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© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations 5-1 Chapter 5 Dyadic Role Making, Attributions, and Followership
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-2 Learning Objectives Understand how attributions and implicit theories influence follower perception and evaluation of a leader Understand how leader behavior is influenced by attributions about the motives and skills of subordinates Understand why different dyadic relationships develop between a leader and individual subordinates Understand the major findings in research on leader- member exchange theory and the limitations of this research
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-3 Learning Objectives Understand appropriate ways to manage a subordinate who has performance deficiencies Understand what followers can do to have a more effective dyadic relationship with their leader Understand how follower self-management can substitute for some aspects of leadership Understand why it is important for managers to integrate their leader and follower roles
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-4 Leader-Member Exchange Theory Initial Version of LMX Theory Role-Making Stages Measurement of LMX
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-5 Leader-Member Exchange Theory Research on Correlates of LMX Evaluation of LMX Theory and Research Ambiguity about the nature of the exchange relationship More elaboration about how exchange relationships evolve over time Clearer description of how a leader’s dyadic relationships affect each other and group performance Incorporation of attributional processes Incorporation of situational variables More longitudinal research
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-6 Leader Attribution About Subordinates Two-Stage Attribution Model 1. The manager tries to determine the cause of the poor performance 2. The manager tries to select an appropriate response to correct the problem Types of Attributions Internal Effort Ability External
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-7 Reasons for an External Attribution 1. The subordinate has on prior history of poor performance on similar tasks 2. The subordinate performs other tasks effectively 3. The subordinate is doing as well as other people who are in a similar situation 4. The effects of failures or mistakes are not serious or harmful 5. The manager is dependent on the subordinate for his or her own success 6. The subordinate is perceived to have other redeeming qualities 7. The subordinate has offered excuses or an apology 8. Evidence indicates external causes 9. Managers with prior experience doing the same kind of work as the subordinate
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-8 Leader Attribution About Subordinates Research on the Model Attributions and LMX Type of exchange relationship influences manager’s attribution Less critical when there is a high-exchange relationship Effective performance more likely to be attributed to internal factors where there is a high-exchange relationship Ineffective performance more likely to be attributed to external factors when there is a high-exchange relationship Opposite is true for low-exchange relationships
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-9 Correcting Performance Deficiencies Gather information about the performance problem Try to avoid attributional biases Provide corrective feedback promptly Describe the deficiency briefly in specific terms Explain the adverse impact of ineffective behavior Stay calm and professional
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-10 Correcting Performance Deficiencies Mutually identify the reasons for inadequate performance Ask the person to suggest remedies Express confidence in the person Express a sincere desire to help the person Reach agreement on specific action steps Summarize the discussion and verify agreement
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-11 Follower Attribution and Implicit Theories Determinants of Follower Attributions Timely indicators of performance Direct versus indirect actions Response in a crisis External conditions Constraints on leader’s decisions and actions Leader’s intentions and competency Leader’s personal qualities Implicit Leadership Theories
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-12 Impression Management Impression Management Tactics Exemplification Ingratiation Self-Promotion Intimidation Impression Management by Followers Impression Management by Leaders
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-13 Follower Contribution to Effective Leadership The Courageous Follower Need to implement decisions made by a leader and challenge misguided or unethical decisions Willing to risk leader’s displeasure Take time and effort to help a leader grow and succeed Strong commitment to the organization and its mission
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-14 Self-Management Strategies Behavioral Strategies Self-reward Self-punishment Self-monitoring Self-goal setting Self-rehearsal Cue modification Cognitive Strategies Positive self-talk Mental rehearsal How Leaders Encourage Self-Management
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-15 Guidelines for Followers Find out what you are expected to do Take the initiative to deal with problems Keep the boss informed about your decisions Verify the accuracy of information you give the boss Encourage the boss to provide honest feedback to you
© 2006 Prentice Hall Leadership in Organizations5-16 Guidelines for Followers Support leader efforts to make necessary changes Show appreciation and provide recognition when appropriate Challenge flawed plans and proposals made by leaders Resist inappropriate influence attempts by the boss Provide upward coaching and counseling when appropriate
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