding its use. A student is telling a story to the whole class. He consistently (and accurately) uses the infinitive form of verbs, effectively speaking without tenses. The story was unplanned and does not fulfil any objective predetermined by the teacher. Students are working in pairs, preparing a roleplay. It is clear that several students are confusing the pronouns 'he' and 'she'. Students are discussing a topic which interests them in small groups. One student is struggling to express what he wants to say but cannot make himself clear and is becoming frustrated. You know what he wants to say. One student says something to the class and everyone appears to understand. However, you suspect that they have understood something different from what was intended and the student who is speaking has not realised this.

175 Find a partner Share some typical errors that you have encountered with your students How have you tended to deal with these in the past? How would you deal with them now? What are your favourite error correction methods?

176 Learning Journal Entry What are the three most important things I have learned about correcting errors with my students? What new techniques am I going to take into my day-to-day teaching that will have an immediate impact on reaching learning outcomes

177 Assessment in ELT Session 24

178 What types of testing exist? Achievement/attainment tests Progress tests Diagnostic test Proficiency Placement tests

179 Achievement tests Known syllabus and concerns the future I.e. University degree examinations

180 Progress tests Classroom test to test material learnt in class Should be motivating for students!

181 Diagnostic tests Concerns the past May or may not be based on a syllabus ie entry test

182 Proficiency tests Relates to future - use of language to undertake a non-language task i.e Cambridge Proficiency Test or TOEFL

183 Placement tests Sorts new students into teaching groups so that they are approximately the same level when they start

184 Your situation Discuss with a partner: Types of testing most common in your teaching environment The challenges this poses for you

185 Formative assessment What is it? Discuss examples of how you conduct formative assessment with your learners

186 Examples of formative assessment ▪A language teacher asks students to choose the best expression or statement from a selection; if all choose correctly she moves on; if only some do she may initiate a class discussion; if most answer incorrectly then she may review this area ▪A teacher asks her students to write down, in a brainstorm activity, all they know about how to give a presentation so that she can discover what students already knew about the area of presentations she is intending to teach ▪A supervisor looks at the previous year's student test results to help plan teacher workshops in the summer vacation to address areas of weakness in student performance[[

187 Summative assessment What is it? Discuss examples of how you conduct summative assessment with your learners

188 Characteristics of summative assessment Assesses level of learning in certain period of time. Uses well defined evaluation designs (i.e. fixed time and content). Provides descriptive analysis (i.e. in order to give a grade, all the activities done throughout the year are taken into account). It is positive, tending to stress what students can do rather than what they cannot.


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