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Writing a scientific paper in the format of the journal Ecology BOT 332 University of Alberta.

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Presentation on theme: "Writing a scientific paper in the format of the journal Ecology BOT 332 University of Alberta."— Presentation transcript:

1 Writing a scientific paper in the format of the journal Ecology BOT 332 University of Alberta

2 DATA COLLECTION EXPERIMENT Critical test of null hypothesis OBSERVATIONS Patterns in space or time HYPOTHESIS Predictions based on model MODELS Explanations or theories INTERPRETATION After Underwood (1997)

3 RESULTS METHODS INTRODUCTION DISCUSSION

4 DATA COLLECTION EXPERIMENT Critical test of null hypothesis OBSERVATIONS Patterns in space or time HYPOTHESIS Predictions based on model MODELS Explanations or theories INTERPRETATION After Underwood (1997) RESULTS METHODS INTRODUCTION DISCUSSION

5 DATA COLLECTION EXPERIMENT Critical test of null hypothesis OBSERVATIONS Patterns in space or time HYPOTHESIS Predictions based on model MODELS Explanations or theories INTERPRETATION After Underwood (1997) RESULTS METHODS INTRODUCTION DISCUSSION

6 INTRODUCTION OBSERVATIONS Patterns in space or time HYPOTHESIS Predictions based on model MODELS Explanations or theories

7 INTRODUCTION OBSERVATIONS Patterns in space or time HYPOTHESIS Predictions based on model MODELS Explanations or theories Reason for doing the research Reason for doing the research Research questions/hypotheses/predictions Research questions/hypotheses/predictions Citations for other major studies on same topic Citations for other major studies on same topic

8 General to specific: e.g. General to specific: e.g. Plants compete. Some of the effects are…Vorhees and Myers (2001) found… However, it is not clear why…; There is little evidence showing…; or A question still remains... [I am doing this study because…] Density has been shown to… Response X is also a function of relative abundance To test the effect of density and relative abundance we grew oats and beans … These species are useful because… It was hypothesized that… and/or It was predicted that…BECAUSE… INTRODUCTION

9 Describe what was done… Describe what was done… e.g. “The seeds where sown…” e.g. “The seeds where sown…” Give as much detail as necessary for someone else to repeat it Give as much detail as necessary for someone else to repeat it Not a list of instructions Not a list of instructions Name the statistical analyses you used to test effects of treatments Name the statistical analyses you used to test effects of treatments Cite the program you used Cite the program you used METHODS

10 A summary of the important data you collected A summary of the important data you collected Provides evidence supporting/not supporting your hypothesis Provides evidence supporting/not supporting your hypothesis Should include little/no interpretation Should include little/no interpretation Includes tables that summarise, but do NOT duplicate text Includes tables that summarise, but do NOT duplicate text Includes figures where these make things clearer Includes figures where these make things clearer Point out main features in text Point out main features in text RESULTS

11 Figures and Tables must have a number and title Figures and Tables must have a number and title RESULTS

12 All figures and tables must be referred to in the text All figures and tables must be referred to in the text Figures and tables should be numbered in the order they are cited in the text Figures and tables should be numbered in the order they are cited in the text RESULTS

13 The important statistical details should be given in the text… The important statistical details should be given in the text… ‘The overall mortality of transplanted gobies (mean = 1.04 ± 0.004) was slightly greater than that of residents (1.03 ± 0.001), and this difference was significant (paired t test, df = 17, t = 2.31, P = 0.041). ‘ ‘The overall mortality of transplanted gobies (mean = 1.04 ± 0.004) was slightly greater than that of residents (1.03 ± 0.001), and this difference was significant (paired t test, df = 17, t = 2.31, P = 0.041). ‘ RESULTS

14 The important statistical details should be given in the text… The important statistical details should be given in the text… ‘The rate of banana consumption differed significantly between monkeys, fish and members of the sewing circle (ANOVA, df = 2,36, F = 1.42, P = 0.023). ‘ ‘The rate of banana consumption differed significantly between monkeys, fish and members of the sewing circle (ANOVA, df = 2,36, F = 1.42, P = 0.023). ‘ RESULTS

15 MUST ADDRESS THE QUESTION(S) THE PAPER IS ABOUT MUST ADDRESS THE QUESTION(S) THE PAPER IS ABOUT make reference to your hypothesis/predictions – where these supported? make reference to your hypothesis/predictions – where these supported? …AND whether your findings are ecologically realistic …AND whether your findings are ecologically realistic Should include references that support and/or challenge your results and ideas Should include references that support and/or challenge your results and ideas Should talk up the good, as well as the bad Should talk up the good, as well as the bad DISCUSSION

16 Evaluation of experimental methods used Evaluation of experimental methods used Ways to find out more about the specific questions asked Ways to find out more about the specific questions asked End with a concluding paragraph that sums up: End with a concluding paragraph that sums up: what you did what you did what you found what you found your main conclusions your main conclusions EXPAND ON WHAT WAS IN THE RESULTS – DON’T JUST REPEAT! EXPAND ON WHAT WAS IN THE RESULTS – DON’T JUST REPEAT! DISCUSSION

17 Before you put pen to paper: Before you put pen to paper: Make a list of what you put in the results on scrap paper Make a list of what you put in the results on scrap paper Think about what these results tell you about your hypothesis Think about what these results tell you about your hypothesis Plan a way to discuss them in a logical order Plan a way to discuss them in a logical order Consult your TAs Consult your TAs DISCUSSION

18 RUNNING HEAD Journal title, volume(issue), page numbers, publisher Journal title, volume(issue), page numbers, publisher Don’t worry about it!

19 TITLE Captures the topic of the paper and possibly its findings Captures the topic of the paper and possibly its findings Not more than 13 words Not more than 13 words Be specific Be specific

20 LIST OF AUTHORS

21 Give student #, NOT your name Give student #, NOT your name Put your department and University address underneath Put your department and University address underneath

22 ABSTRACT

23 ABSTRACT A brief summary of the paper A brief summary of the paper The research question The research question What you did What you did Most important results Most important results Major conclusions Major conclusions Don’t give citations Don’t give citations Not greater than 200 words Not greater than 200 words Be concise! Be concise!

24 KEYWORDS Words that a search engine could pick up Words that a search engine could pick up e.g. interspecific competition, intraspecific competition

25 LITERATURE CITED Includes ALL the references cited in the text Includes ALL the references cited in the text Spelling and dates must correspond Spelling and dates must correspond List references in alphabetical order by first author List references in alphabetical order by first author Format varies from journal to journal Format varies from journal to journal

26 LITERATURE CITED – the Ecology way Frego, K.A. and T.J. Carleton Microsite tolerance of four bryophytes in a mature black spruce stand: reciprocal transplants. The Bryologist 98: Only FIRST author’s surname comes first! Name. Date. Title. Journal title. Volume #: page numbers INDENT after first line! (hanging indent) SPELLING!! No issue number!

27 LITERATURE CITED – the Ecology way Name. Date. Title. Publisher. City and country publisher is based in Books are not generally considered to be primary references!

28 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Formal ‘Thank-you’s Formal ‘Thank-you’s

29 DISCUSSION with concluding paragraph RESULTS with figures and tables ABSTRACT and KEYWORDS METHODS INTRODUCTION LITERATURE CITED After Underwood (1997) And… LIST OF AUTHORS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

30 We will provide the data We will provide the data You must interpret graphical output and statistics You must interpret graphical output and statistics Read Steve’s handout for details on the topic of the paper Read Steve’s handout for details on the topic of the paper Read the lab manual – pages for general information on manuscript format Read the lab manual – pages for general information on manuscript format Worth 13% of overall grade Worth 13% of overall grade The assignment – Write a paper for submission to Ecology

31 10-12 Pages of text (not including figures, tables and Literature Cited) Pages of text (not including figures, tables and Literature Cited) Give 5 references from the primary literature (journals) Give 5 references from the primary literature (journals) 12-point font 12-point font EVERYTHING DOUBLE SPACED! EVERYTHING DOUBLE SPACED! 1-inch margins 1-inch margins One side of paper only One side of paper only The assignment – Write a paper for submission to Ecology

32 Each Figure/Table on its own sheet and numbered but WITHOUT titles Figure/Table numbers and titles listed on a separate sheet

33 The assignment – Write a paper for submission to Ecology FORMATTING SPECIFICS In-text citations In-text citations 1 author

34 The assignment – Write a paper for submission to Ecology FORMATTING SPECIFICS In-text citations In-text citations 2 authors

35 The assignment – Write a paper for submission to Ecology FORMATTING SPECIFICS In-text citations In-text citations >2 authors

36 The assignment – Write a paper for submission to Ecology FORMATTING SPECIFICS In-text citations In-text citations Avoid direct quotes – PARAPHRASE! Avoid direct quotes – PARAPHRASE!

37 GENERAL POINTS Past tense/active voice Past tense/active voice

38 GENERAL POINTS Assume the reader is ignorant and stupid - be specific and explicit Assume the reader is ignorant and stupid - be specific and explicit Assume the reader has a short memory – repeat details if appropriate… Assume the reader has a short memory – repeat details if appropriate… …but avoid repeating something if you are not expanding on what you said before …but avoid repeating something if you are not expanding on what you said before Data are plural! Data are plural!


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